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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076998/phosphate-phytate-and-phytases-in-plants-from-fundamental-knowledge-gained-in-arabidopsis-to-potential-biotechnological-applications-in-wheat
#1
David Secco, Nadia Bouain, Aida Rouached, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai, Moez Hanin, Ajay K Pandey, Hatem Rouached
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. In plants, P is taken up from the rhizosphere by the roots mainly as inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is required in large and sufficient quantities to maximize crop yields. In today's agricultural society, crop yield is mostly ensured by the excessive use of Pi fertilizers, a costly practice neither eco-friendly or sustainable. Therefore, generating plants with improved P use efficiency (PUE) is of major interest. Among the various strategies employed to date, attempts to engineer genetically modified crops with improved capacity to utilize phytate (PA), the largest soil P form and unfortunately not taken up by plants, remains a key challenge...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990026/assessment-of-bioavailable-organic-phosphorus-in-tropical-forest-soils-by-organic-acid-extraction-and-phosphatase-hydrolysis
#2
Tegan Darch, Martin S A Blackwell, David Chadwick, Philip M Haygarth, Jane M B Hawkins, Benjamin L Turner
Soil organic phosphorus contributes to the nutrition of tropical trees, but is not accounted for in standard soil phosphorus tests. Plants and microbes can release organic anions to solubilize organic phosphorus from soil surfaces, and synthesize phosphatases to release inorganic phosphate from the solubilized compounds. We developed a procedure to estimate bioavailable organic phosphorus in tropical forest soils by simulating the secretion processes of organic acids and phosphatases. Five lowland tropical forest soils with contrasting properties (pH 4...
December 15, 2016: Geoderma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938322/protein-consensus-based-surface-engineering-procos-a-computer-assisted-method-for-directed-protein-evolution
#3
Amol V Shivange, Hans Wolfgang Hoeffken, Stefan Haefner, Ulrich Schwaneberg
Protein consensus-based surface engineering (ProCoS) is a simple and efficient method for directed protein evolution combining computational analysis and molecular biology tools to engineer protein surfaces. ProCoS is based on the hypothesis that conserved residues originated from a common ancestor and that these residues are crucial for the function of a protein, whereas highly variable regions (situated on the surface of a protein) can be targeted for surface engineering to maximize performance. ProCoS comprises four main steps: (i) identification of conserved and highly variable regions; (ii) protein sequence design by substituting residues in the highly variable regions, and gene synthesis; (iii) in vitro DNA recombination of synthetic genes; and (iv) screening for active variants...
December 1, 2016: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900695/function-based-metagenomic-library-screening-and-heterologous-expression-strategy-for-genes-encoding-phosphatase-activity
#4
Genis A Castillo Villamizar, Heiko Nacke, Rolf Daniel
The release of phosphate from inorganic and organic phosphorus compounds can be mediated enzymatically. Phosphate-releasing enzymes, comprising acid and alkaline phosphatases, are recognized as useful biocatalysts in applications such as plant and animal nutrition, bioremediation and diagnostic analysis. Metagenomic approaches provide access to novel phosphatase-encoding genes. Here, we describe a function-based screening approach for rapid identification of genes conferring phosphatase activity from small-insert and large-insert metagenomic libraries derived from various environments...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894040/plausible-exploitation-of-jatropha-de-oiled-seed-cake-for-lipase-and-phytase-production-and-simultaneous-detoxification-by-candida-parapsilosis-isolated-from-poultry-garbage
#5
Balakrishna Kannoju, Swaruparani Ganapathiwar, Hanumalal Nunavath, Bindu Sunkar, Bhima Bhukya
Jatropha de-oiled seed cake was explored to utilize as a basic nutrient source for Candida parapsilosis, isolated from poultry garbage and selected based on the production of lipase and phytase enzymes under submerged fermentation. At optimized parameters under solid-state fermentation, lipase and phytase activities were recorded as 1056.66±2.92 and 833±2.5U/g of substrate (U/g), respectively. Besides enzyme production, complete elimination of phorbol esters and significant phytate reduction from 6.51±0...
