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Electrical stimulation

Philip J Sanders, Benjamin Thompson, Paul M Corballis, Michael Maslin, Grant D Searchfield
Long-term potentiation is a form of synaptic plasticity thought to play an important role in learning and memory. Recently non-invasive methods have been developed to induce and measure activity similar to long-term potentiation in humans. Sensory tetani (trains of quickly repeating auditory or visual stimuli) alter the electroencephalogram in a manner similar to electrical stimulation that results in long-term potentiation. This review briefly covers the development of long-term potentiation research before focusing on in vivo human studies that produce long-term potentiation-like effects using auditory and visual stimulation...
July 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jian-Kui Wang, Juan Liu
This retrospective study investigated the effectiveness and safety of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) as an adjunctive therapy to drotaverine hydrochloride (DHC) in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (BP-IBS).A total of 108 patient cases with BP-IBS were included in this study. Of these, 54 cases were assigned to a treatment group and received NMES and DHC, whereas the other 54 subjects were assigned to a control group and underwent DHC alone. All patients were treated for a total of 4 weeks...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hanneke I Berends, Henricus L Journée
PURPOSE: In transcranial electrical stimulation, induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are influenced by the montage of stimulation electrodes. Differences are to be examined between coronal and sagittal stimulation. METHODS: Forty-five patients with idiopathic scoliosis were included. Coronal and sagittal montages were obtained by electrode placement at C3C4 and Cz'F using large contact electrodes. Corkscrew and short needle electrodes were additionally placed at C3C4 in five patients...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Michael S Bednar, Julie C Woodside
Individuals with tetraplegia face many obstacles with activities of daily living. Although approximately 65% to 75% of individuals with tetraplegia would benefit from upper extremity surgery that could make many of their activities of daily living more spontaneous, only 14% of patients who are surgical candidates undergo tendon transfer procedures. A good surgical candidate has an injury at one of the cervical spine levels and an International Classification for Surgery of the Hand in Tetraplegia group of 1 or better, has functional goals, and is committed to the postoperative rehabilitation process...
July 17, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Euan James McCaughey, Claire Boswell-Ruys, Anna L Hudson, Simon C Gandevia, Jane E Butler
Abdominal Functional Electrical Stimulation (Abdominal FES) improve respiratory function. Despite this, clinical use remains low, possibly due to lack of agreement on the optimal electrode position. This study aimed to ascertain the optimal electrode position for Abdominal FES, assessed by expiratory twitch pressure. Ten able-bodied participants received Abdominal FES using electrodes placed: 1) on the posterolateral abdominal wall; and at the motor points of 2) the external oblique muscles plus rectus abdominis muscles 3) the external obliques alone...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Aleksandra Leligdowicz, Lauren F Chun, Alejandra Jauregui, Kathryn Vessel, Kathleen D Liu, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
Systemic immune activation is the hallmark of sepsis, which can result in endothelial injury and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The aim of this study was to investigate heterogeneity in sepsis-mediated endothelial permeability using primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) and the Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) platform. After plasma removal, cellular component of whole blood from 35 ICU patients with early sepsis was diluted with media and stimulated with either LPS or control media...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Danielle M Salvadeo, Ekta Tiwari, Nagat Frara, Michael Mazzei, Justin M Brown, Alan S Braverman, Mary F Barbe, Michael R Ruggieri
AIMS: To assess bladder smooth muscle function and innervation after long-term lower spinal root transection in canines. METHODS: Thirteen female mixed-breed hound dogs underwent bladder decentralization, which included transection of all sacral dorsal and ventral roots caudal to L7 and hypogastric nerves, bilaterally (n = 3); all sacral roots and hypogastric nerves plus transection of L7 dorsal roots, bilaterally (n = 4); or a sham operation (n = 6)...
July 19, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Dominic O'Connor, Brian Caulfield, Olive Lennon
PURPOSE: This study aims to (1) summarise and critically evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on indices of health and quality of life (QoL) in adult cancer survivors, (2) assess the safety of NMES as a rehabilitation method in this population, and (3) identify commonly used NMES treatment parameters and describe treatment progression. METHODS: A systematic search of four electronic databases targeted studies evaluating the effects of NMES on physical function, aerobic fitness, muscle strength, body composition, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in adult cancer survivors, published through March 2018...
July 18, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
M Hölzl, A Lappat, R Hülse, E Biesinger, C Arens, L Voß
BACKGROUND: Consensus has been established that the subjective vertical (SV) is a result of multimodal sensory integration. In order to be able to calculate the vestibulocervical sensory competence for the SV, the isolated subjective trunk vertical axis (STV) was measured under conditions of vertical head fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Young, healthy volunteers (n = 49) were compared to older, healthy volunteers (n = 50) on a three-dimensionally deflectable (tilt, torsion, pitch) trunk excursion chair in which the volunteer's head remains in an upright position...
