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Upendra A Rathnayake, Tharindu Senapathi, Chanaka Sandaruwan, Sanja Gunawardene, Veranja Karunaratne, Nilwala Kottegoda
This study explores the potential application of rice bran (agro waste) to nano-encapsulate phytase, which is a thermally unstable biologically active enzyme. Rice bran was converted to nanofibers (20-50 nm in diameter) using electrospinning. After optimizing the pH, viscosity, voltage and the distance between electrodes for electrospinning, phytase enzyme was encapsulated and the fibers were cross-linked using sodium tripolyphosphate. Thermal stability of phytase enzyme was improved by 90 °C when they are encapsulated and cross-linked with sodium tripolyphosphate...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
J W Kim, B Koo, I H Kim, C M Nyachoti
An experiment was carried out to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the effects of extrusion and microbial phytase on ATTD and STTD of P in hemp hulls (HH). Thirty-six pigs (30.3 ± 2.7 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 experimental diets in a complete randomized design with 6 replicates per diet. A corn-soybean meal (SBM)-based basal diet was formulated. Two additional diets were formulated by replacing 40% of corn and SBM (on a 100% of total diet basis) with HH or extruded HH (EHH)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Xiao Hui Xu, Yinghui Guo, Hongwei Sun, Fan Li, Shuke Yang, Rui Gao, Xingbo Lu
Transgenic maize hybrids that express the Aspergillus niger phyA2 gene could significantly improve phosphorus bioavailability to poultry and livestock. However, little information has been reported about the effects of phytase transgenic maize on the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée). This study provides valuable information about the physiological, biochemical and gut microflora functional diversity changes of ACBs fed phytase transgenic maize. The weights, survival rates, in vivo protein contents, activities of two detoxification enzymes and three antioxidant enzymes of ACBs fed phytase transgenic maize exhibited no significant differences to those fed non-transgenic maize...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carmen Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Garikoitz Legarda, David Ruano-Rosa, Paloma Pizarro-Tobías, Antonio Valverde-Corredor, José L Niqui, Juan C Triviño, Amalia Roca, Jesús Mercado-Blanco
The use of biological control agents (BCA), alone or in combination with other management measures, has gained attention over the past decades, driven by the need to seek for sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives to confront plant pathogens. The rhizosphere of olive ( Olea europaea L.) plants is a source of bacteria with potential as biocontrol tools against Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. A collection of bacterial isolates from healthy nursery-produced olive (cultivar Picual, susceptible to VWO) plants was generated based on morphological, biochemical and metabolic characteristics, chemical sensitivities, and on their in vitro antagonistic activity against several olive pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Runjun Dowarah, Ashok Kumar Verma, Neeta Agarwal, Putan Singh, Bhoj Raj Singh
The present study was aimed to develop an effective probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from piglet feces and in vitro characterization of probiotic properties. To confirm host-species specificity of probiotics, the efficacy of isolated LAB on growth, nutrient utilization, health and antioxidant status was observed in early weaned piglets. A total of 30 LAB were isolated from feces of five healthy piglets (28d old). All isolates were Gram positive, cocco-bacilli and catalase negative. Out of thirty LAB isolates, twenty were shortlisted on the basis of their tolerance to pH (3...
2018: PloS One
Lia R Valeeva, Chuluuntsetseg Nyamsuren, Margarita R Sharipova, Eugene V Shakirov
Phytases are specialized phosphatases capable of releasing inorganic phosphate from myo -inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate), which is highly abundant in many soils. As inorganic phosphorus reserves decrease over time in many agricultural soils, genetic manipulation of plants to enable secretion of potent phytases into the rhizosphere has been proposed as a promising approach to improve plant phosphorus nutrition. Several families of biotechnologically important phytases have been discovered and characterized, but little data are available on which phytase families can offer the most benefits toward improving plant phosphorus intake...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kumar Raja Puppala, V Ravi Kumar, Jayant Khire, Mahesh Dharne
Increase of undigested complexes of phytic acid in food is gaining serious attention to overcome nutritional challenges due to chelation effects. We investigated soil-borne yeast phytase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NCIM 3662) for dephytinization of foods, probiotic properties, and process development. The strain produced 45 IU/DCG by cell-bound phytase in an unoptimized medium was increased fourfold (164 IU/DCG) in 12 h using statistical media optimization. The process was scaled-up up to 10-L fermenter scale with increased phytase productivity of 6...
