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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611491/phytases-of-probiotic-bacteria-characteristics-and-beneficial-aspects
#1
REVIEW
P Priyodip, P Y Prakash, S Balaji
Probiotics play a vital role in clinical applications for the treatment of diarrhea, obesity and urinary tract infections. Phytate, an anti-nutrient, chelates essential minerals that are vital for human health. In the past few decades, research reports emphasize extensively on phytate degradation in animals. There is a growing need for finding alternate strategies of phytate utilization in human, as they are unable to produce phytase. At this juncture, probiotics can be utilized for phytase production to combat mineral deficiency in humans...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603872/the-effect-of-feed-supplementation-with-a-copper-glycine-chelate-and-copper-sulphate-on-selected-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-parameters-plasma-superoxide-dismutase-activity-ceruloplasmin-and-cytokine-concentration-in-broiler-chickens
#2
Ł S Jarosz, A Marek, Z Grądzki, M Kwiecień, B Kaczmarek
The varied bioavailability and different effects of organic forms of copper on the immune system of poultry have prompted the search for new feed additives based on copper compounds containing modified chelate complexes. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of inorganic and organic forms of copper on selected parameters of the cellular and humoral immune response in broiler chickens by determining the percentages of CD3(+) CD4(+) , CD3(+) CD8(+) and CD25(+) lymphocytes, cells with MHC Class II expression, and BU-1(+) cells, as well as the concentrations of SOD, IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α in the peripheral blood...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554270/dephosphorylation-of-myo-inositol-phosphates-in-the-in-vitro-intestinal-caco-2-cell-model
#3
Karlis Briviba, Margit Schollenberger, Markus Rodehutscord, Ralf Greiner
Plant and microbial phytases present in raw materials can cause a dephosphorylation of phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) (InsP6)) during food processing resulting in a broad range of different myo-inositol phosphates such as pentakisphosphate (InsP5) and tetrakisphosphate (InsP4) in foods. Here, we investigated whether the human intestinal epithelium is able to dephosphorylate myo-inositol phosphates (InsP6, InsP5-, InsP4-, InsP3-isomers) using an in vitro model with differentiated human Caco-2 cells cultured on semipermeable inserts...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549814/microbial-phytase-impact-of-advances-in-genetic-engineering-in-revolutionizing-its-properties-and-applications
#4
REVIEW
Mrudula Vasudevan Ushasree, Krishna Shyam, Jalaja Vidya, Ashok Pandey
Phytases are enzymes that increase the availability of phosphorous in monogastric diet and reduces the anti-nutrition effect of phytate. This review highlights contributions of recombinant technology to phytase research during the last decade with specific emphasis on new generation phytases. Application of modern molecular tools and genetic engineering have aided the discovery of novel phytase genes, facilitated its commercial production and expanded its applications. In future, by adopting most recent gene improvement techniques, more efficient next generation phytases can be developed for specific applications...
May 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527994/purification-and-characterization-of-a-protease-resistant-phytase-of-aspergillus-oryzae-sbs50-whose-properties-make-it-exceptionally-useful-as-a-feed-supplement
#5
Sapna, Bijender Singh
An extracellular phytase of Aspergillus oryzae SBS50 was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Purified phytase has a monomeric molecular mass of ∼80kDa exhibiting its optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 50°C with a T 1/2 of 300min at 50°C. Phytase of A. oryzae displayed broad substrate specificity with Vmax and Km values of 58.82μmol/ml/min and 1.14mM, respectively, for calcium phytate. Purity and homogeneity of the phytase was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography and MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the identification of a peptide showing homology with acid phosphatase of Aspergillus oryzae RIB40...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503928/effect-of-intermittent-feeding-and-oat-hulls-to-improve-phytase-efficacy-and-digestive-function-in-broiler-chickens
#6
A Sacranie, X Adiya, L T Mydland, B Svihus
1. Two trials were carried out to investigate the impact of intermittent feeding and oat hulls as methods to stimulate the anterior digestive tract in broiler chickens. 2. In Trial 1, 7-d-old broilers were placed 4 per cage in 48 cages and fed either ad libitum or intermittently on a diet with 50 g/kg of either oat hulls or cellulose, with or without 1000 FTU phytase, in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Ad libitum fed birds had two 4-h dark periods with 1-h light in between, while intermittently fed birds in addition had restricted access to feed through four 1 h feeding bouts...
