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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660406/is-antimicrobial-administration-to-food-animals-a-direct-threat-to-human-health-a-rapid-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Anna Mae Scott, Elaine Beller, Paul Glasziou, Justin Clark, Respati W Ranakusuma, Oyungerel Byambasuren, Mina Bakhit, Stephen W Page, Darren Trott, Chris Del Mar
BACKGROUND: Large quantities of antimicrobials are given to food animals, especially in feed, potentially risking increased antimicrobial resistance in humans. However, the magnitude of this effect is unclear. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science, for studies on interventions which limited antimicrobial use in food animals, in any setting and context, to reduce antimicrobial resistance 1) in those food animals; and 2) in humans. We validated our strategy by testing whether it identifies known relevant studies...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619799/low-carbohydrate-ketogenic-diet-impairs-anaerobic-exercise-performance-in-exercise-trained-women-and-men-a-randomized-sequence-crossover-trial
#2
Kymberly A Wroble, Morgan N Trott, George G Schweitzer, Rabia S Rahman, Patrick V Kelly, Edward P Weiss
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets cause mild, sub-clinical systemic acidosis. Anaerobic exercise performance is limited by acidosis. Therefore, we evaluated the hypothesis that a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet impairs anaerobic exercise performance, as compared to a high-carbohydrate diet. METHODS: Sixteen men and women (BMI, 23±1 kg/m2, age 23±1 yr) participated in a randomized-sequence, counterbalanced crossover study in which they underwent exercise testing after four days of either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LC; <50 g/day and <10% of energy from carbohydrates) or a high-carbohydrate diet (HC; 6-10 g/kg/day carbohydrate)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560780/education-and-training-to-support-radiation-protection-research-in-europe-the-doremi-experience
#3
Andrea Ottolenghi, Klaus-Rüdiger Trott, Vere Smyth
PURPOSE: A review is presented of the programme of education and training set up within the DoReMi Network of Excellence. DoReMi was funded by Euratom under the EU 7th Framework Programme to coordinate the EU research into risks from low-dose ionising radiation. It was seen to be necessary to form a network of expert institutions in order to tackle the scientific questions with the resources available. From the start, importance was given to the need to stimulate and support education and training to build up the capability of the research community...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541640/the-influence-of-keel-bone-damage-on-welfare-of-laying-hens
#4
REVIEW
Anja B Riber, Teresa M Casey-Trott, Mette S Herskin
This article reviews current knowledge about welfare implications of keel bone damage in laying hens. As an initial part, we shortly describe the different conditions and present major risk factors as well as findings on the prevalence of the conditions. Keel bone damage is found in all types of commercial production, however with varying prevalence across systems, countries, and age of the hens. In general, the understanding of animal welfare is influenced by value-based ideas about what is important or desirable for animals to have a good life...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530664/vulvar-field-resection-based-on-ontogenetic-cancer-field-theory-for-surgical-treatment-of-vulvar-carcinoma-a-single-centre-single-group-prospective-trial
#5
Michael Höckel, Sophia Trott, Nadja Dornhöfer, Lars-Christian Horn, Bettina Hentschel, Benjamin Wolf
BACKGROUND: The incidence of vulvar cancer is increasing, but surgical treatment-the current standard of care-often leads to unsatisfactory outcomes, especially in patients with node-positive disease. Preliminary results at our centre showed that locoregional spread of vulvar carcinoma occurs within tissue domains defined by stepwise embryonic and fetal development (ontogenetic cancer fields and associated lymph node regions). We propose that clinical translation of these insights into practice could improve outcomes of surgical treatment of vulvar cancer...
April 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519510/qac-genes-and-biocide-tolerance-in-clinical-veterinary-methicillin-resistant-and-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-and-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius
#6
Kate A Worthing, Alan Marcus, Sam Abraham, Darren J Trott, Jacqueline M Norris
Qac genes are associated with increased tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds and other cationic biocides such as chlorhexidine. This study aimed to determine whether qac genes and increased biocide tolerance were present in 125 clinical methicillin-resistant and susceptible veterinary staphylococci. A total of 125 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP and MSSP) from three archived Australian veterinary staphylococci collections underwent whole genome sequencing, multilocus sequence typing and qac gene screening...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505366/addressing-social-determinants-of-health-through-medical-legal-partnerships
#7
Marsha Regenstein, Jennifer Trott, Alanna Williamson, Joanna Theiss
The US health care system needs effective tools to address complex social and environmental issues that perpetuate health inequities, such as food insecurity, education and employment barriers, and substandard housing conditions. The medical-legal partnership is a collaborative intervention that embeds civil legal aid professionals in health care settings to address seemingly intractable social problems that contribute to poor health outcomes and health disparities. More than three hundred health care organizations are home to medical-legal partnerships...