March 5, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
M Bournazel, M Lessire, S Klein, N Même, C Peyronnet, A Quinsac, M J Duclos, A Narcy
Two experiments were conducted on broilers to assess the effect of dietary fiber from 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and retention (AR) during the growing (Exp1: 10 to 21 d) or finishing period (Exp2: 21 to 31 d) in diets supplemented or not with microbial phytase. Each experiment involved 144 male Cobb 500 fed one of 8 diets. Fiber content was modulated by incorporating whole RSM, RSM from dehulled rapeseeds, either raw or supplemented with 2 levels of defatted rapeseed hulls...
February 28, 2018: Poultry Science
Courtney D Giles, Alan E Richardson, Barbara J Cade-Menun, Malika M Mezeli, Lawrie K Brown, Daniel Menezes-Blackburn, Tegan Darch, Martin Sa Blackwell, Charles A Shand, Marc I Stutter, Renate Wendler, Patricia Cooper, David G Lumsdon, Catherine Wearing, Hao Zhang, Philip M Haygarth, Timothy S George
Citrate and phytase root exudates contribute to improved phosphorus (P) acquisition efficiency in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) when both exudates are produced in a P deficient soil. To test the importance of root intermingling in the interaction of citrate and phytase exudates, Nicotiana tabacum plant-lines with constitutive expression of heterologous citrate (Cit) or fungal phytase (Phy) exudation traits were grown under two root treatments (roots separated or intermingled) and in two soils with contrasting soil P availability...
March 2, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
M M Erdaw, R A Perez-Maldonado, P A Iji
A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial, involving three levels of protease (0, 15,000 or 30,000 PROT/kg) and three levels of phytase (1,000, 2,000 or 3,000 FYT/kg), was used to evaluate the effect of replacing commercial soybean meal (SBM) with raw, full-fat soybean (RFSB) at 75 g/kg of diet for broilers. A control diet was used for comparison. Each treatment was replicated six times, with nine birds per replicate. The concentration of trypsin inhibitors (TIs) in the test diets was approximately 10,193.4 TIU/kg. Regardless of enzyme supplementation, feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) of birds in the control group were superior to those on the test diets...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
G Wright, A Lax, S B Mehta
Botulinum toxin is widely used in facial rhytide treatments. The duration of its effects influences treatment intervals, cost and convenience to the patient. These are key factors in successful aesthetic procedures. A review of the literature found that duration of effect was between two and six months, with most experiencing loss of maximal contraction for three to four months. Treatments may last between three to four months, and occasionally up to six months. No specific definition of effectiveness/efficacy has been described and used to measure comparable end points...
February 23, 2018: British Dental Journal
Nathálya Farias, Isabela Almeida, Carlos Meneses
Alkaline phytases from uncultured microorganisms, which hydrolyze phytate to less phosphorylated myo-inositols and inorganic phosphate, have great potential as additives in agricultural industry. The development of metagenomics has stemmed from the ineluctable evidence that as-yet-uncultured microorganisms represent the vast majority of organisms in most environments on earth. In this study, a gene encoding a phytase was cloned from red rice crop residues and castor bean cake using a metagenomics strategy. The amino acid identity between this gene and its closest published counterparts is lower than 60%...
February 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
C-J Ingelmann, M Witzig, J Möhring, M Schollenberger, I Kühn, M Rodehutscord
This study aimed to investigate the effect of phytase and a combination of phytase and xylanase on the prececal phosphorus digestibility (pcdP) of wheat-based diets in turkeys. A low-P basal diet (BD) based on cornstarch and soybean meal, and 2 diets containing 43% of different wheat genotypes (genotype diets GD6 or GD7) were fed to turkeys from 20 to 27 d of age. Diets were fed either without enzyme supplementation or supplemented with phytase (500 FTU/kg) or a combination of phytase and xylanase (16,000 BXU/kg)...
