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Tooba Siddiqui, Mohammad Khalid Zia, Syed Saqib Ali, Haseeb Ahsan, Fahim Halim Khan
Hypochlorous acid, an active bleaching agent is one of the major oxidants produced by neutrophils under physiological conditions. It is a potent reactive oxygen species (ROS) which causes oxidation of biomolecules. Treatment of proteins with hypochlorite results in direct oxidative damage to proteins. Alpha-2-macroglobulin is a major proteinase inhibitor and it can inhibit proteinase of any kind regardless of specificity and catalytic mechanism. The proteinase-antiproteinase balance plays an important role in mediating inflammation associated tissue destruction...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kiri Thornalley, Erik Laurini, Sabrina Pricl, David K Smith
A family of four self-assembling lipopeptides containing Ala-Lys peptides attached to a C16 aliphatic chain was synthesised. These compounds form two enantiomeric pairs that bear a diastereomeric relationship to one another (C16-L-Ala-L-Lys/C16-D-Ala-D-Lys) and (C16-D-Ala-L-Lys/C16-L-Ala-D-Lys). These diastereomeric pairs have very different critical micelle concentrations (CMCs), with LL/DD < DL/LD suggesting more effective assembly of the former. The self-assembled multivalent (SAMul) systems bind biological polyanions as result of the cationic lysine groups on their surfaces...
May 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Maciej J Zamek-Gliszczynski, Xiaoyan Chu, Jack A Cook, Joseph M Custodio, Aleksandra Galetin, Kathleen M Giacomini, Caroline A Lee, Mary F Paine, Adrian S Ray, Joseph A Ware, Matthias B Wittwer, Lei Zhang
Metformin drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies are conducted during development of drugs that inhibit organic cation transporters and/or multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (OCTs/MATEs). Monitoring solely changes in systemic exposure, the typical DDI study endpoint appears inadequate for metformin, which is metabolically stable, has poor passive membrane permeability, and undergoes transporter-mediated tissue distribution and clearance. Evaluation of renal clearance, antihyperglycemic effects, and potentially lactate as an exploratory safety marker, can support rational metformin dose adjustment...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Stuti Sharma, Rebecca A Oot, Stephan Wilkens
Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases; V1Vo-ATPases) are rotary motor proton pumps that acidify intracellular compartments and in some tissues, the extracellular space. V-ATPase is regulated by reversible disassembly into autoinhibited V1-ATPase and Vo proton channel sectors. An important player in V-ATPase regulation is subunit H, which binds at the interface of V1 and Vo. H is required for MgATPase activity in holo V-ATPase, but also for stabilizing the MgADP inhibited state in membrane detached V1. However, how H fulfills these two functions is poorly understood...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Christy R Gaines, Emre Tkacik, Amalia Rivera-Oven, Phoebe Somani, Alecia Achimovich, Tawakalitou Alabi, Angela Zhu, Noel Getachew, Ae Lim Yang, Matthew McDonough, Tarik Hawkins, Zoe Spadaro, Michael F Summers
The N-terminally myristoylated matrix domain (MA) of the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein promotes virus assembly by targeting Gag to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane (PM). Recent studies indicate that, prior to membrane binding, MA associates with cytoplasmic tRNAs (including tRNALys3 ), and in vitro studies of tRNA-dependent MA interactions with model membranes have led to proposals that competitive tRNA interactions contribute to membrane discrimination. We have characterized interactions between native, mutant, and unmyristylated (myr-) MA proteins and recombinant tRNALys3 by NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Tijs J M van den Bosch, Kemin Tan, Andrzej Joachimiak, Cornelia U Welte
Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are produced by cruciferous plants to protect them against herbivores and infection by microbes. These compounds are of particular interest due to their antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties. The breakdown of ITCs in nature is catalyzed by isothiocyanate hydrolase (ITCase), a novel family within the metallo-β-lactamase-fold superfamily of proteins. saxA genes that code for ITCases are particularly widespread in insect- and plant-associated bacteria. Enzymatic characterization of seven phylogenetically related but distinct ITCases exhibited similar activities on six selected ITCs, suggesting that phylogenetic diversity does not determine the substrate specificity of ITCases...