March 2018: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463845/identification-of-stable-reference-genes-for-quantitative-pcr-in-koalas
#8
N Sarker, J Fabijan, R D Emes, F Hemmatzadeh, J Meers, J Moreton, H Owen, J M Seddon, G Simmons, N Speight, D Trott, L Woolford, R E Tarlinton
To better understand host and immune response to diseases, gene expression studies require identification of reference genes with stable expression for accurate normalisation. This study describes the identification and testing of reference genes with stable expression profiles in koala lymph node tissues across two genetically distinct koala populations. From the 25 most stable genes identified in transcriptome analysis, 11 genes were selected for verification using reverse transcription quantitative PCR, in addition to the commonly used ACTB and GAPDH genes...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408033/relative-performance-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-assays-on-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-animals
#9
Skye Badger, Sam Abraham, Sugiyono Saputra, Darren J Trott, John Turnidge, Tahlia Mitchell, Charles G B Caraguel, David Jordan
The assessment of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria derived from animals is often performed using the disc diffusion assay. However broth-microdilution is the preferred assay for national antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of disc diffusion relative to broth-microdilution across a panel of 12 antimicrobials using data from a collection of 994 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from animals. Disc diffusion performance was evaluated by diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio pairs and receive-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363210/in-vitro-antimicrobial-activity-of-narasin-against-common-clinical-isolates-associated-with-canine-otitis-externa
#10
Wei Yee Chan, Elizabeth E Hickey, Manouchehr Khazandi, Stephen W Page, Darren J Trott, Peter B Hill
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial stewardship are of ever-increasing importance in veterinary medicine. Re-purposing of old drugs that are not used in human medicine is one approach that addresses the emergence of multidrug resistance in canine skin and ear infections, and can reduce the use of critically important human antibiotic classes. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the antimicrobial activity of narasin, a polyether ionophore conventionally used as a rumen modifier and anticoccidial agent in production animals, against common clinical isolates of canine otitis externa (OE)...
April 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351767/leading-for-the-long-haul-a-mixed-method-evaluation-of-the-sustainment-leadership-scale-sls
#11
Mark G Ehrhart, Elisa M Torres, Amy E Green, Elise M Trott, Cathleen E Willging, Joanna C Moullin, Gregory A Aarons
BACKGROUND: Despite our progress in understanding the organizational context for implementation and specifically the role of leadership in implementation, its role in sustainment has received little attention. This paper took a mixed-method approach to examine leadership during the sustainment phase of the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) framework. Utilizing the Implementation Leadership Scale as a foundation, we sought to develop a short, practical measure of sustainment leadership that can be used for both applied and research purposes...
January 19, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332749/long-term-effect-of-direction-movement-control-training-on-female-patients-with-chronic-neck-pain
#12
Zohreh Khosrokiani, Amir Letafatkar, Yahya Sokhanguei
BACKGROUND: Treatment of movement faults in the neck is known as an important factor in treatment of chronic neck pain. Along with the identification of site and direction of the faults, direction-movement control intervention retrains the control of the movement faults. PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate long-term effects of a direction-movement control training on pain, disability, head repositioning accuracy, function, cervical flexor endurance, and range of motion in female patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300726/regulation-of-circadian-clock-transcriptional-output-by-clock-bmal1
#13
Alexandra J Trott, Jerome S Menet
The mammalian circadian clock relies on the transcription factor CLOCK:BMAL1 to coordinate the rhythmic expression of 15% of the transcriptome and control the daily regulation of biological functions. The recent characterization of CLOCK:BMAL1 cistrome revealed that although CLOCK:BMAL1 binds synchronously to all of its target genes, its transcriptional output is highly heterogeneous. By performing a meta-analysis of several independent genome-wide datasets, we found that the binding of other transcription factors at CLOCK:BMAL1 enhancers likely contribute to the heterogeneity of CLOCK:BMAL1 transcriptional output...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160841/the-overlapping-area-of-non-celiac-gluten-sensitivity-ncgs-and-wheat-sensitive-irritable-bowel-syndrome-ibs-an-update
#14
REVIEW
Carlo Catassi, Armin Alaedini, Christian Bojarski, Bruno Bonaz, Gerd Bouma, Antonio Carroccio, Gemma Castillejo, Laura De Magistris, Walburga Dieterich, Diana Di Liberto, Luca Elli, Alessio Fasano, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Matthew Kurien, Elena Lionetti, Chris J Mulder, Kamran Rostami, Anna Sapone, Katharina Scherf, Detlef Schuppan, Nick Trott, Umberto Volta, Victor Zevallos, Yurdagül Zopf, David S Sanders
Gluten-related disorders have recently been reclassified with an emerging scientific literature supporting the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). New research has specifically addressed prevalence, immune mechanisms, the recognition of non-immunoglobulin E (non-IgE) wheat allergy and overlap of NCGS with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms. This review article will provide clinicians with an update that directly impacts on the management of a subgroup of their IBS patients whose symptoms are triggered by wheat ingestion...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103987/special-radiobiological-features-of-second-cancer-risk-after-particle-radiotherapy
#15
Klaus-Rüdiger Trott
In absolute terms: second cancer risks from radiotherapy of first cancers in adults are small compared to the benefits from radiotherapy but this is not so for radiotherapy of childhood cancers. Moreover, the radiation dose dependence of cancer induction differs between organs and tissues. The organ-specific dose dependence of second cancer risks may indicate the existence of different radiobiological mechanisms. As an inevitable consequence of the age dependence of organ sensitivity to second cancer induction, the organ/tissue weighting factors which have been proposed by ICRP for calculating effective dose (the dose unit Sv) and for risk estimation in the general population should not be used in medical radiation exposures...
