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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342940/high-test-retest-reliability-of-pain-related-evoked-potentials-prep-in-healthy-subjects
#1
Özüm Simal Özgül, Christoph Maier, Elena K Enax-Krumova, Jan Vollert, Marc Fischer, Martin Tegenthoff, Oliver Höffken
Pain-related-evoked potentials (PREP) is an established electrophysiological method to evaluate the signal transmission of electrically stimulated A-delta fibres. Although prerequisite for its clinical use, test-retest-reliability and side-to-side differences of bilateral stimulation in healthy subjects have not been examined yet. We performed PREP twice within 3 to 14days in 33 healthy subjects bilaterally by stimulating the dorsal hand. Detection (DT) and pain thresholds (PT) after electrical stimulation, the corresponding pain ratings, latencies of P0, N1, P1 and N2 components and the corresponding amplitudes were assessed...
March 22, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342771/the-area-postrema-ap-and-the-parabrachial-nucleus-pbn-are-important-sites-for-salmon-calcitonin-sct-to-decrease-evoked-phasic-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-nac
#2
Lynda Whiting, James E McCutcheon, Christina N Neuner-Boyle, Mitchell F Roitman, Thomas A Lutz
The pancreatic hormone amylin and its agonist salmon calcitonin (sCT) act via the area postrema (AP) and the lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBN) to reduce food intake. Investigations of amylin and sCT signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) suggest that the eating inhibitory effect of amylin is, in part, mediated through the mesolimbic 'reward' pathway. Indeed, administration of the sCT directly to the VTA decreased phasic dopamine release (DA) in the NAc. However, it is not known if peripheral amylin modulates the mesolimbic system directly or whether this occurs via the AP and PBN...
March 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341345/the-signaling-signature-of-the-neurotensin-type-1-receptor-with-endogenous-ligands
#3
Élie Besserer-Offroy, Rebecca L Brouillette, Sandrine Lavenus, Ulrike Froehlich, Andrea Brumwell, Alexandre Murza, Jean-Michel Longpré, Éric Marsault, Michel Grandbois, Philippe Sarret, Richard Leduc
The human neurotensin 1 receptor (hNTS1) is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in many physiological functions, including analgesia, hypothermia, and hypotension. To gain a better understanding of which signaling pathways or combination of pathways are linked to NTS1 activation and function, we investigated the ability of activated hNTS1, which was stably expressed by CHO-K1 cells, to directly engage G proteins, activate second messenger cascades and recruit β-arrestins. Using BRET-based biosensors, we found that neurotensin (NT), NT(8-13) and neuromedin N (NN) activated the Gαq-, Gαi1-, GαoA-, and Gα13-protein signaling pathways as well as the recruitment of β-arrestins 1 and 2...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339828/single-session-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-assisted-walking-produces-corticomotor-symmetry-changes-related-to-changes-in-poststroke-walking-mechanics
#4
Jacqueline A Palmer, HaoYuan Hsiao, Tamara Wright, Stuart A Binder-Macleod
Background: Recent research demonstrated that symmetry of corticomotor drive to paretic and nonparetic plantarflexor muscles are related to the biomechanical ankle moment strategy that individuals with chronic stroke used to achieve their greatest walking speeds. Rehabilitation strategies that promote corticomotor balance could potentially improve post-stroke walking mechanics and enhance functional ambulation. Objective: To 1) test the effectiveness of a single session of gait training using functional electrical stimulation (FES) to improve plantarflexor corticomotor symmetry and plantarflexion ankle moment symmetry and 2) determine if changes in corticomotor symmetry relate to changes in ankle moment symmetry within the session...
February 23, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339694/regional-acidosis-locally-inhibits-but-remotely-stimulates-ca2-waves-in-ventricular-myocytes
#5
Kerrie L Ford, Emma L Moorhouse, Mario Bortolozzi, Mark Richards, Pawel Swietach, Richard D Vaughan-Jones
AIMS: Spontaneous Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes are potentially arrhythmogenic. A powerful controller of Ca2+ waves is the cytoplasmic H+ concentration ([H+]i), which fluctuates spatially and temporally in conditions such as myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion. H+-control of Ca2+ waves is poorly understood. We have therefore investigated how [H+]i co-ordinates their initiation and frequency. METHODS AND RESULTS: Spontaneous Ca2+ waves were imaged (fluo-3) in rat isolated ventricular myocytes, subjected to modest Ca2+-overload...
February 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339404/the-influence-of-task-related-training-combined-with-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation-on-paretic-upper-limb-muscle-activation-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke
#6
Kyoungsim Jung, Jinhwa Jung, Taesung In, Taehoon Kim, Hwi-Young Cho
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the efficacy of Task-Related Training (TRT) Combined with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on the improvement of upper limb muscle activation in chronic stroke survivors with mild or moderate paresis. METHODS: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 46stroke survivors with chronic paresis. They were randomly allocated two groups: the TRT+TENS group (n = 23) and the TRT+ placebo TENS (TRT+PLBO) group (n = 23)...