February 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872714/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-of-organic-acids-and-phytase-on-performance-and-intestinal-histomorphology-of-broilers
#6
Nasibeh Mohammadagheri, Ramin Najafi, Gholamreza Najafi
The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic acids and phytase enzyme supplementation on performance and intestinal histomorphology of broilers. The experiment was done in a factorial arrangement 2 × 2 × 2 based on completely randomized design with eight treatments, five replicates with 12 chicks in each until 42 days of age. Diets included natural vinegar (0 and 2%), citric acid (CA; 0.00 and 1.00%) and phytase enzyme (PHY; 0.00 and 500 FTU phytase per kg of feed). One bird from each treatment replicate was randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate the small intestinal morphology on 42 days of age...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868294/effect-of-dietary-calcium-level-and-source-on-mineral-utilisation-by-piglets-fed-diets-containing-exogenous-phytase
#7
P Schlegel, A Gutzwiller
Calcium and phosphorus are essential minerals, closely linked in digestive processes and metabolism. With widespread use of low P diets containing exogenous phytase, the optimal dietary Ca level was verified. The 40-day study evaluated the effects of Ca level (4, 7 and 10 g/kg diet) and Ca source (Ca from CaCO3 and from Lithothamnium calcareum) on mineral utilisation in 72 piglets (7.9 ± 1.0 kg BW) fed an exogenous phytase containing diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg. Measured parameters were growth performance, stomach mineral solubility, bone breaking strength and urinary, serum and bone mineral concentration...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825490/phosphate-dissolving-fungi-mechanism-and-application-in-alleviation-of-salt-stress-in-wheat
#8
Sunita Gaind
The present investigation reveals the solubilization efficiency of tri-calcium phosphate (TCP), Udaipur rock phosphate (URP), aluminium phosphate (AP) and ferric phosphate (FP) by Aspergillus niger (ITCC 6719) and Trichoderma harzianum (ITCC 6721) as function of carbon concentrations. Increasing glucose concentration from 1 to 7% in the growth medium, though improved the phosphorus (P) solubilization significantly but each fungal strain preferred different optimum carbon concentrations for mediating solubilization of different P sources...
December 2016: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812526/evaluation-and-selection-of-bacillus-species-based-on-enzyme-production-antimicrobial-activity-and-biofilm-synthesis-as-direct-fed-microbial-candidates-for-poultry
#9
Juan D Latorre, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Ross E Wolfenden, Jose L Vicente, Amanda D Wolfenden, Anita Menconi, Lisa R Bielke, Billy M Hargis, Guillermo Tellez
Social concern about misuse of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP) and generation of multidrug-resistant bacteria have restricted the dietary inclusion of antibiotics in livestock feed in several countries. Direct-fed microbials (DFM) are one of the multiple alternatives commonly evaluated as substitutes of AGP. Sporeformer bacteria from the genus Bacillus have been extensively investigated because of their extraordinary properties to form highly resistant endospores, produce antimicrobial compounds, and synthesize different exogenous enzymes...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796873/phytase-production-and-development-of-an-ideal-dephytinization-process-for-amelioration-of-food-nutrition-using-microbial-phytases
#10
Jinender Jain, Bijender Singh
Development of an ideal process for reduction of food phytates using microbial phytases is a demanding task by all food and feed industries all over the world. Phytase production by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis JJBS250 isolated from soil sample was optimized in submerged fermentation using statistical tools. Among all the culture variables tested, sucrose, sodium phytate and Tween-80 were identified as the most significant variables using the Placket-Burman design. Further optimization of these variables resulted in a 6...
October 29, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790831/strain-improvement-of-pichia-kudriavzevii-ty13-for-raised-phytase-production-and-reduced-phosphate-repression
#11
Linnea Qvirist, Egor Vorontsov, Jenny Veide Vilg, Thomas Andlid
In this work, we present the development and characterization of a strain of Pichia kudriavzevii (TY1322), with highly improved phytate-degrading capacity. The mutant strain TY1322 shows a biomass-specific phytate degradation of 1.26 mmol g(-1)  h(-1) after 8 h of cultivation in a high-phosphate medium, which is about 8 times higher compared with the wild-type strain. Strain TY1322 was able to grow at low pH (pH 2), at high temperature (46°C) and in the presence of ox bile (2% w/v), indicating this strain's ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract...
October 28, 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789748/use-of-zn-concentration-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-as-a-measure-of-phytate-susceptibility-to-the-effect-of-phytase-supplementation-in-broilers
#12
N K Morgan, D V Scholey, E J Burton
Zinc (Zn) is the most vulnerable cation to complexation with phytate. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of measurements of Zn concentration in the gastrointestinal tract as a marker to assess the anti-nutritional impact of phytate and susceptibility of phytate to phytase in broilers. Ross 308 broilers (n = 180) were fed one of 5 experimental diets with differing phytase activity levels, analyzed at 605, 1150, 1804, 3954, and 5925 U/kg. Broiler performance and Zn concentration, pH, and amount of phytate hydrolyzed in the gizzard, duodenum, and ileum were analyzed at d 21 post hatch...
October 27, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760159/variations-of-phosphorous-accessibility-causing-changes-in-microbiome-functions-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-chickens
#13
Bruno Tilocca, Maren Witzig, Markus Rodehutscord, Jana Seifert
The chicken gastrointestinal tract (GIT) harbours a complex microbial community, involved in several physiological processes such as host immunomodulation and feed digestion. For the first time, the present study analysed dietary effects on the protein inventory of the microbiome in crop and ceca of broilers. We performed quantitative label-free metaproteomics by using 1-D-gel electrophoresis coupled with LC-MS/MS to identify the structural and functional changes triggered by diets supplied with varying amount of mineral phosphorous (P) and microbial phytase (MP)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759065/effect-of-phytase-on-zinc-absorption-from-a-millet-based-porridge-fed-to-young-burkinabe-children
#14
M Brnić, R F Hurrell, L T Songré-Ouattara, B Diawara, A Kalmogho-Zan, C Tapsoba, C Zeder, R Wegmüller
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fortifying cereal staples with zinc is a strategy for increasing zinc intake in young children in developing countries. However, phytic acid (PA) naturally present in cereals strongly decreases zinc absorption. A stable-isotope zinc absorption study was conducted in young children to investigate the ability of the PA-degrading enzyme phytase to improve zinc absorption, when added to a cereal porridge immediately before consumption. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) was estimated in 35 young healthy Burkinabe children using the double-isotopic tracer ratio method with (67)Zn as oral tracer and (70)Zn as intravenous tracer, in a crossover design...
