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V Sommerfeld, M Schollenberger, I Kühn, M Rodehutscord
This study aimed to distinguish between the single and interactive effects of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and phytase on products of phytate degradation, including the disappearance of myo-inositol (MI), P, Ca, and amino acids (AA) in different segments of the digestive tract in broiler chickens. Additionally, all dephosphorylation steps from myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis (dihydrogen phosphate) (InsP6) to MI were investigated in the digesta of the terminal ileum. Unsexed Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to 56 pens with 19 birds per pen, and assigned to one of 8 dietary treatments...
January 6, 2018: Poultry Science
V Sommerfeld, S Künzel, M Schollenberger, I Kühn, M Rodehutscord
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with free myo-inositol (MI) or graded levels of phytase on inositol phosphate (InsP) degradation, concentrations of MI in the digestive tract and blood, bone mineralization, and prececal digestibility of amino acids (AA). Ross 308 broiler hatchlings were allocated to 40 pens with 11 birds each and assigned to one of 5 treatments. The birds were fed a starter diet until d 11 and a grower diet from d 11 to d 22. All diets were based on wheat, soybean meal, and corn...
December 29, 2017: Poultry Science
Laura Bononi, Rodrigo Gouvêa Taketani, Danilo Tosta Souza, Marta Alves Moitinho, Vanessa Nessner Kavamura, Itamar Soares Melo
Microbial communities regulate nutrient cycling in soil, thus the impact of climate change on the structure and function of these communities can cause an imbalance of nutrients in the environment. Structural and functional changes of soil bacterial communities in two contrasting biomes in Brazil, the Atlantic Forest and the Tropical Dry Forest (Caatinga), were studied by simulating, in microcosms, rainfall and drought events. Soil samples were collected in three Brazilian states: Bahia, Pernambuco and São Paulo, in a total of four sampling sites...
December 29, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Ting Zhou, Pei Wang, Runqiang Yang, Zhenxin Gu
BACKGROUND: Polyamines are essentially involved in cell division and differentiation. Transport of polyamine is ATP dependent, while phytic acid is the major reserve of phosphate essential to the energy-producing machinery of cells. Thus, polyamines might enhance phytic acid degradation during mung bean germination. In this study, different polyamines [putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)] and dicyclohexylamine (DCHA, a Spd synthesis inhibitor) were applied to investigate the function of polyamines on phytic acid degradation...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Alysson Wagner Fernandes Duarte, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos, Marina Vitti Vianna, Juliana Maíra Freitas Vieira, Vitor Hugo Mallagutti, Fabio José Inforsato, Lia Costa Pinto Wentzel, Luciana Daniela Lario, Andre Rodrigues, Fernando Carlos Pagnocca, Adalberto Pessoa Junior, Lara Durães Sette
Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, and driest continent on Earth. In this sense, microorganisms that inhabit Antarctica environments have to be adapted to harsh conditions. Fungal strains affiliated with Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla have been recovered from terrestrial and marine Antarctic samples. They have been used for the bioprospecting of molecules, such as enzymes. Many reports have shown that these microorganisms produce cold-adapted enzymes at low or mild temperatures, including hydrolases (e...
December 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Paul Wai-Kei Tsang, Wing-Ping Fong, Lakshman Perera Samaranayake
Candida albicans is a clinically important human fungal pathogen. We previously identified the presence of cell-associated phytase activity in C. albicans. Here, we reveal for the first time, that orf19.3727 contributes to phytase activity in C. albicans and ultimately to its virulence potency. Compared with its wild type counterpart, disruption of C. albicans orf19.3727 led to decreased phytase activity, reduced ability to form hyphae, attenuated in vitro adhesion, and reduced ability to penetrate human epithelium, which are the major virulence attributes of this yeast...
2017: PloS One
Preeti Tripathi, Jyothi Lakshmi A, Mukesh Kapoor
The present study was aimed at enhancing phytase (Phy-Ck) production from Citrobacter koseri PM-7 using response surface methodology (RSM) and improving the bioaccessibility of minerals (Fe and Zn) and protein digestibility in high-phytate food using Phy-Ck. A five-variable and three-level central composite design of RSM using wheat bran (6.681% w/v), inoculum level (2.5% v/v), and triton-x-100 (0.2% v/v) resulted in up to 5.57-fold (1.047 U/ml) improvement in Phy-Ck yield from C. koseri PM-7 when compared with fermentation media I & II...