July 18, 2018: HNO
Artemio Soto-Breceda, Tatiana Kameneva, Hamish Meffin, Matias Maturana, Michael Ibbotson
OBJECTIVE: Retinal prostheses aim to provide visual percepts to blind people affected by diseases caused by photoreceptor degeneration. One of the main challenges presented by current devices is neural adaptation in the retina, which is believed to be the cause of fading - an effect where artificially produced percepts disappear over a short period of time, despite continuous stimulation of the retina. We aim to understand the neural adaptation generated in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) during electrical stimulation...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Aya Khalaf, Ervin Sejdic, Murat Akcakaya
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we introduce a novel hybrid BCI system that measures electrical brain activity as well as cerebral blood velocity using Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) respectively in response to flickering mental rotation (MR) and flickering word generation (WG) cognitive tasks as well as a fixation cross that represents the baseline. This work extends our previous approach, in which we showed that motor imagery induces simultaneous changes in EEG and fTCD to enable task discrimination; and hence, provides a design approach for a hybrid BCI...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Bryan James Black, Aswini Kanneganti, Alexandra Joshi-Imre, Rashed Rihani, Bitan Chakraborty, Justin Abbott, Joseph J Pancrazio, Stuart F Cogan
Multisite implantable electrode arrays serve as a tool to understand cortical network connectivity and plasticity. Furthermore, they enable electrical stimulation to drive plasticity, study motor/sensory mapping, or provide network input for controlling brain-computer interfaces. Neurobehavioral rodent models are prevalent in studies of motor cortex injury and recovery as well as restoration of auditory/visual cues due to their relatively low cost and ease of training. Therefore, it is important to understand the chronic performance of relevant electrode arrays in rodent models...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Benjamin J Sieniewicz, Justin Gould, Bradley Porter, Baldeep S Sidhu, Jonathan M Behar, Simon Claridge, Steve Niederer, Christopher A Rinaldi
Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) has emerged as one of the few effective treatments for heart failure. However, up to 50% of patients derive no benefit. Suboptimal LV lead position is a potential cause of poor outcomes whilst targeted lead deployment has been associated with enhanced response rates. Image-fusion guidance systems represent a novel approach to CRT delivery, allowing physicians to both accurately track and target a specific location during LV lead deployment. Areas Covered: This review will provide a comprehensive evaluation of how to define the optimal pacing site...
July 18, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
Zifei Zhou, Xifeng Liu, Wei Wu, Sungjo Park, A Lee Miller Ii, Andre Terzic, Lichun Lu
Biomimetic biomaterials require good biocompatibility and bioactivity to serve as appropriate scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Recent developments demonstrated that the unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can enhance neural cell growth and axon organization. We previously developed a promising nerve conduit manufactured from biodegradable polycaprolactone fumarate (PCLF) for use in peripheral nerve regeneration applications. In the present study, we fabricated conductive PCLF-CNT scaffolds using ultraviolet (UV) induced photocrosslinking...
July 18, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Laure Jacquemin, Giriraj Singh Shekhawat, Paul Van de Heyning, Griet Mertens, Erik Fransen, Vincent Van Rompaey, Vedat Topsakal, Julie Moyaert, Jolien Beyers, Annick Gilles
BACKGROUND: Contradictory results have been reported for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as treatment for tinnitus. The recently developed high-definition tDCS (HD tDCS) uses smaller electrodes to limit the excitation to the desired brain areas. OBJECTIVE: The current study consisted of a retrospective part and a prospective part, aiming to compare 2 tDCS electrode placements and to explore effects of HD tDCS by matched pairs analyses. METHODS: Two groups of 39 patients received tDCS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or tDCS of the right supraorbital-left temporal area (RSO-LTA)...
July 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Wei Xu, Stuart N Baker
Primates (including humans) have a highly developed corticospinal tract, and specialised motor cortical areas which differ in key ways from rodents. Much work on motor cortex has therefore used macaque monkeys as a good animal model for human motor control. However, there is a paucity of data describing the fundamental functional architecture of primate primary motor cortex, which is best addressed with in vitro approaches. In this study we examined the cellular properties and the micro-circuitry of the adult macaque primary motor cortex by carrying out in-vitro intracellular recordings...
July 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Rajiv Borah, Ganesh C Ingavle, Susan R Sandeman, Ashok Kumar, Sergey Mikhalovsky
The purpose of this study was to prepare an electrically conducting poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) based nanofibrous scaffold and to investigate the synergetic effect of nanofibre structure and electrical stimulation on neuronal growth for possible use in nerve repair. Nanofibres were produced by electrospinning of blended MEH-PPV with polycaprolactone (PCL) at a ratio of 20 : 80, 40 : 60, 50 : 50 and 60 : 40 (v/v). A better electrical conductivity was achieved by using core-sheath structured nanofibres of PCL (core) and MEH-PPV (sheath) produced using the coaxial electrospinning technique...
July 18, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Patrick Ciechanski, Helen L Carlson, Sabrina S Yu, Adam Kirton
Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of non-invasive brain stimulation that induces electric fields in neuronal tissue, modulating cortical excitability. Therapeutic applications of tDCS are rapidly expanding, and are being investigated in pediatrics for various clinical conditions. Anatomical variations are among a host of factors that influence the effects of tDCS, and pronounced anatomical differences between children and adults suggest that induced electric fields may be substantially different across development...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Martine R van Schouwenburg, Lynn K A Sörensen, Raza de Klerk, Leon C Reteig, Heleen A Slagter
In a previous study using transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), we found preliminary evidence that phase coherence in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) within the fronto-parietal network may critically support top-down control of spatial attention (van Schouwenburg et al., 2017). Specifically, synchronous alpha-band stimulation over the right frontal and parietal cortex (0° relative phase) was associated with changes in performance and fronto-parietal coherence during a spatial attention task as compared to sham stimulation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jae-Ik Lee, Maesoon Im
For individuals blinded by outer retinal degenerative diseases, retinal prostheses would be a promising option to restore sight. Unfortunately however, the best performance of existing devices is still far removed from normal vision. One possible reason for the shortcoming is thought to be suboptimal stimulation conditions such as waveform shape of electric stimulus. In this study, we explored the effects of varying waveforms on network-mediated responses arising in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs).
July 18, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
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