January 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753230/screening-through-the-plicable-promoter-toolbox-enhances-protein-production-in-escherichia-coli
#15
Jianhua Yang, Anna Joëlle Ruff, Stefanie Nicole Hamer, Feng Cheng, Ulrich Schwaneberg
Escherichia coli is a common host for recombinant protein production in which production titers are highly dependent on the employed expression system. Promoters are thereby a key element to control gene expression levels. In this study, a novel PLICable promoter toolbox was developed which enables in a single cloning step and after a screening experiment to identify out of ten IPTG-inducible promoters (T7, A3, lpp, tac, pac, Sp6, lac, npr, trc and syn) the most suitable one for high level protein production...
December 2016: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739088/increase-of-protein-extraction-yield-from-rapeseed-meal-through-a-pretreatment-with-phytase
#16
Ivo M Rodrigues, M Graça Vs Carvalho, Jorge Ms Rocha
BACKGROUND: Rapeseed meal is a good source of high-quality vegetal protein but contains antinutritional compounds that limit its use for human and animal feed. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to enhance alkaline protein extraction of rapeseed meal and to produce protein-rich products with low levels of phytic acid. Different phytase dosages and operating conditions were used for rapeseed meal pretreatment followed by alkaline extraction at different temperatures, time, pH and solid/liquid ratios (S/L)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726035/phylotype-dynamics-of-bacterial-p-utilization-genes-in-microbialites-and-bacterioplankton-of-a-monomictic-endorheic-lake
#17
Patricia M Valdespino-Castillo, Rocío J Alcántara-Hernández, Martín Merino-Ibarra, Javier Alcocer, Miroslav Macek, Octavio A Moreno-Guillén, Luisa I Falcón
Microbes can modulate ecosystem function since they harbor a vast genetic potential for biogeochemical cycling. The spatial and temporal dynamics of this genetic diversity should be acknowledged to establish a link between ecosystem function and community structure. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of bacterial phosphorus utilization genes in two microbial assemblages, microbialites and bacterioplankton of Lake Alchichica, a semiclosed (i.e., endorheic) system with marked seasonality that varies in nutrient conditions, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and water column stability...
October 10, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702498/silk-fibroin-organization-induced-by-chitosan-in-layer-by-layer-films-application-as-a-matrix-in-a-biosensor
#18
Jorge A M Delezuk, Adriana Pavinatto, Marli L Moraes, Flávio M Shimizu, Valquíria C Rodrigues, Sérgio P Campana-Filho, Sidney J L Ribeiro, Osvaldo N Oliveira
In this paper, we show that chitosan may induce conformation changes in silk fibroin (SF) in layer-by-layer (LbL) films, which were used as matrix for immobilization of the enzyme phytase to detect phytic acid. Three chitosan (CH) samples possessing distinct molecular weights were used to build CH/SF LbL films, and a larger change in conformation from random coils to β-sheets for SF was observed for high molecular weight chitosan (CHH). The CHH/SF LbL films deposited onto interdigitated gold electrodes were coated with a layer of phytase, with which phytic acid could be detected down to 10(-9)M using impedance spectroscopy as the principle of detection and treating the data with a multidimensional projection technique...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697930/interaction-between-xylanase-and-phytase-on-the-digestibility-of-corn-and-a-corn-soy-diet-for-broiler-chickens
#19
V G Schramm, J F Durau, L N E Barrilli, J O B Sorbara, A J Cowieson, A P Félix, A Maiorka
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the digestibility and metabolizability of corn and a corn/soy-based diet with the inclusion or not of xylanase and/or phytase in broilers. In the trial, 1,120 broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, consisting of 16 treatments, with 10 replicates of 7 birds each. Treatments were evaluated following a factorial arrangement (4 × 2 × 2), with 4 xylanase levels (zero, 50, 100, or 150 fungal β-xylanase units/kg; FXU), 2 phytase levels (zero or 1,000 phytase units/kg; FTU), and 2 diets (corn/soy or pure corn)...
October 2, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697488/bioprocess-for-the-production-of-recombinant-hap-phytase-of-the-thermophilic-mold-sporotrichum-thermophile-and-its-structural-and-biochemical-characteristics
#20
Anay Kumar Maurya, Deepak Parashar, T Satyanarayana
Thermophilc mold Sporotrichum thermophile secretes an acidstable and thermostable phytase, which finds application as a food and feed additive because of its adequate thermostability, acid stability, protease insensitivity and broad substrate spectrum. Low extracellular phytase production by the mold is a major bottleneck for its application on a commercial scale. We have successfully overcome this problem by constitutive secretary expression of codon optimized rStPhy under glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter in Pichia pastoris...
January 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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