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Naohisa Miyakawa, Kei Majima, Hirohito Sawahata, Keisuke Kawasaki, Takeshi Matsuo, Naoki Kotake, Takafumi Suzuki, Yukiyasu Kamitani, Isao Hasegawa
The inferior temporal cortex (ITC) contains neurons selective to multiple levels of visual categories. However, the mechanisms by which these neurons collectively construct hierarchical category percepts remain unclear. By comparing decoding accuracy with simultaneously acquired electrocorticogram (ECoG), local field potentials (LFPs), and multi-unit activity in the macaque ITC, we show that low-frequency LFPs/ECoG in the early evoked visual response phase contain sufficient coarse category (e.g., face) information, which is homogeneous and enhanced by spatial summation of up to several millimeters...
January 10, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
E Meijer, B Van den Putte, W A Gebhardt, C Van Laar, Z Bakk, A Dijkstra, G T Fong, R West, M C Willemsen
OBJECTIVE: Although it has been found that identity constructs related to smoking are associated with changes in smoking behaviour, the direction of causal associations is as yet unclear. This study aims to clarify the nature and direction of these associations. METHODS: In this longitudinal study we examined the reciprocal relations between identity constructs (i.e., smoker self-identity, quitter self-identity and smoker group-identity), intention to quit and smoking and quitting behaviour among a sample of 1036 smokers and ex-smokers, using cross-lagged structural equation modelling...
December 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Cheng-Cheng Zhang, Jin-Song Guo, You-Peng Chen, Fang-Ying Ji, Jing Wang, Peng Yan, Yun Bai
The removal of antibiotics in biological wastewater treatment plants has attracted an ever-increasing interest. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play a crucial role in antibiotics bio-adsorption using activated sludge, but the interaction mechanism between antibiotics and EPS remains unclear. In this study, the thermodynamics of interactions between extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and antibiotics (acetaminophen (ACT) and sulfamethazine (SMZ)) were investigated via isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC)...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Technology
Inês C M Vaz, Margarida Bastos, Carlos E S Bernardes, José N Canongia Lopes, Luís M N B F Santos
In this work, we studied the effect of anion and cation properties on the interaction of alcohols with ionic liquids (ILs), using propan-1-ol as a molecular probe. The enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution of propan-1-ol in several ILs were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The calorimetric results were analysed together with molecular dynamics simulation and quantum chemical calculations of the interaction of the hydroxyl group of propan-1-ol with the anions. The results evidenced the role of the anion's basicity in the intermolecular interactions of alcohols and ionic liquids and further revealed a secondary effect of the cation nature on the solvation process...
January 10, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Matthew J H Carnett, Jon D Plant
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous testing (PT) is preferred to intradermal testing in humans for the in vivo identification of allergen hypersensitivity, but the methodology has not been well described for use in dogs with atopic dermatitis. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To identify the irritant threshold concentrations (ITC) of eight aeroallergens using a commercial prick test device in normal dogs. ANIMALS: Twenty healthy, privately owned dogs. METHODS: Percutaneous testing was performed using the GREER® Pick® System (Stallergenes Greer; Lenoir, NC, USA)...
January 8, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Govind S Bhosle, Shalmali Kharche, Santosh Kumar, Durba Sengupta, Souvik Maiti, Moneesha Fernandes
We report a hundred-fold increase in binding affinity of the Tat(48-57) peptide to HIV-1 TAR RNA by replacing R52, an essential and critical residue for Tat's specific binding, by (2S,4S)-4-guanidinoproline. The resulting αTat1M peptide is a far superior binder than γTat1M, a peptide containing another conformationally constrained arginine mimic, (2S,4S)-4-amino-N-(3-guanidinopropyl)-proline, or even the control Tat (CtrlTat) itself. Our observations are supported by CD, ITC, gel electrophoresis and UV spectroscopy studies...
