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HPV vaccines efficacy

Hiroshi Maeda, Mahin Khatami
For over six decades reductionist approaches to cancer chemotherapies including recent immunotherapy for solid tumors produced outcome failure-rates of 90% (±5) according to governmental agencies and industry. Despite tremendous public and private funding and initial enthusiasm about missile-therapy for site-specific cancers, molecular targeting drugs for specific enzymes such as kinases or inhibitors of growth factor receptors, the outcomes are very bleak and disappointing. Major scientific reasons for repeated failures of such therapeutic approaches are attributed to reductionist approaches to research and infinite numbers of genetic mutations in chaotic molecular environment of solid tumors that are bases of drug development...
March 1, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Diviya Santhanes, Che Pui Yong, Yan Ye Yap, Pui San Saw, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk, Tahir Mehmood Khan
Since licensing in 2006, there has been poor uptake of the HPV vaccine among the targeted population in the South East Asia Region (SEAR) and Western Pacific Region (WPR). A systematic review was conducted to identify the studies exploring the relationship between factors and intention for HPV vaccination among women in SEAR and WPR countries. Nineteen studies were identified as suitable for qualitative synthesis, and three as suitable for meta-analysis. Most women had a positive intention to have an HPV vaccine (range 57%-85%)...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marcelo Nazário Cordeiro, Rita de Cássia Pereira de Lima, Francesca Paolini, Alanne Rayssa da Silva Melo, Ana Paula Ferreira Campos, Aldo Venuti, Antonio Carlos de Freitas
Cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) are well-known outcomes of a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Viral oncogenes expressions like E6, E7, and, recently recognized E5, lead to HPV-related malignant progression. Although HPV prevention by powerful vaccines against most frequent and oncogenic genotypes is feasible, current treatment against cervical neoplasia is distant from an ideal one. In addition, late diagnosis is commonly associated with a poor prognosis. On top of that, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery are less effective in high-grade lesions...
February 23, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Joshua N Sampson, Allan Hildesheim, Rolando Herrero, Paula Gonzalez, Aimee Kreimer, Mitchell H Gail
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause about 70% of all cervical cancers. Clinical trials have demonstrated that three doses of either commercially available HPV vaccine, Cervarix or Gardasil, prevent most new HPV 16/18 infections and associated precancerous lesions. Based on evidence of immunological non-inferiority, 2-dose regimens have been licensed for adolescents in the United States, European Union, and elsewhere. However, if a single dose were effective, vaccine costs would be reduced substantially and the logistics of vaccination would be greatly simplified, enabling vaccination programs in developing countries...
February 20, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Jenna E Reno, Sean O'Leary, Kathleen Garrett, Jennifer Pyrzanowski, Steven Lockhart, Elizabeth Campagna, Juliana Barnard, Amanda F Dempsey
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake is below that of other routine adolescent vaccines. This is due in part to the fact that the HPV vaccine is often not routinely recommended by providers to all eligible adolescents. While providers' recommendations are crucial, even a strongly stated recommendation can be insufficient among HPV vaccine-hesitant parents. Providers must be prepared to respond to parental concerns following giving the recommendation for the HPV vaccine. This paper presents the analysis of implementation of an intervention aimed at improving provider communication with HPV vaccine-hesitant parents...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
William A Calo, Melissa B Gilkey, Jennifer Leeman, Jennifer Heisler-MacKinnon, Chrystal Averette, Stephanie Sanchez, Melanie L Kornides, Noel T Brewer
State health departments commonly use quality improvement coaching as an implementation strategy for improving low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage, but such coaching can be resource intensive. To explore opportunities for improving efficiency, we compared in-person and webinar delivery of coaching sessions on implementation outcomes, including reach, acceptability, and delivery cost. In 2015, we randomly assigned 148 high-volume primary care clinics in Illinois, Michigan, and Washington State to receive either in-person or webinar coaching...
February 20, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Dong Hoon Suh, Miseon Kim, Kyung Hun Lee, Keun Yong Eom, Maj Kamille Kjeldsen, Mansoor Raza Mirza, Jae Weon Kim
In 2017, 10 topics were selected as major clinical research advances in gynecologic oncology. For cervical cancer, efficacy and safety analysis results of a 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and long-term impact of reduced dose of quadrivalent vaccine were updated. Brief introduction of KEYNOTE trials of pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction between programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, followed. Tailored surveillance programs for gynecologic cancer related with Lynch syndrome and update on sentinel lymph node mapping were reviewed for uterine corpus cancer...