May 11, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Saptarshi Mukherjee, Nirmal Kumar Das, Subhajit Chakraborty, Madhumita Mukherjee
In the present study, interactions of synthesized Copper Nanoclusters (CuNCs) with a model transport protein, Human Serum Albumin (HSA) have been systematically investigated by using various spectroscopic approaches. This interaction gives rise to the formation of a "protein-corona" like assemblies. The luminescence properties (both steady-state and time-resolved) have been enhanced due to gradual adsorption of the protein on the surface of the NCs. The associated thermodynamics and binding parameters have been estimated resorting to luminescent experimental techniques as well as ITC studies, which suggests that a monolayer coverage of CuNCs by HSA molecules and every NC is surrounded by (4±1) protein molecules...
May 11, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Hang Yin, Roselyne Rosas, Didier Gigmes, Olivier Ouari, Ruibing Wang, Anthony Kermagoret, David Bardelang
Among a series of metal ions in water, silver is the only one to remotely and reversibly switch cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) movements (translocation or uptake) on a rigid and linear three-station viologen-phenylene-imidazole ( V-P-I) derivative, avoiding undesired pH actuation. 1 H NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ITC, and modeling were combined to show that ring translocation or uptake along a molecular thread is possible in water by Ag+ as a metal stimulus.
May 11, 2018: Organic Letters
Yuko Shimamura, Mio Utsumi, Chikako Hirai, Shogo Nakano, Sohei Ito, Ai Tsuji, Takeshi Ishii, Takahiro Hosoya, Toshiyuki Kan, Norio Ohashi, Shuichi Masuda
Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is a toxin protein, and is the most common cause of staphylococcal food poisoning. Polyphenols, such as catechins, are known to interact with proteins. In this study, we investigated the binding of catechins to SEA using SPR (Biacore), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and protein-ligand docking. We found that (&minus;)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) could strongly bind to SEA. According to thermodynamic parameters, a negative &Delta; G indicated that the interaction between EGCG and SEA was spontaneous, and the electrostatic force accompanied by hydrophobic binding forces may play a major role in the binding...
May 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Md Samrat Alam, Drew Gorman-Lewis, Ning Chen, Shannon L Flynn, Yong Ok, Kurt Konhauser, Daniel S Alessi
While numerous studies have investigated metal uptake from solution by biochar, few of these have developed a mechanistic understanding of the adsorption reactions that occur at the biochar surface. In this study, we explore a combined modeling and spectroscopic approaches for the first time to describe the molecular level adsorption of Ni(II) and Zn(II) to biochar using five types of biochar. Following thorough characterization, potentiometric titrations were carried out to measure the proton (H+) reactivity of each biochar, and the data was used to develop protonation models...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mohammed Sani Jaafaru, Nurul Ashikin Abd Karim, Mohamad Eliaser Enas, Patrick Rollin, Emanuela Mazzon, Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis
Crucifer vegetables, Brassicaceae and other species of the order Brassicales, e.g., Moringaceae that are commonly consumed as spice and food, have been reported to have potential benefits for the treatment and prevention of several health disorders. Though epidemiologically inconclusive, investigations have shown that consumption of those vegetables may result in reducing and preventing the risks associated with neurodegenerative disease development and may also exert other biological protections in humans...
May 8, 2018: Nutrients
Carla Kühn, Tobias von Oesen, Franziska S Hanschen, Sascha Rohn
Isothiocyanates (ITC) play an important role in health promotion and cancer prevention due to their anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerogenic properties. However, ITC are highly reactive so that a reaction with further food components is very likely. For example, a reaction of ITC with nucleophilic amino acid side chains of proteins such as cysteine and lysine can occur, reducing the bioavailability of indispensable amino acids and protein functions may be altered. Therefore, it is of great interest to investigate the fate of ITC in the food matrix...