January 4, 2018: ChemMedChem
Tânia Silva, Bárbara Claro, Bruno Brás Silva, Nuno Vale, Paula Gomes, Maria Salomé Gomes, Sergio S Funari, Jose Teixeira, Daniela Uhrikova, Margarida Bastos
The understanding of the mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides is fundamental for the development of new and more active antibiotics. In present work, we use a wide range of techniques (SANS, SAXD, DSC, ITC, CD, confocal and electron microscopy) in order to fully characterize the interaction of a cecropin A-melittin hybrid antimicrobial peptide, CA(1-7)M(2-9), of known antimicrobial activity, with a bacterial model membrane of POPE/POPG, in an effort to unravel its mechanism of action. We found that CA(1-7)M(2-9) disrupts the vesicles inducing membrane condensation, forming an 'onion-like' structure of multilamellar stacks, held together by the intercalated peptides...
January 5, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zhengping Hu, Manuel A Riquelme, Bin Wang, Vladislav Bugay, Robert Brenner, Sumin Gu, Jean X Jiang
Connexin channels help maintain eye lens homeostasis and transparency. The G143R missense substitution in connexin (Cx) 46 is associated with congenital Coppock cataracts; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we report that compared with wild type (WT) Cx46, the G143R substitution abolishes hemichannel conductance in Xenopus oocytes and in HeLa cells. Moreover, this substitution is dominant-negative and inhibits conductance of WT Cx46. CD analysis indicated that the substitution greatly reduces the α-helical structure of the intracellular Cx46 loop domain...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Joanna Gerszon, Eligiusz Serafin, Adam Buczkowski, Sylwia Michlewska, Jakub Antoni Bielnicki, Aleksandra Rodacka
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is one of the key redox-sensitive proteins whose activity is largely affected by oxidative modifications at its highly reactive cysteine residue in the enzyme's active site (Cys149). Prolonged exposure to oxidative stress may cause, inter alia, the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds leading to accumulation of GAPDH aggregates and ultimately to cell death. Recently these anomalies have been linked with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Novel evidences indicate that low molecular compounds may be effective inhibitors potentially preventing the GAPDH translocation to the nucleus, and inhibiting or slowing down its aggregation and oligomerization...
2018: PloS One
Clara Ràfols, Susana Amézqueta, Elisabet Fuguet, Elisabeth Bosch
Interaction thermodynamics between warfarin, a very popular anticoagulant, and Sudlow I binding site of human (HSA) or bovine (BSA) serum albumin have been examined in strictly controlled experimental conditions (HEPES buffer 50 mM, pH 7.4 and 25 °C) by means of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), fluorescence spectrometry (FS) and frontal analysis capillary electrophoresis (FA/CE). Each technique is based on measurements of a different property of the biochemical system, and then the results allow a critical discussion about the suitability of each approach to estimate the drug-protein binding parameters...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Omar Touhami, Jean Grégoire, Marie-Claude Renaud, Alexandra Sebastianelli, Katherine Grondin, Marie Plante
OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of endometrial cancer (EC) and lymph node involvement in patients with a preoperative diagnosis of "AH-only" versus "AH - cannot rule out carcinoma" and to study the value of SLN mapping. METHODS: We reviewed all patients with a preoperative diagnosis of atypical hyperplasia, who underwent primary surgery with SLN mapping followed by pelvic lymphadenectomy. Sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of SLN and rates of endometrial cancer were calculated...
December 28, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
José L Neira, Felipe Hornos, Concetta Cozza, Ana Cámara-Artigas, Olga Abián, Adrián Velázquez-Campoy
The phosphotransferase system (PTS) controls the preferential use of sugars in bacteria and it is also involved in other processes, such as chemotaxis. It is formed by a protein cascade in which the first two proteins are general (namely, EI and HPr) and the others are sugar-specific permeases. The Rsd protein binds specifically to the RNA polymerase (RNAP) σ70 factor. We first characterized the conformational stability of Escherichia coli Rsd. And second, we delineated the binding regions of Streptomyces coelicolor, HPrsc, and E...
