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William H Curley, Peter B Forgacs, Henning U Voss, Mary M Conte, Nicholas D Schiff
Patients with severe brain injury are difficult to assess and frequently subject to misdiagnosis. 'Cognitive motor dissociation' is a term used to describe a subset of such patients with preserved cognition as detected with neuroimaging methods but not evident in behavioural assessments. Unlike the locked-in state, cognitive motor dissociation after severe brain injury is prominently marked by concomitant injuries across the cerebrum in addition to limited or no motoric function. In the present study, we sought to characterize the EEG signals used as indicators of cognition in patients with disorders of consciousness and examine their reliability for potential future use to re-establish communication...
March 19, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Francesca Bagnato, Simon Hametner, Emma Boyd, Verena Endmayr, Yaping Shi, Vasiliki Ikonomidou, Guanhua Chen, Siddharama Pawate, Hans Lassmann, Seth Smith, E Brian Welch
T2*-weighted multi-echo gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging and its reciprocal R2* are used in brain imaging due to their sensitivity to iron content. In patients with multiple sclerosis who display pathological alterations in iron and myelin contents, the use of R2* may offer a unique way to untangle mechanisms of disease. Coronal slices from 8 brains of deceased multiple sclerosis patients were imaged using a whole-body 7.0 Tesla MRI scanner. The scanning protocol included three-dimensional (3D) T2*-w multi-echo gradient-echo and 2D T2-w turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences...
2018: PloS One
Xia Liao, Cuiping Mao, Yuan Wang, Qingfeng Zhang, Dongyuan Cao, David A Seminowicz, Ming Zhang, Xiaoli Yang
Altered cerebral gray matter volume (GMV) is commonly found in patients with chronic pain. Chronic pain is the prominent characteristic of knee osteoarthritis (KOA), yet little is known about its morphological changes in the brain. Here an MRI study was performed to examine the structural brain abnormalities in 30 KOA patients with knee pain and age-matched healthy subjects. We detected that the patients exhibited significant almost 2-fold age-related decreases of GMV compared to healthy controls. Moreover, KOA patients also had significant loss of regional GMV including in the bilateral orbital frontal cortex (OFC), the right lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC), and precentral and postcentral cortices...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Augustin Lecler, Arnaud Attye, Catherine Edelson
In evaluating a 3-month-old boy with horizontal nystagmus, brain MRI revealed absence of the optic chiasm. The remainder of the brain was normal in appearance. Achiasma was confirmed with diffusion tensor imaging and best visualized with optimized probabilistic-based tractography.
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
L A Kalashnikova, T S Gulevskaya, L A Dobrynina
Cerebral microangiopathy (small vessels disease) is a cause of diffuse changes of brain tissue (encephalopathy) denoted in Russian literature by the term dyscirculatory encephalopathy (DE). The main cause of microangiopathy leading to encephalopathy is arterial hypertension, less frequently - cerebral amyloid angiopathy and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy. The diagnosis of encephalopathy in patients with microangiopathy is based on the combination of clinical manifestations (mainly, cognitive impairment of varying severity and disorders of gait) with the neuroimaging changes (white matter hyperintensity, multiple lacunar infarcts on MRI)...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Mina Ansari, Sahand Adib Moradi, Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Abozar Hedayatnia, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
OBJECTIVE: Research on psychobiological markers of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains a hot topic. Non-motor symptoms such as depression and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) each attribute to a particular neurodegenerative cluster in PD, and might enlighten the way for early prediction/detection of PD. The neuropathology of mood disturbances remains unclear. In fact, a few studies have investigated depression using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI). METHOD: Diffusion MRI of PD patients without comorbid RBD was used to assess whether microstructural abnormalities are detectable in the brain of 40 PD patients with depression compared to 19 patients without depression...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
S S Sidhu, S Agarwal, O Goyal, H Kishore, S Sidhu
A 60 year old male, known case of Hepatitis C related cirrhosis was diagnosed with exophytic Hepatocellular carcinoma (size 2.1 x 2.2 cm), Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stage A, on routine surveillance. He refused liver Transplant and underwent laparoscopic segmental resection. Thereafter patient was started on Tablet Sorafenib 400mg twice daily to prevent recurrence of Hepatocellular carcinoma. On 18st post-operative day, patient presented with Hepatic encephalopathy. Routine investigations and MRI Brain were normal; Venous ammonia was high...
October 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Thanh G Phan, Jian Chen, Shaloo Singhal, Henry Ma, Benjamin B Clissold, John Ly, Richard Beare
Background: Prognostication following hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (brain injury) is important for clinical management. The aim of this exploratory study is to use a decision tree model to find clinical and MRI associates of severe disability and death in this condition. We evaluate clinical model and then the added value of MRI data. Method: The inclusion criteria were as follows: age ≥17 years, cardio-respiratory arrest, and coma on admission (2003-2011)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ljiljana Progovac, Natalia Rakhlin, William Angell, Ryan Liddane, Lingfei Tang, Noa Ofen
We address the puzzle of "unity in diversity" in human languages by advocating the (minimal) common denominator for the diverse expressions of transitivity across human languages, consistent with the view that early in language evolution there was a modest beginning for syntax and that this beginning provided the foundation for the further elaboration of syntactic complexity. This study reports the results of a functional MRI experiment investigating differential patterns of brain activation during processing of sentences with minimal versus fuller syntactic structures...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Maxim Shevtsov, Boris Nikolaev, Yaroslav Marchenko, Ludmila Yakovleva, Nikita Skvortsov, Anton Mazur, Peter Tolstoy, Vyacheslav Ryzhov, Gabriele Multhoff
Background: Glioblastoma is the most devastating primary brain tumor of the central nervous system in adults. Magnetic nanocarriers may help not only for a targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into the tumor site but also provide contrast enhancing properties for diagnostics using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Synthesized hybrid chitosan-dextran superparamagnetic nanoparticles (CS-DX-SPIONs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and relaxometry studies...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Nathanael J Yates, Dijana Tesic, Kirk W Feindel, Jeremy T Smith, Michael W Clarke, Celeste Wale, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Caitlin S Wyrwoll
Early life vitamin D plays a prominent role in neurodevelopment and subsequent brain function, including schizophrenic-like outcomes and increasing evidence for an association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we investigate how early life vitamin D deficiency during rat pregnancy and lactation alters maternal care and influences neurodevelopment and affective, cognitive and social behaviours in male adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on either a vitamin D control (2195 IU/kg) or deficient diet (0 IU/kg) for five weeks before timed mating, and diet exposure was maintained until weaning of offspring on postnatal day (PND) 23...