June 15, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503185/phosphate-uptake-from-phytate-due-to-hyphae-mediated-phytase-activity-by-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-maize
#7
Xin-Xin Wang, Ellis Hoffland, Gu Feng, Thomas W Kuyper
Phytate is the most abundant form of soil organic phosphorus (P). Increased P nutrition of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants derived from phytate has been repeatedly reported. Earlier studies assessed acid phosphatase rather than phytase as an indication of mycorrhizal fungi-mediated phytate use. We investigated the effect of mycorrhizal hyphae-mediated phytase activity on P uptake by maize. Two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars, non-inoculated or inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis mosseae or Claroideoglomus etunicatum, were grown for 45 days in two-compartment rhizoboxes, containing a root compartment and a hyphal compartment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482677/subsequent-bone-and-metabolic-responses-of-broilers-to-high-non-phytate-phosphorus-diets-in-the-starter-period
#8
N Baradaran, M H Shahir, Z Asadi Kermani
1. An experiment was performed to elucidate the subsequent effects of high-non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diets on growth performance, blood metabolites, bone characteristics and P retention of broilers fed on low-NPP grower diets. The 42-d study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 + 1 factorial, which included two starter NPP concentrations (4.5 and 5.5 g/kg; d 0-21), two grower NPP concentrations (1.5 and 2.3 g/kg; d 22-42), with or without phytase (1000 FTU/kg), with a reference diet containing an adequate NPP concentration over the course of the trial...
May 31, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472144/aspergillus-ficuum-phytase-activity-is-inhibited-by-cereal-grain-components
#9
Zelalem Eshetu Bekalu, Claus Krogh Madsen, Giuseppe Dionisio, Henrik Brinch-Pedersen
In the current study, we report for the first time that grain components of barley, rice, wheat and maize can inhibit the activity of Aspergillus ficuum phytase. The phytase inhibition is dose dependent and varies significantly between cereal species, between cultivars of barley and cultivars of wheat and between Fusarium graminearum infected and non-infected wheat grains. The highest endpoint level of phytase activity inhibition was 90%, observed with grain protein extracts (GPE) from F. graminearum infected wheat...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468891/the-effect-of-lipids-a-lipid-rich-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food-or-a-phytase-on-iron-absorption-from-maize-based-meals-fortified-with-micronutrient-powders
#10
Arnaud Monnard, Diego Moretti, Christophe Zeder, Andreas Steingötter, Michael B Zimmermann
Background: Ready-to-use-therapeutic foods (RUTFs) high in lipid, protein, and iron are used to treat malnutrition. Lipids increase gastric residence time, which could increase iron absorption, particularly from poorly soluble iron compounds and in combination with phytase.Objectives: The objectives were to 1) assess the effect on iron absorption of a lipid emulsion given 20 min before or together with an iron-fortified maize meal and 2) assess iron absorption from a micronutrient powder (MNP) given with a nutrient-dense RUTF and/or a microbial phytase...
May 3, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460943/ancestral-andean-grain-quinoa-as-source-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-capable-to-degrade-phytate-and-produce-b-group-vitamins
#11
Silvana L Carrizo, Cecilia E Montes de Oca, Jonathan E Laiño, Nadia E Suarez, Graciela Vignolo, Jean Guy LeBlanc, Graciela Rollán
The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota of quinoa grains (QG) and spontaneous sourdough (QSS) was evaluated. Different strains of Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum (7), L. rhamnosus (5), L. sakei (1), Pediococcus (Ped.) pentosaceus (9), Leuconostoc (Leuc.) mesenteroides (1), Enterococcus (E.) casseliflavus (2), E. mundtii (3), E. hirae (1), E. gallinarum (12), Enterococcus sp. (1), and E. hermanniensis (2) were isolated, identified and characterized. Only four strains isolated from QSS and eight strains isolated from QG showed amylolytic activity...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447381/land-use-influences-phosphatase-gene-microdiversity-in-soils
#12
Andrew L Neal, Maike Rossmann, Charles Brearley, Elsy Akkari, Cervin Guyomar, Ian M Clark, Elisa Allen, Penny R Hirsch
Phosphorus cycling exerts significant influence upon soil fertility and productivity - processes largely controlled by microbial activity. We adopted phenotypic and metagenomic approaches to investigate phosphatase genes within soils. Microbial communities in bare fallowed soil showed a marked capacity to utilise phytate for growth compared to arable or grassland soil communities. Bare fallowed soil contained lowest concentrations of orthophosphate. Analysis of metagenomes indicated phoA, phoD and phoX, and histidine acid and cysteine phytase genes were most abundant in grassland soil which contained the greatest amount of NaOH-EDTA extractable orthophosphate...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444586/cereal-phytases-and-their-importance-in-improvement-of-micronutrients-bioavailability
#13
REVIEW
Amit Vashishth, Sewa Ram, Vikas Beniwal
Phytic acid is a main reservoir of phosphorous (P) in plants and contributes to about 80% of the total P in cereal seeds. However, it is well known to possess anti-nutritional behavior. Because it has strong affinity to chelate divalent ions e.g. calcium, magnesium, and especially with iron and zinc. Therefore, it is extremely poor as a dietary source of P. To enhance bio-availability of micronutrients, an enzyme namely phytase is known to hydrolyze phytic acid. Unfortunately, phytase is not produced in the stomach of monogastric animals and humans...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427257/effect-of-dietary-calcium-concentrations-in-low-non-phytate-phosphorus-diets-containing-phytase-on-growth-performance-bone-mineralization-litter-quality-and-footpad-dermatitis-incidence-in-growing-broiler-chickens
#14
Jong Hyuk Kim, Hyunjung Jung, Franco Martinez Pitargue, Gi Ppeum Han, Hyeon Seok Choi, Dong Yong Kil
Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca concentrations in low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diets containing phytase on growth performance, bone mineralization, litter quality, and footpad dermatitis (FPD) incidence in growing broiler chickens. Methods: A total of 1,800 21-day-old Ross 308 growing broiler chickens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicated cages. Six diets were formulated to provide increasing Ca concentrations of 4...