December 1, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Rateesh Krishnan, M S Meera
The variations in iron and zinc bioaccessibility as influenced by inhibitory factors in 13 pearl millet cultivars were evaluated. The results indicated that iron and zinc contents ranged between 5.59-13.41 and 2.11-5.19 mg/100 g. Polyphenols, flavonoids and phytic acid were highest in GHB744 (781 mg/100 g), HHB223 (116 mg/100 g) and HHB226 (1.080 g/100 g) respectively. Insoluble fiber content range from 9.36 to 12.89 g/100 g. Iron and zinc bioaccessibility was the highest in local Anantapur (17.95%) and GHB744 (15...
December 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Aaron J Cowieson, Franz F Roos, Jean-Paul Ruckebusch, Jonathan W Wilson, Patrick Guggenbuhl, Hang Lu, Kolapo M Ajuwon, Olayiwola Adeola
The effect of the ingestion of diets containing either myo-inositol or exogenous phytase on plasma metabolites was examined using 29 kg barrows. The diets were: control (maize, soya, rapeseed, rice bran), control plus 2 g/kg myo-inositol, control plus 1000 phytase units (FYT)/kg or 3000 FYT/kg exogenous phytase. Pigs were housed in a PigTurn device and blood was collected, from jugular catheters, via an automated system at -30, (30 min before feeding), 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min post-feeding...
November 27, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Silvana L Carrizo, Cecilia E Montes de Oca, María Elvira Hébert, Lucila Saavedra, Graciela Vignolo, Jean Guy LeBlanc, Graciela Celestina Rollán
Amaranth is a rediscovered pseudocereal with high nutritional properties. Lactic acid fermentation can increase the functional and nutritional value of foods. The aims of this study were to isolate and evaluate the functionality of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from amaranth. LAB strains (n = 29) isolated from amaranth sourdough and grains included Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum (n = 8), L. rhamnosus (n = 6), Enterococcus (E.) mundtii (n = 4), E. hermanniensis (n = 3), E. durans (n = 1), Enterococcus sp. (n = 1), Leuconostoc (Lc...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
Rekha Sharma, Piyush Kumar, Vandana Kaushal, Rahul Das, Naveen Kumar Navani
A novel protein tyrosine phosphatase like phytase (PTPLP), designated as PhyLf from probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum NKN51 was identified, cloned, expressed and characterized. The recombinant PhyLf showed specific activity of 174.5 U/mg. PhyLf exhibited strict specificity towards phytate and optimum temperature at 60 °C, pH 5.0 and ionic strength of 100 mM. Km and Kcat of PhyLf for phytate were 0.773 mM and 84.31 s(-1), respectively. PhyLf exhibited high resistance against oxidative inactivation...
November 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Zizhong Tang, Weiqiong Jin, Rong Sun, Yan Liao, Tianrun Zhen, Hui Chen, Qi Wu, Lin Gou, Chenlei Li
We previously constructed three recombinant phyA mutant strains (PP-NP(m)-8, PP-NP(ep)-6A and I44E/T252R-PhyA), showing improved catalytic efficiency or thermostability of Aspergillus niger N25 phytase, by error-prone PCR or site-directed mutagenesis. In this study, directed evolution and site-directed mutagenesis were further applied to improve the modified phytase properties. After one-round error-prone PCR for phytase gene of PP-NP(ep)-6A, a single transformant, T195L/Q368E/F376Y, was obtained with the significant improvements in catalytic efficiency and thermostability...