May 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Matthew J Farrell, Jehan B Yahya, Catherine Degnin, Yiyi Chen, John M Holland, Mark A Henderson, Jerry J Jaboin, Matthew M Harkenrider, Charles R Thomas, Timur Mitin
PURPOSE: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) is considered the standard of care. Meta-analysis of 7 clinical trials indicates a survival benefit to PCI, but all of these trials were conducted in the pre-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) era. Therefore, routine brain imaging with MRI before PCI-as recommended by National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines-is not directly supported by the evidence. Current US practice patterns for patients with LS-SCLC are unknown...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Hyun Goo Kang, Bum Joon Kim, Sang Hun Lee, Dong-Wha Kang, Sun U Kwon, Jong S Kim
BACKGROUND: Lateral medullary infarction (LMI) is not an uncommon disease. Although lesions are usually restricted to the lateral medullary area, some patients have additional infarcts in other parts of the brain. The clinical features and prognosis of isolated LMI (pure LMI, LMIpr) have been investigated. However, it remains unclear whether clinical characteristics, prognosis and factors associated with prognosis differ between patients with LMIpr and those with additional lesions (LMI plus, LMIpl)...
March 20, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Celine Guidoux, Jean-Jacques Hauw, Isabelle F Klein, Julien Labreuche, Claudine Berr, Charles Duyckaerts, Pierre Amarenco
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) include hypertension and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The objective of this study was to determine the autopsy prevalence of CAA and the potential overlap with other risk factors among patients who died from ICH and also the correlation of CAA with cerebral microbleeds. METHODS: We analyzed 81 consecutive autopsy brains from patients with ICH. Staining for CAA detection was performed. We used an age- and sex-matched control group of routine brain autopsies of nonneurological patients to determine the frequencies of CAA and hypertension...
March 20, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Michael Windle, Joshua C Gray, Karlo Mankit Lei, Allen W Barton, Gene Brody, Steven R H Beach, Adrianna Galván, James MacKillop, Uraina S Clark, Lawrence H Sweet
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated an age sensitive model of substance use across adolescence to determine if substance use was associated with smaller volumes for an earlier developing brain region, the amygdala, a later developing region, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the ventral striatum. METHOD: Participants (N = 110) were African American young adults who were members of a longitudinal cohort across childhood and adolescence. Measures of substance use were collected across early (ages 12-15 yrs...
March 14, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Mandip S Dhamoon, Ying-Kuen Cheung, Yeseon Moon, Janet DeRosa, Ralph Sacco, Mitchell S V Elkind, Clinton B Wright
BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on MRI are common and associated with vascular and functional outcomes. However, the relationship between WMHs and longitudinal trajectories of functional status is not well characterized. We hypothesized that whole brain WMHs are associated with functional decline independently of intervening clinical vascular events and other vascular risk factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), a population-based racially/ethnically diverse prospective cohort study, 1,290 stroke-free individuals underwent brain MRI and were followed afterwards for a mean 7...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Yifat Manor, Adi A Garfunkel
PURPOSE: To describe a rare case of odontogenic brain abscess. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A healthy, 35-year-old male had two dental implants placed in a simultaneously augmented maxillary sinus. One implant failed and the patient developed a maxillary sinusitis that failed to improve following antibiotic treatment at home. The neglected sinus infection led to formation of a brain abscess. The patient was hospitalised only when he had pan sinusitis with neurological signs...
2018: European Journal of Oral Implantology
Richard Wennberg, Carmen Hiploylee, Peter Tai, Charles H Tator
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have suggested that concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is associated with a twofold or greater increase in relative risk for the development of post-traumatic epilepsy. To assess the clinical validity of these findings, we analyzed the incidence of epilepsy in a large cohort of post-concussion patients in whom concussion was strictly defined according to international guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 330 consecutive post-concussion patients followed by a single concussion specialist...
March 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Gesa Cohrs, Monika Huhndorf, Nils Niemczyk, Lukas J Volz, Alexander Bernsmeier, Ash Singhal, Naomi Larsen, Michael Synowitz, Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive imaging tool which lacks the burden of ionizing radiation. It is not established as primary diagnostic tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MRI as initial imaging modality in the emergency management of mild pediatric TBI. METHODS: Children (0-18 years, sub-divided in four age-groups) with mild TBI who received MRI in the emergency department were identified...
March 19, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Saraj K Singh, Kapil Jain, Vijendra Kumar Jain
PURPOSE: Purely cystic brain stem epidermoid is a rare diagnosis among all brainstem cystic lesions. Further, it is very rare in pediatric age group. METHODS: Here, we are reporting a rare case of completely cystic brain stem epidermoid in a child. The patient presented with clinical features of brain stem involvement. MRI brain was suggestive of cystic brain stem lesion. RESULTS: Patient went through surgical procedure. Final diagnosis of epidermoid cyst was confirmed on histopathological report...
March 19, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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