March 23, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339048/agr2-ameliorates-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-via-suppression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-mediated-mlck-p-mlc-pathway-activation
#7
Xiaolin Ye, Mei Sun
Intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Anterior gradient protein 2 homologue (AGR2) assists in maintaining intestinal homeostasis in dextran sulphate sodium-induced mouse ileocolitis; however, it is unclear whether it modulates intestinal barrier function. Our study aimed to investigate the protective role of AGR2 in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced intestinal epithelial barrier injury. Caco-2 cell monolayers were pre-transfected with an AGR2 plasmid and then exposed to TNF-α...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338788/hypertension-and-atrial-fibrillation-an-intimate-association-of-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-outcomes
#8
Mikhail S Dzeshka, Farhan Shahid, Alena Shantsila, Gregory Y H Lip
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent sustained arrhythmia found in clinical practice. AF rarely exists as a single entity but rather as part of a diverse clinical spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, related to structural and electrical remodeling within the left atrium, leading to AF onset, perpetuation, and progression. Due to the high overall prevalence within the AF population arterial hypertension plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of AF and its complications. Fibroblast proliferation, apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, gap junction remodeling, accumulation of collagen both in atrial and ventricular myocardium all accompany ageing-related structural remodeling with impact on electrical activity...
February 18, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338389/somatosensory-electrical-stimulation-does-not-augment-motor-skill-acquisition-and-intermanual-transfer-in-healthy-young-adults-a-pilot-study
#9
János Négyesi, Menno P Veldman, Kelly M M Berghuis, Marie Javet, József Tihanyi, Tibor Hortobágyi
Sensory input can modify motor function and magnify interlimb transfer. We examined the effects of low-intensity somatosensory electrical stimulation (SES) on motor practice-induced (MP) skill acquisition and intermanual transfer. Participants practiced a visuomotor skill for 25 minutes and received SES to the practice or the transfer arm. Responses to single- and double pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were measured in both extensor carpi radialis. SES did not further increase skill acquisition (RMP: 30...
March 24, 2017: Motor Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338357/neuromuscular-fatigue-after-repeated-jumping-with-concomitant-electrical-stimulation
#10
Daria Neyroud, Jimmy Samararatne, Bengt Kayser, Nicolas Place
PURPOSE: We evaluated the etiology and extent of neuromuscular fatigue induced by fifty squat jumps performed with and without neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of the knee extensors. METHODS: Nine healthy recreationally active males (24 ± 2 years old) took part in two experiments. These consisted of fifty squat jumps performed with stimulation (NMES) or without (CON). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force, maximal voluntary activation level (VAL) and forces evoked by single and double (10 and 100 Hz) stimulations were recorded before and after the fifty jumps...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338297/atrial-flutter-regression-in-hiv-associated-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-after-treatment-with-bosentan
#11
Mario Francesco Damiani, Cristina Scoditti, Elioda Bega, Silvano Dragonieri, Pierluigi Carratù, Alfredo Scoditti, Onofrio Resta
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare condition characterized by an increase in pulmonary arterial resistance leading to right heart failure and death. Arrhythmias are a growing problem in PAH; therefore, maintenance of sinus rhythm is considered to be an important treatment aim in these patients. We described the case of a 46-year-old woman with HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension  who developed atrial flutter. After treatment with bosentan, it was observed a significant improvement in clinical and haemodynamic parameters...
November 29, 2016: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337937/evaluation-of-methanogenic-microbial-electrolysis-cells-mecs-under-closed-open-circuit-operations
#12
Liwen Luo, Suyun Xu, Yueqing Jin, Runqi Han, Hongbo Liu, Fan Lü
This study investigated the independent roles of biofilm and external power supply for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) degradation and methane production in the microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Reactors were operated in fed-batch mode in the presence of graphite felt(GF) or titanium-rod (Ti) as electrodes, in open circuit (OC, without applied voltage) or closed circuit (CC) conditions, i.e. R1 (Ti+CC), R2 (GF+CC) and R3 (GF+OC). The first-order kinetic analysis of acetate degradation indicated that the presence of GF biofilm and applied voltage in R2 improved the acetate degradation rate by 23% as compared to R1, while it was only 7% increment in R3 with GF biofilm...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337914/electrically-actuated-valves-for-woven-fabric-lateral-flow-devices
#13
Tanya Narahari, Dhananjaya Dendukuri, Shashi K Murthy
The integration of flow control elements into low-cost biosensors, presents a significant engineering challenge. This article describes the development and integration of active, chemical valves into lateral flow devices, using a scalable, single-step, weaving-based manufacturing approach. The valve was constructed from an electrically conductive polymer, polypyrrole. The polymer switches between wetting and non-wetting states when it is reduced and oxidized via the application of an electrochemical potential...