January 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Fang Lu, Bei Zhang, Yong Liu, Ying Song, Gangxing Guo, Duo Feng, Huoqing Huang, Peilong Yang, Wei Gao, Sujuan Guo, Bin Yao
Phytases are phosphatases that hydrolyze phytates to less phosphorylated myo-inositol derivatives and inorganic phosphate. β-Propeller phytases, which are very diverse phytases with improved thermostability that are active at neutral and alkaline pH and have absolute substrate specificity, are ideal substitutes for other commercial phytases. PhyH-DI, a β-propeller phytase from Bacillus sp. HJB17, was found to act synergistically with other single-domain phytases and can increase their efficiency in the hydrolysis of phytate...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
C D Hanna, C K Foran, P L Utterback, H H Stein, C M Parsons
Three experiments were conducted to evaluate 3 increased-protein, reduced-fiber canola meals (CM) (CMA, CMB, and Test CM), 2 conventional CM (CCM), and 2 soybean meals (SBM). For determination of P bioavailability in CM and SBM, a P-deficient cornstarch-dextrose-SBM basal diet was fed as Diet 1. The latter basal diet was then supplemented with 0.05 and 0.10% P from KH2PO4 or 12.5 and 25% of a CM or SBM. In addition, the effect of phytase enzyme on bioavailability of the P in CMA, Test CM, and one of the CCM was determined using P-deficient 45% CM-cornstarch-dextrose diets (0...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
A E Gautier, C L Walk, R N Dilger
An experiment was conducted to evaluate how the addition of microbial phytase influenced growth performance, bone mineralization, tissue P content, apparent digestibility and retention, and inositol phosphate (IP) concentrations in broilers fed diets with varying mineral matrices from 2 to 23 d of age. At 2 d of age, chicks were randomly allotted to receive 1 of 6 experimental diets arranged as a 3 × 2 factorial of mineral matrix [control diet with 1.0% Ca and 0.5% non-phytate phosphorus (NPP); mineral matrix 1 with 0...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
L Jarosz, A Marek, Z Gradzki, M Kwiecien, B Zylinska, B Kaczmarek
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of inorganic and organic forms of Zn on the expression of cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-17, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β) and immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) in the tissues of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum) of broiler chickens. In the experiment, 90 broiler chickens were divided into 4 experimental groups and a control group, with 18 birds each. The birds received Zn supplements in inorganic form with and without phytase (ZnSO4 and ZnSO4 + F), and in organic form with glycine, with and without phytase (Zn-Gly and Zn-Gly + F)...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
A L Wealleans, M C Walsh, L F Romero, V Ravindran
The efficacy of two exogenous enzyme combinations and a multi-strain Bacillus probiotic (DFM) on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, disappearance of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and gut microbial composition was investigated in broilers. One-day old Ross 308 chicks were assigned to 36 pens with 22 birds/pen and 6 pens/treatment (Experiment 1) or 36 cages with 8 birds/cage and 6 cages/treatment (Experiment 2). Treatment additives were added to nutritionally complete corn/soy based starter (d 1 to 21) and finisher (d 22 to 42) diets...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
Ralf Greiner
Kinetic parameters for the dephosphorylation of sodium phytate and a series of partially phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates were determined at pH 3.0 and pH 5.0 for three phytase preparations (Aspergillus niger, Escherichia coli, rye). The enzymes showed lower affinity and turnover numbers at pH 3 compared to pH 5 toward all myo-inositol phosphates included in the study. The number and distribution of phosphate groups on the myo-inositol ring affected the kinetic parameters. Representatives of the individual phytate dephosphorylation pathways were identified as the best substrates of the phytases...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Pijug Summpunn, Juntratip Jomrit, Watanalai Panbangred
Pichia pastoris is an established host system for heterologous protein expression. However, the potential productivity of this system can be limited. In this study, the Escherichia coli chaperones (GroES-GroEL) were expressed from the PGAP promoter and targeted to the secretory pathway through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ability of the ER targeted chaperones to improve production of bacterial protein in P. pastoris was evaluated. The chaperones tagged with α-factor secretion- and ER retention-signal sequences were co-expressed with either extracellularly secreted phytase or intracellular d-phenylglycine aminotransferase (D-PhgAT) enzymes...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ran Qiu, Jian Lu
OBJECTIVES: Exogenous phytase improved the activity of hydrolases to decrease the malting time. RESULTS: Treatment with phytase during barley steeping increased activity of hydrolases (α-/β-amylase, proteinase, β-glucanase and xylanase) in green malt. Maximal activity was observed for α-/β-amylase, β-glucanase and xylanase with 0.8 U phytase/g and proteinase with 1.2 U phytase/g. Phytase promoted acrospire growth of green malt and reduced malting process with 0...
October 12, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
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