March 2018: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
L Ottria, V Candotto, F Cura, L Baggi, C Arcuri, M Nardone, R M Gaudio, R Gatto, F Spadari, F Carinci
The aim of this paper is to describe the efficacy of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccines for preventing oral cancer. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to describe the state of the art about HPV vaccines for preventing oral cancer. The aspects of prevention and control of infection by administering vaccines and the diffusion of sexual education campaigns are discussed also. In recent years there has been a growing interest in HPV in dentistry, suggesting a role of such a family of viruses in the development of oral cancers as well as of the uterine cervix...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Brittany L Rosen, James M Bishop, Skye L McDonald, Jessica A Kahn, Gary L Kreps
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates fall far short of Healthy People 2020 objectives. A leading reason is that clinicians do not recommend the vaccine consistently and strongly to girls and boys in the age group recommended for vaccination. Although Web-based HPV vaccine educational interventions for clinicians have been created to promote vaccination recommendations, rigorous evaluations of these interventions have not been conducted. Such evaluations are important to maximize the efficacy of educational interventions in promoting clinician recommendations for HPV vaccination...
February 16, 2018: JMIR Cancer
Jean-Luc Brun, José Rajaonarison, Nicolas Nocart, Laura Hoarau, Stéphanie Brun, Isabelle Garrigue
Targeted immunotherapy of high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) has been developed as an alternative to conization, to preserve future reproductive outcomes and avoid human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence. The objectives of the review are to present drugs according to their process of development and to examine their potential future use. A search for key words associated with CIN and targeted immunotherapy was carried out in the Cochrane library, Pubmed, Embase, and from 1990 to 2016...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Nada Chaoul, Alexandre Tang, Belinda Desrues, Marine Oberkampf, Catherine Fayolle, Daniel Ladant, Alexander Sainz-Perez, Claude Leclerc
Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are crucial for the maintenance of immune tolerance and homeostasis as well as for preventing autoimmune diseases, but their impact on the survival of cancer patients remains controversial. In the TC-1 mouse model of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related carcinoma, we have previously demonstrated that the therapeutic efficacy of the CyaA-E7-vaccine, targeting the HPV-E7 antigen, progressively declines with tumor growth, in correlation with increased intratumoral recruitment of Tregs...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Thomas D Milner, Anna Harrison, Jenny Montgomery, Fiona B MacGregor, Malcolm A Buchanan, Kenneth MacKenzie
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) of the larynx represents a significant disease burden to patients and the healthcare system The use of HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccination (Gardasil® ) has previously been thought to impact on disease burden in patients with RRP. Gardasil® vaccination did not impact on the number of endolaryngeal surgical procedures required, the interval between procedures, or the number of patients who achieved disease remission in comparison to a control cohort. This study indicates Gardasil® vaccination does not appear to have any effect on disease burden in patients with RRP...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
Penelope Gray, Johanna Palmroth, Tapio Luostarinen, Dan Apter, Gary Dubin, Geoff Garnett, Tiina Eriksson, Kari Natunen, Marko Merikukka, Ville Pimenoff, Anna Söderlund-Strand, Simopekka Vänskä, Jorma Paavonen, Eero Pukkala, Joakim Dillner, Matti Lehtinen
Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines promises to control HPV infections. However, HPV vaccination program may lay bare an ecological niche for non-vaccine HPV types. We evaluated type-replacement by HPV type and vaccination strategy in a community-randomized trial executed in HPV vaccination naïve population. Thirty-three communities were randomized to gender-neutral vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine (Arm A), HPV vaccination of girls and hepatitis B-virus (HBV) vaccination of boys (Arm B), and gender-neutral HBV vaccination (Arm C)...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Shu-Hsing Cheng, Kuo-Sheng Liao, Chi-Chao Wang, Chien-Yu Cheng, Fang-Yeh Chu
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the relationship between infection with multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types and abnormal anal cytology in HIV-infected men. DESIGN: An observational, cross-sectional study. SETTING: A regional referral hospital in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 714 HIV-infected men were enrolled between March 2011 and June 2016. Thin preparation anal Pap smears were interpreted according to the 2001 Bethesda System...
