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Samuel A Sakyi, Samuel Yaw Aboagye, Isaac Darko Otchere, Albert M Liao, Thomas G Caltagirone, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a subcutaneous skin disease listed among the neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization (WHO). Early case detection and management is very important to reduce morbidity and the accompanied characteristic disfiguring nature of BU. Since diagnosis based on clinical evidence can lead to misdiagnosis, microbiological confirmation is essential to reduce abuse of drugs; since the anti-mycobacterial drugs are also used for TB treatment. The current WHO gold standard PCR method is expensive, requires infrastructure and expertise are usually not available at the peripheral centers where BU cases are managed...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Van-Chien Bui, Thi-Huong Nguyen
Knowledge about the mechanism by which some antibodies can block HIV-1 entry is critical to our understanding of their function and may offer new avenues for controlling the adhesion of HIV-1 to the host cells. While much progress has been made, this mechanism remains unclear. Here, atomic force microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and circular dichroism spectroscopy were used to measure some biophysical characteristics of the interaction of four-domains (D1-D4) membrane protein CD4 with anti-D3 antibody OKT4 and with HIV-1 entry blocking anti-D1 antibody Leu3a...
October 17, 2016: Immunobiology
Anas Shamsi, Azaj Ahmed, Bilqees Bano
Nanotechnology is one of the fastest growing fields of science owing to use of nanomaterials in industries and medicine across the globe. Currently silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) are one of the most popular nanomaterials owing to their inert toxicity profile and hence exposure to SiO2 nanoparticles is on the increase. Cystatins are thiol proteinase inhibitors (TPIs) ubiquitously distributed in plants and animals and they are now at the heed of a number of normal and pathological conditions and shouldn't be regarded solely as TPIs...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ryo Amano, Kenta Takada, Yoichiro Tanaka, Yoshikazu Nakamura, Gota Kawai, Tomoko Kozu, Taiichi Sakamoto
AML1 (RUNX1) protein is an essential transcription factor involved in the development of hematopoietic cells. Several genetic aberrations that disrupt the function of AML1 have been frequently observed in human leukemia. AML1 contains a DNA-binding domain known as the Runt domain (RD), which recognizes the RD-binding double-stranded DNA element of target genes. In this study, we identified high-affinity RNA aptamers that bind to RD by SELEX. The binding assay using surface plasmon resonance indicated that a shortened aptamer retained the ability to bind to RD when 1 M potassium acetate was used...
October 21, 2016: Biochemistry
Mengqi Lv, Chongyuan Wang, Fudong Li, Junhui Peng, Bin Wen, Qingguo Gong, Yunyu Shi, Yajun Tang
Mitophagy is an essential intracellular process that eliminates dysfunctional mitochondria and maintains cellular homeostasis. Mitophagy is regulated by the post-translational modification of mitophagy receptors. Fun14 domain-containing protein 1 (FUNDC1) was reported to be a new receptor for hypoxia-induced mitophagy in mammalian cells and interact with microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 beta (LC3B) through its LC3 interaction region (LIR). Moreover, the phosphorylation modification of FUNDC1 affects its binding affinity for LC3B and regulates selective mitophagy...
October 18, 2016: Protein & Cell
Sanjay Kumar Dey, Pankaj Prabhakar, Manisha Saini, Toyanji Joseph, B K Thelma, Subir K Maulik, Suman Kundu
OBJECTIVE: To identify novel inhibitors of dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) and evaluate their antihypertensive properties in L-NAME induced hypertensive rat model. DESIGN AND METHOD: An experimentally validated computational model for hDBH, built in our lab, was used for structure-based, rational drug-design. The three-dimensional model was used for virtual-screening against small molecule databases from NCI, USA and elsewhere. Identified top hits were then tested in vitro against DBH with known inhibitors nepicastat and disulfiram as controls...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mohammad Rehan Ajmal, Tajalli Ilm Chandel, Parvez Alam, Nida Zaidi, Masihuz Zaman, Saima Nusrat, Mohsin Vahid Khan, Mohammad Khursheed Siddiqi, Yasser E Shahein, Mohamed H Mahmoud, Gamal Badr, Rizwan Hasan Khan
Studying amyloid associated neurodegenerative diseases is an active area of research. Cure for these diseases are still to be discovered. In the present study we have performed comprehensive biophysical and computational experiments showing levodopa not only significantly inhibits heat induced fibrillization of human serum albumin but also disaggregates preformed fibrils. Thioflavin T (ThT) binding assay was used to monitor the fibrillation process of human serum albumin (HSA) at 65°C in the presence and absence of levodopa...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chase A Klingaman, Matthew J Wagner, Justin R Brown, John B Klecker, Ethan H Pauley, Colin J Noldner, Jared R Mays
Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites abundant in Brassica vegetables that are substrates for the enzyme myrosinase, a thioglucoside hydrolase. Enzyme-mediated hydrolysis of glucosinolates forms several organic products, including isothiocyanates (ITCs) that have been explored for their beneficial effects in humans. Myrosinase has been shown to be tolerant of non-natural glucosinolates, such as 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate, and can facilitate their conversion to non-natural ITCs, some of which are leads for drug development...