February 15, 2018: Poultry Science
S A Lee, M R Bedford, C L Walk
A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of mono-component proteases on performance and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AIAAD, %) in monogastrics. A total of 67 experimental trials were included in the meta-analysis from published and internal reports, contributing 467 lines of data. Poultry and swine data accounted for 81 and 19% of the dataset, respectively. Forty-four different proteases were included in the meta-analysis, accounting for commercial and non-commercial products. Mixed Model analysis was used to assess protease effect and the influence of inherent characteristics of the control on protease response...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Hiroya Fujimoto, Nozomi Fujita, Ryozo Takada
This experiment was conducted to clarify the nutritional functions of rice and phytase addition for broiler chicks. Thirty-six 7-day-old male chicks (ROSS 308 strain) were assigned to one of the four treatment groups: corn- or rice-based diet groups and each diet with added phytase (2000 phytase units/kg diet) groups (corn + P or rice + P groups). The non-phytate phosphorus (npP) content in the diets with added phytase was approximately half of the requirement. Body weight gain and feed intake in the rice group was significantly higher than those in the corn group...
February 19, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
C L Walk, M R Bedford, O A Olukosi
An experiment was conducted to evaluate phytase supplementation on growth, phytate degradation, and the gene expression of myo-inositol transporters in 21-day old broilers. Ross 308, male broilers (n = 240) were assigned to one of four diets, with 10 pens/diet and six birds/pen from day one to 21. The diets consisted of a negative control (NC) formulated to meet or exceed Ross 308 nutrient requirements, with the exception of calcium (Ca) and available P (avP), which were reduced by 0.16 and 0.15%, respectively...
February 12, 2018: Poultry Science
S A Lee, J Dunne, E Febery, P Wilcock, T Mottram, M R Bedford
1. The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of high phytase doses on growth performance and real-time gastric pH measurements in broiler chickens and pigs. 2. In the first experiment, 576 male Ross 308 broilers were fed in two phases (0-21 and 21-42 d) with 4 treatment groups, with diets meeting nutrient requirements containing 0, 500, 1500 or 2500 FTU/kg phytase. In the second, 64 Landrace weaners were fed on diets meeting nutrient requirements with or without phytase (0 or 2500 FTU/kg) in two phases (0-21 and 21-42 d)...
February 12, 2018: British Poultry Science
Mohammad Pooya Naghshbandi, Hamid Moghimi, Babak Latif
Phytase is the most widely used feed enzyme in the world. This enzyme inactivates under pelleting conditions such as temperatures above 80 °C. The present study reported covalent attachment of phytase onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (F-MWNT). The optimum enzyme loading and immobilization efficiency were 110 µg/mg of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes and 62%, respectively. Characterization, structural changes and immobilization of phytase were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), circular dichroism (CD), zeta potential measurement and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
February 8, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Andrés Felipe Carrillo Rincón, Vasilka Magdevska, Luka Kranjc, Štefan Fujs, Rolf Müller, Hrvoje Petković
Among the Streptomyces species, Streptomyces lividans has often been used for the production of heterologous proteins as it can secrete target proteins directly into the culture medium. Streptomyces rimosus, on the other hand, has for long been used at an industrial scale for oxytetracycline production, and it holds 'Generally Recognised As Safe' status. There are a number of properties of S. rimosus that make this industrial strain an attractive candidate as a host for heterologous protein production, including (1) rapid growth rate; (2) growth as short fragments, as for Escherichia coli; (3) high efficiency of transformation by electroporation; and (4) secretion of proteins into the culture medium...
February 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Can M Buldun, Jisoo Jean, Michael R Bedford, Mark Howarth
Simple efficient reactions for connecting biological building-blocks open up many new possibilities. Here we have designed SnoopLigase, a protein which catalyzes site-specific transamidation, forming an isopeptide bond with up to 99% efficiency between two peptide tags, SnoopTagJr and DogTag. We initially developed these components by three-part splitting of the Streptococcus pneumoniae adhesin RrgA. The units were then engineered, guided by structure, bioinformatic analysis of sequence homology, and computational prediction of stability...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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