January 27, 2018: BMJ Open
Aimée R Kreimer, Rolando Herrero, Joshua N Sampson, Carolina Porras, Douglas R Lowy, John T Schiller, Mark Schiffman, Ana Cecilia Rodriguez, Stephen Chanock, Silvia Jimenez, John Schussler, Mitchell H Gail, Mahboobeh Safaeian, Troy J Kemp, Bernal Cortes, Ligia A Pinto, Allan Hildesheim, Paula Gonzalez
The Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT), a phase III randomized clinical trial, provided the initial data that one dose of the HPV vaccine could provide durable protection against HPV infection. Although the study design was to administer all participants three doses of HPV or control vaccine, 20% of women did not receive the three-dose regimens, mostly due to involuntary reasons unrelated to vaccination. In 2011, we reported that a single dose of the bivalent HPV vaccine could be as efficacious as three doses of the vaccine using the endpoint of persistent HPV infection accumulated over the first four years of the trial; findings independently confirmed in the GSK-sponsored PATRICIA trial...
January 20, 2018: Vaccine
Ligia A Pinto, Joakim Dillner, Simon Beddows, Elizabeth R Unger
When administered as standard three-dose schedules, the licensed HPV prophylactic vaccines have demonstrated extraordinary immunogenicity and efficacy. We summarize the immunogenicity of these licensed vaccines and the most commonly used serology assays, with a focus on key considerations for one-dose vaccine schedules. Although immune correlates of protection against infection are not entirely clear, both preclinical and clinical evidence point to neutralizing antibodies as the principal mechanism of protection...
January 17, 2018: Vaccine
Samuel W D Merriel, Carrie Flannagan, Joanna M Kesten, Gilla K Shapiro, Tom Nadarzynski, Gillian Prue
Men who have sex with men (MSM) may be at higher risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. Healthcare professionals' recommendations can affect HPV vaccination uptake. Since 2016, MSM up to 45 years have been offered HPV vaccination at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in a pilot programme, and primary care was recommended as a setting for opportunistic vaccination. Vaccination prior to potential exposure to the virus (i.e., sexual debut) is likely to be most efficacious, therefore a focus on young MSM (YMSM) is important...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sarah E McCormack, Conrad Russell Y Cruz, Kaylor E Wright, Allison B Powell, Haili Lang, Cornelia Trimble, Michael D Keller, Ephraim Fuchs, Catherine M Bollard
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a known cause of cervical cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and laryngeal cancer. Although treatments exist for HPV-associated malignancies, patients unresponsive to these therapies have a poor prognosis. Recent findings from vaccine studies suggest that T-cell immunity is essential for disease control. Because Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-specific T cells have been highly successful in treating or preventing EBV-associated tumors, we hypothesized that the development of a manufacturing platform for HPV-specific T cells from healthy donors could be used in a third-party setting to treat patients with high-risk/relapsed HPV-associated cancers...
January 10, 2018: Cytotherapy
Annie-Laurie McRee, Abigail Shoben, Jose A Bauermeister, Mira L Katz, Electra D Paskett, Paul L Reiter
BACKGROUND: Effective interventions to promote human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination are needed, particularly among populations at increased risk of HPV-related disease. We developed and pilot tested a web-based intervention, Outsmart HPV, to promote HPV vaccination among young gay and bisexual men (YGBM). METHODS: In 2016, we recruited a national sample (n = 150) of YGBM ages 18-25 in the United States who had not received any doses of HPV vaccine. Participants were randomized to receive either standard HPV vaccination information (control) or population-targeted, individually-tailored content (Outsmart HPV intervention)...
January 10, 2018: Vaccine
John Schiller, Doug Lowy
HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines administered in a prime/boost series of three injections over six months have demonstrated remarkable prophylactic efficacy in clinical trials and effectiveness in national immunization programs with high rates of coverage. There is mounting evidence that the vaccines have similar efficacy and effectiveness even when administered in a single dose. The unexpected potency of one dose of these VLP vaccines may largely be attributed to structural features of the particles, which lead to the efficient generation of long-lived antigen-specific antibody-producing cells and unique features of the virus life cycle that make the HPV virions highly susceptible to antibody-mediated inhibition of infection...
January 8, 2018: Vaccine
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