April 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427256/effect-of-superdosing-phytase-on-productive-performance-and-egg-quality-in-laying-hens
#15
Jong Hyuk Kim, Franco Martinez Pitargue, Hyunjung Jung, Gi Ppeum Han, Hyeon Seok Choi, Dong Yong Kil
Objective: An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of superdosing phytase on productive performance and egg quality in laying hens. Methods: A total of 200 42-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allotted into 1 of 5 dietary treatments with 5 replicates consisting of 8 hens per replicate. The positive control (PC) and negative control diets (NC) were prepared based on the recommended P levels in layer diets. Supplemental phytase was added to the negative control diet at 10,000 (SD10), 20,000 (SD20), or 30,000 (SD30) FTU/kg...
April 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419372/nutrient-and-fiber-utilization-responses-of-supplemental-xylanase-in-broiler-chickens-fed-wheat-based-diets-are-independent-of-the-adaptation-period-to-test-diets2
#16
E Kiarie, M C Walsh, L F Romero, S Arent, V Ravindran
The effects of adaptation (AD) to xylanase-supplemented diets on nutrient and fiber utilization in 21-d-old broilers were investigated. Six treatments, arranged in two levels of AD (starting at d 0 or d 14 of age) and three levels of xylanase (0 or 2,500 or 5,000 xylanase units/kg feed) were used. All diets had 500 phytase U/kg and 0.3% TiO2 as indigestible marker. A total of 384 d old male broiler (Ross 308) chicks were divided into two groups. The first group was assigned on weight basis to 24 cages (8 chicks per cage) and randomly allocated to the diets from d 0...
April 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405835/high-yield-production-of-pure-tagatose-from-fructose-by-a-three-step-enzymatic-cascade-reaction
#17
Seon-Hwa Lee, Seung-Hye Hong, Kyoung-Rok Kim, Deok-Kun Oh
OBJECTIVE: To produce tagatose from fructose with a high conversion rate and to establish a high-yield purification method of tagatose from the reaction mixture. RESULTS: Fructose at 1 M (180 g l(-1)) was converted to 0.8 M (144 g l(-1)) tagatose by a three-step enzymatic cascade reaction, involving hexokinase, plus ATP, fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase, phytase, over 16 h with a productivity of 9 g l(-1) h(-1). No byproducts were detected. Tagatose was recrystallized from ethanol to a purity of 99...
April 12, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398093/increased-iron-level-in-phytase-supplemented-diets-reduces-performance-and-nutrient-utilisation-in-broiler-chickens
#18
Marjina Akter, P A Iji, H Graham
1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance were investigated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe × phytase interaction significantly influenced the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR)...
June 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384593/thermo-acid-stable-phytase-mediated-enhancement-of-bioethanol-production-using-colocasia-esculenta
#19
Melvin Makolomakwa, Adarsh Kumar Puri, Kugen Permaul, Suren Singh
Phytase production by the thermophilic mould Thermomyces lanuginosus SSBP was enhanced 8.56-fold in submerged fermentation, which was further improved in fed-batch cultivations. The protein was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulphate precipitation, Resource Q anion exchange and Superdex gel-filtration chromatography, with an overall purification of 24.7-fold and a yield of 5.16%. The purified 49kDa protein was optimally active at 55°C and pH 5.0, and was stable between 50 and 90°C from pH 3.0-6.0, with a half-life of 138...
July 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380608/performance-intestinal-microflora-and-amino-acid-digestibility-altered-by-exogenous-enzymes-in-broilers-fed-wheat-or-sorghum-based-diets
#20
D Wu, S B Wu, M Choct, R A Swick
The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of dietary enzymes and nutrient restriction on performance and bone mineralization in birds fed wheat- or sorghum-based diets. A total of 720 d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 8 treatments, with 6 replicates per treatment and 15 birds per replicate. Birds were reared in floor pens from 0 to 35 d. The study used a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 2 grains (sorghum or wheat) and 4 diets: positive control (no enzyme and ME, digestible Lys, Ca, and P sufficient, negative control (NC; no enzyme and reduced ME [-100 kcal/kg], digestible AA [-2%], Ca [-0...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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