June 2018: Food Research International
Ville Hynninen, Sami Hietala, Jason Robert McKee, Lasse Murtomäki, Orlando J Rojas, Olli Ikkala, Nonappa Nonappa
We show that composite hydrogels comprising methyl cellulose (MC) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) colloidal rods display a reversible and enhanced rheological storage modulus and optical birefringence upon heating, i.e., inverse thermoreversibility. Dynamic rheology, quantitative polarized optical microscopy (POM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) were used for characterization. The concentration of CNC in aqueous media was varied up to 3...
May 7, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Basri Gulbakan, Konstantin Barylyuk, Petra Schneider, Max Pillong, Gisbert Schneider, Renato Zenobi
Aptamers are oligonucleotide receptors obtained through an iterative selection process from random-sequence libraries. While many aptamers for a broad range of targets with high affinity and selectivity have been generated, a lack of high-resolution structural data and the limitations of currently available biophysical tools greatly impede understanding of the mechanisms of aptamer-ligand interactions. Here we demonstrate that an approach based on native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) can be successfully applied to characterize aptamer-ligand complexes in all details...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mouna Knani, Pierre-Sébastien Fournier, Caroline Biron
BACKGROUND: Despite a rich literature on association between psychosocial factors, the demand-control-support (DCS) model and burnout, there are few integrated frameworks encompassing the DCS model, burnout and intention to quit, particularly in a technological context. OBJECTIVE: This manuscript examines the relationships between psychosocial risks, the demand-control-support (DCS) model, burnout syndrome and intention to quit following the introduction of new software at work...
May 1, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
ZiLing Sun, YunHua Zheng, Wei Liu
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a group of essential cation channels involved in many important sensory signal transduction processes, such as light, temperature, tastes and pressure sensing. Drosophila TRP channel is the first discovered family member and plays important roles in photo-transduction in Drosophila. Calmodulin (CaM), an important downstream effector of Ca2+ signal, was considered as a vital regulator of TRP activities. In this study, we discovered a novel Ca2+ dependent CaM binding site (TRP 783-862) in between the previously reported two calmodulin binding sites (CBSs)...
May 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Piyanat Meekrathok, Keith A Stubbs, Wipa Suginta
Exo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcases) are hydrolytic enzymes involved in the metabolism of chitin in bacteria and in eukaryotic glycosphingolipid metabolism, with genetic defects in human GlcNAcases (HexA and HexB) resulting in Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases, respectively. Here, we determined the effects of three known inhibitors of exo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidases (PUGNAc, NHAcCAS and NHAcDNJ) on a GH20 exo-β-N-GlcNAcase (VhGlcNAcase) from the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio harveyi, in dose-response experiments...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jing Wang, Fang-Chen Peng
To investigate the efficacy and safety of Fuzheng Huayu Jiaonang (FZ) and Anluo Huaxian Wan (AL) in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B liver fibrosis. Jadad scoring method was adopted to evaluate the quality of literature, Rev Man 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis, and indirect comparison was carried out by ITC software. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were collected for comparing FZ and AL in treatment of chronic hepatitis B with liver fibrosis. With ETV as the common control, they were compared through indirect Meta-analysis (ITC)...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Mohammed Sani Jaafaru, Norshariza Nordin, Khozirah Shaari, Rozita Rosli, Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis
Reactive oxygen species are well known for induction of oxidative stress conditions through oxidation of vital biomarkers leading to cellular death via apoptosis and other process, thereby causing devastative effects on the host organs. This effect is believed to be linked with pathological alterations seen in several neurodegenerative disease conditions. Many phytochemical compounds proved to have robust antioxidant activities that deterred cells against cytotoxic stress environment, thus protect apoptotic cell death...
2018: PloS One
Sharadha Dayalan Naidu, Takafumi Suzuki, Masayuki Yamamoto, Jed W Fahey, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova
Cruciferous vegetables are rich sources of glucosinolates which are the biogenic precursor molecules of isothiocyanates (ITCs). The relationship between the consumption of cruciferous vegetables and chemoprotection has been widely documented in epidemiological studies. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) occurs as its glucosinolate precursor gluconasturtiin in the cruciferous vegetable watercress (Nasturtium officinale). PEITC has multiple biological effects, including activation of cytoprotective pathways, such as those mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (NRF2) and the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and can cause changes in the epigenome...
April 30, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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