March 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337437/bioengineering-approaches-to-mature-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#14
REVIEW
Xuetao Sun, Sara S Nunes
Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CM) represent a potential unlimited cell supply for cardiac tissue engineering and possibly regenerative medicine applications. However, hPSC-CMs produced by current protocols are not representative of native adult human cardiomyocytes as they display immature gene expression profile, structure and function. In order to improve hPSC-CM maturity and function, various approaches have been developed, including genetic manipulations to induce gene expression, delivery of biochemical factors, such as triiodothyronine and alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, induction of cell alignment in 3D tissues, mechanical stress as a mimic of cardiac load and electrical stimulation/pacing or a combination of these...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337282/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-affects-endogenous-serotonergic-inputs-and-expression-of-synaptic-proteins-in-rat-hypoglossal-nucleus
#15
Xu Wu, Huan Lu, Lijuan Hu, Wankun Gong, Juan Wang, Cuiping Fu, Zilong Liu, Shanqun Li
Evidence has shown that hypoxic episodes elicit hypoglossal neuroplasticity which depends on elevated serotonin (5-HT), in contrast to the rationale of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that deficient serotonergic input to HMs fails to keep airway patency. Therefore, understanding of the 5-HT dynamic changes at hypoglossal nucleus (HN) during chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) will be essential to central pathogenic mechanism and pharmacological therapy of OSA. Moreover, the effect of CIH on BDNF-TrkB signaling proteins was quantified in an attempt to elucidate cellular cascades/synaptic mechanisms following 5-HT alteration...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336550/the-effect-of-intravenous-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-administration-on-esophageal-sensitivity-and-motility-in-health
#16
Charlotte Broers, Chloé Melchior, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Tim Vanuytsel, Brecht Van Houtte, Charlotte Scheerens, Nathalie Rommel, Jan F Tack, Ans Pauwels
BACKGROUND: Esophageal hypersensitivity is important in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients refractory to acid-suppressive therapy. Stress affects visceral sensitivity and exacerbates heartburn in GERD. Peripheral CRH is a key mediator of the gut stress response. We hypothesize that CRH increases esophageal sensitivity and alters esophageal motility in health. METHODS: Esophageal sensitivity to thermal, mechanical, electrical and chemical stimuli was assessed in 14 healthy subjects after placebo or CRH (100μg IV)...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335700/cochlear-implants-in-the-management-of-hearing-loss-in-neurofibromatosis-type-2
#17
Frances Harris, James R Tysome, Neil Donnelly, Juliette Durie-Gair, Gemma Crundwell, Yu Chuen Tam, Richard D Knight, Zebunnisa H Vanat, Nicola Folland, Patrick Axon
OBJECTIVE: Review of cochlear implant (CI) outcomes in patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2), implanted in the presence of an ipsilateral vestibular schwannoma (VS). Hearing restoration was combined in some cases with a Bevacizumab regime. METHOD: Retrospective review of 12 patients, managed over the period 2009-2016, at a tertiary referral multidisciplinary NF2 clinic. The patients are grouped by hearing outcomes to explore likely protective factors, and to generate a proposed decision-making tool for the selection of either CI or Auditory Brainstem Implant (ABI)...
March 24, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334963/three-and-four-dimensional-mapping-of-speech-and-language-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#18
Yasuo Nakai, Jeong-Won Jeong, Erik C Brown, Robert Rothermel, Katsuaki Kojima, Toshimune Kambara, Aashit Shah, Sandeep Mittal, Sandeep Sood, Eishi Asano
We have provided 3-D and 4D mapping of speech and language function based upon the results of direct cortical stimulation and event-related modulation of electrocorticography signals. Patients estimated to have right-hemispheric language dominance were excluded. Thus, 100 patients who underwent two-stage epilepsy surgery with chronic electrocorticography recording were studied. An older group consisted of 84 patients at least 10 years of age (7367 artefact-free non-epileptic electrodes), whereas a younger group included 16 children younger than age 10 (1438 electrodes)...
March 16, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334325/endocannabinoid-dependent-long-term-potentiation-of-synaptic-transmission-at-rat-barrel-cortex
#19
Laura Eva Maglio, José Antonio Noriega-Prieto, Maria Jesús Maraver, David Fernández de Sevilla
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333372/characterisation-and-functional-mapping-of-surface-potentials-in-the-rat-dorsal-column-nuclei
#20
Alastair J Loutit, Ted Maddess, Stephen J Redmond, John W Morley, Greg J Stuart, Jason R Potas
The brainstem dorsal column nuclei (DCN) play a role in early processing of somatosensory information arising from a variety of functionally distinct peripheral structures, before being transmitted to the cortex via the thalamus. To improve our understanding of how sensory information is represented by the DCN, we characterised and mapped low- (<200 Hz) and high-frequency (550-3300 Hz) components of nerve-evoked DCN surface potentials. DCN surface potentials were evoked by electrical stimulation of the left and right nerves innervating cutaneous (sural nerve), or a mix of cutaneous and deep structures (peroneal nerve), in 8 week-old urethane anaesthetised male Wistar rats...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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