October 11, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Ying-Wei Qiu, Xiao-Fei Lv, Gui-Hua Jiang, Huan-Huan Su, Xiao-Fen Ma, Jun-Zhang Tian, Fu-Zhen Zhuo
Adolescence is a unique period in neurodevelopment. Dextromethorphan (DXM)-containing cough syrups are new addictive drugs used by adolescents and young adults. The effects of chronic DXM abuse on neurodevelopment in adolescents and young adults are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cortical thickness and subcortical gray matter volumes between DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults and healthy controls, and to explore relationships between alternations in cortical thickness/subcortical volume and DXM duration, initial age of DXM use, as well as impulsive behavior in DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Zhi Dong, Junpeng Hu, Bolun Du, Yunze He
Source number estimation methods for single channel signal have been investigated and the improvements for each method are suggested in this work. Firstly, the single channel data is converted to multi-channel form by delay process. Then, algorithms used in the array signal processing, such as Gerschgorin's disk estimation (GDE) and minimum description length (MDL), are introduced to estimate the source number of the received signal. The previous results have shown that the MDL based on information theoretic criteria (ITC) obtains a superior performance than GDE at low SNR...
2016: PloS One
Kuniharu Utsuno, Hiroyuki Kono, Emika Tanaka, Nozomi Jouna, Yohichiro Kojima, Hasan Uludağ
Polyethylenimine (PEI) is one of the most versatile non-viral vectors used in gene therapy, especially for delivering plasmid DNA to human cells. However, a good understanding of PEI binding to DNA, the fundamental basis for the functioning of PEI as a vector, has been missing in the literature. In this study, PEI (branched, 600 Da) binding to DNA was examined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and a complementary set of analysis tools. We demonstrated that a separation between the binding heat and the condensation heat is needed and that the excluded site model should be used for PEI binding stage in the ITC analysis...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Chandra Nath Roy, Debasmita Ghosh, Somrita Mondal, Somashree Kundu, Susmita Maiti, Abhijit Saha
The mechanism of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is not very clear in view of the magnitude of contribution of electromagnetic factor as well as chemical mechanism. The present report presents the extent of adsorptions at different temperatures in terms of signal enhancements in the process of SERS employing synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of various shapes as substrate and dye molecules, crystal violet or rhodamine 6G as model Raman probe. With rising temperature for chemisorptions, the SERS signal increases to a certain temperature and subsequently decreases gradually...
October 10, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Alaric Desmarchelier, Bruno Giordano Alvarenga, Xavier Caumes, Ludovic Dubreucq, Claire Troufflard, Martine Tessier, Nicolas Vanthuyne, Julien Idé, Thomas Maistriaux, David Beljonne, Patrick Brocorens, Roberto Lazzaroni, Matthieu Raynal, Laurent Bouteiller
As the benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) moiety is commonly used as the central assembling unit for the construction of functionalized supramolecular architectures, strategies to tailor the nature and stability of BTA assemblies are needed. The assembly properties of a library of structurally simple BTAs derived from amino dodecyl esters (ester BTAs, 13 members) have been studied, either in the bulk or in cyclohexane solutions, by means of a series of analytical methods (NMR, DSC, POM, FT-IR, UV-Vis, CD, ITC, high-sensitivity DSC, SANS)...