October 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102120/antimicrobial-resistance-in-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-australia
#16
Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Tahlia Mitchell, Hui San Wong, Rebecca J Abraham, Amanda Kidsley, John Turnidge, Darren J Trott, Sam Abraham
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli have become a major public health concern to both humans and animal health. While the frequency of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in clinical E. coli is monitored regularly in human medicine, current frequency of AMR in companion animals remains unknown in Australia. In this study we conducted antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and where possible, determined potential risk factors for MDR infection among 883 clinical Escherichia coli isolated from dogs (n=514), cats (n=341) and horses (n=28)...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053332/radiatively-generating-the-higgs-potential-and-electroweak-scale-via-the-seesaw-mechanism
#17
Ilaria Brivio, Michael Trott
The minimal seesaw scenario can radiatively generate the Higgs potential to induce electroweak symmetry breaking while supplying an origin of the Higgs vacuum expectation value from an underlying Majorana scale. If the Higgs potential and (derived) electroweak scale have this origin, the heavy SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1)_{Y} singlet states are expected to reside at m_{N}∼10-500  PeV for couplings |ω|∼10^{-4.5}-10^{-6} between the Majorana sector and the standard model. In this framework, the usual challenge of the electroweak scale hierarchy problem with a classically assumed potential is absent as the electroweak scale is not a fundamental scale...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050409/the-effect-of-space-allowance-and-cage-size-on-laying-hens-housed-in-furnished-cages-part-ii-behavior-at-the-feeder
#18
T M Widowski, L J Caston, T M Casey-Trott, M E Hunniford
Standards for feeder (a.k.a. feed trough) space allowance (SA) are based primarily on studies in conventional cages where laying hens tend to eat simultaneously, limiting feeder space. Large furnished cages (FC) offer more total space and opportunities to perform a greater variety of behaviors, which may affect feeding behavior and feeder space requirements. Our objective was to determine the effects of floor/feeder SA on behavior at the feeder. LSL-Lite hens were housed in FC equipped with a nest, perches, and a scratch mat...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021138/glutamine-addiction-in-kidney-cancer-suppresses-oxidative-stress-and-can-be-exploited-for-real-time-imaging
#19
Omran Abu Aboud, Samy L Habib, Josephine Trott, Benjamin Stewart, Sitai Liang, Abhijit J Chaudhari, Julie Sutcliffe, Robert H Weiss
Many cancers appear to activate intrinsic antioxidant systems as a means to counteract oxidative stress. Some cancers, such as clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), require exogenous glutamine for growth and exhibit reprogrammed glutamine metabolism, at least in part due to the glutathione pathway, an efficient cellular buffering system that counteracts reactive oxygen species and other oxidants. We show here that ccRCC xenograft tumors under the renal capsule exhibit enhanced oxidative stress compared with adjacent normal tissue and the contralateral kidney...
December 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018770/master-of-science-msc-program-in-radiation-biology-an-interdepartmental-course-bridging-the-gap-between-radiation-related-preclinical-and-clinical-disciplines-to-prepare-next-generation-medical-scientists
#20
Stephanie E Combs, Carmen Kessel, Jan J Wilkens, Gabriele Multhoff, Thomas E Schmid, Peter Vaupel, Klaus-Rüdiger Trott, Pascal Berberat, Michael J Atkinson
Radiation biology is a highly interdisciplinary field at the interface of biology, physics, and medicine. It is characterized by rapid advances in biological and technical knowledge. The potential for using these advances to optimize medical care, radiation protection, and related fields can be exploited only with complementary activities to support the education of young academics. A small number of academic institutions have committed resources into radiation-related courses and curricula; however, few offer a comprehensive interdepartmental research and training program...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
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