September 20, 2016: Soft Matter
Thi Phuong Thao Nguyen, Pui Shan Monica Cheung, Liora Werber, Jacinthe Gagnon, Reajean Sivakumar, Cameron Lennox, Aaron Sossin, Yitzhak Mastai, Louis A Cuccia
Both enantiomers of trans-cyclohexane-1,2-diammonium sulfate and trans-1,2-diphenylethylenediammonium sulfate were used as "tailor-made" additives to direct the mirror-symmetry breaking in the attrition-enhanced deracemization (i.e. Viedma ripening) of conglomerate crystals of ethylenediammonium sulfate (EDS). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) shows chiral recognition of (1R,2R)- and (1S,2S)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine to EDS crystals where the enthalpy of adsorption of the (1R,2R)-isomer on l-EDS crystals is higher in comparison to that on d-EDS crystals...
October 18, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Isha Dhawan, Simarpreet V Sandhu, Rajat Bhandari, Neena Sood, Ramanpreet Kaur Bhullar, Neerja Sethi
INTRODUCTION: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) comprises one of the largest subsets of cancers with a tendency for regional metastasis. Nodal status is a key prognostic indicator in patients with OSCC, particularly with N0 neck. Occult metastasis in the form of micrometastasis (MM) and isolated tumor cells (ITCs), often goes undetected by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) examination using 1-2 sections for analysis. This limitation could be overcome by combining serial sectioning (SS) with immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the detection of MM and ITC...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Vaida Linkuvienė, Georg Krainer, Wen-Yih Chen, Daumantas Matulis
Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is one of the most robust label- and immobilization-free techniques used to measure protein - small molecule interactions in drug design for the simultaneous determination of the binding affinity (ΔG) and the enthalpy (ΔH), both of which are important parameters for structure-thermodynamics correlations. It is important to evaluate the precision of the method and of various ITC instrument models by performing a single well-characterized reaction. The binding between carbonic anhydrase II and acetazolamide was measured by four ITC instruments - PEAQ-ITC, iTC200, VP-ITC, and MCS-ITC and the standard deviation of ΔG and ΔH was determined...
December 15, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Helen Y Fan, Dew Das, Heiko Heerklotz
Interactions between detergents and model membranes are well described by the three-stage model: Saturation and solubilization boundaries divide bilayer-only, bilayer-micelle co-existence, and micelle-only ranges. An underlying assumption of the model is the equilibration of detergent between the two membrane leaflets. However, many detergents partition asymmetrically at room temperature due to slow flip-flop, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and lysolipids. In this work, we use isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to investigate the solubilization of unilamellar POPC vesicles by 12:0 lysophosphocholine (12:0 LPC)...
October 7, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Gagandeep Singh, Gurbir Singh, Tejwant Singh Kang
The complexation behaviour of an imidazolium based ionic liquid surfactant (ILS) 3-methyl-1-dodecylimidazolium chloride, [C12mim][Cl], and its amide and ester functionalized counterparts 3-(2-(dodecylamino)-2-oxoethyl)-1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride, [C12Amim][Cl], and 3-methyl-1-dodecyloxycarbonylmethylimidazolium chloride, [C12Emim][Cl], with a model protein gelatin (G) in aqueous solution has been investigated. Complexation of G with ILSs at the air-solution interface has been monitored by tensiometry, whereas complexation and ILS mediated self-assembly of G-ILS complexes in the bulk have been followed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential measurements, conductivity, and fluorescence techniques...
September 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mohan Zhao, Heng Zhang, Guangfeng Liu, Li Wang, Jian Wang, Zengqiang Gao, Yuhui Dong, Linbo Zhang, Yong Gong
RsmI and RsmH are conserved S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferases (MTases) that are responsible for the 2'-O-methylation and N4-methylation of C1402 in bacterial 16S rRNA, respectively. Methylation of m4Cm1402 plays a role in fine-tuning the shape and functions of the P-site to increase the decoding fidelity, and was recently found to contribute to the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus in host animals. Here we report the 2.20-Å crystal structure of homodimeric RsmI from Escherichia coli in complex with the cofactor AdoMet...
2016: PloS One
Stephan Getzmann, Edmund Wascher
Older adults are usually more easily distracted by task-irrelevant stimuli than younger ones. In addition, there is evidence that it takes them more time to overcome a distracting event. Here, the distracting effect of irregular switches in speaker location was studied in 22 younger and 22 older adults in a speech perception task. The participants responded to target words that were presented either from a frequent location (standard trials) or a rare location (deviant trials). Behavioral performance measures, event-related brain potentials (ERPs), and EEG synchronization (intertrial coherence [ITC]) were analyzed...
October 6, 2016: Psychology and Aging
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