December 26, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Nimesh Shukla, Enrico Pomarico, Cody J S Hecht, Erika A Taylor, Majed Chergui, Christina M Othon
Sucralose is a commonly employed artificial sweetener that appears to destabilize protein native structures. This is in direct contrast to the bio-preservative nature of its natural counterpart, sucrose, which enhances the stability of biomolecules against environmental stress. We have further explored the molecular interactions of sucralose as compared to sucrose to illuminate the origin of the differences in their bio-preservative efficacy. We show that the mode of interactions of sucralose and sucrose in bulk solution differ subtly through the use of hydration dynamics measurement and computational simulation...
December 26, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Grażyna Budryn, Ilona Gałązka-Czarnecka, Ewelina Brzozowska, Joanna Grzelczyk, Radosław Mostowski, Dorota Żyżelewicz, José P Cerón-Carrasco, Horacio Pérez-Sánchez
Isoflavones have an affinity for estrogen receptors (ERs) including beneficial affinity for ERβ. Widely used soy is a source of poorly absorbed isoflavones glycosides. Red clover contains mostly easily absorbed free aglycones. Red clover sprouts were cultivated under different conditions (white light, UVA or UVB for 12 or 24 h a day at 18 or 25 °C) to maximise the content of isoflavones, especially of high affinity for ERβ. The affinity of isoflavones to ERs was evaluated by molecular modelling and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC)...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Peng-Fan Gao, Yu-Xue Liu, Lening Zhang, Simin Zhang, Hong-Wei Li, Yuqing Wu, Lixin Wu
The present study constructed a competitive recognition system using cell receptor screening for human papillomavirus (HPV) invasion by using the hybrid-assembly of polyoxometalates (POMs) and cationic peptides as a platform. The fine tuning both of the surface charge of POMs and peptide sequence were precisely performed to develop a luminescence switch of POMs, leading to the establishment of a ternary system to identify which types of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are potential cell receptors for HPV infection...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Marco Mason, Matteo Scampicchio, Colette F Quinn, Mark K Transtrum, Nicholas Baker, Lee D Hansen, Jason D Kenealey
The aim of this work is to develop calorimetric methods for characterizing the activity and stability of membrane immobilized enzymes. Invertase immobilized on a nylon-6 nanofiber membrane is used as a test case. The stability of both immobilized and free invertase activity was measured by spectrophotometry and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Differential scanning calorimetry was used to measure the thermal stability of the structure and areal concentration of invertase on the membrane. This is the 1st demonstration that ITC can be used to determine activity and stability of an enzyme immobilized on a membrane...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Alessandra Mascarello, Angela Camila Orbem Menegatti, Andrea Calcaterra, Priscila Graziela Alves Martins, Louise Domeneghini Chiaradia-Delatorre, Ilaria D'Acquarica, Franco Ferrari, Valentina Pau, Adriana Sanna, Alessandro De Logu, Maurizio Botta, Bruno Botta, Hernán Terenzi, Mattia Mori
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) protein tyrosine phosphatases A and B (PtpA and PtpB) have been recognized as potential molecular targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies against tuberculosis (TB). In this context, we have recently reported that the naturally occurring Diels-Alder-type adduct Kuwanol E is an inhibitor of PtpB (Ki = 1.6 ± 0.1 μM). Here, we describe additional Diels-Alder-type adducts isolated from Morus nigra roots bark that inhibit PtpB at sub-micromolar concentrations...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Payal Srivastava, Khushbu Singh, Madhu Verma, Sri Sivakumar, Ashis K Patra
The effect on the therapeutic efficacy of Pt(II) complexes on combining non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is an attractive strategy to circumvent chronic inflammation mediated by cancer and metastasis. Two square-planar platinum(II) complexes: [Pt(dach)(nap)Cl] (1) and [Pt(dach)(nap)2] (2), where dach = (1R,2R)-dichloro(cyclohexane-1,2-diamine) and NSAID drug naproxen (nap), have been designed for studying their biological activity. The naproxen bound to the Pt(II) centre get released upon photoirradiation with low-power UV-A light as confirmed by the significant enhancement in emission intensities of the complexes...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Hasan Alniss, Bita Zamiri, Melisa Khalaj, Christopher E Pearson, Robert B Macgregor
BACKGROUND: An expansion of the hexanucleotide repeat (GGGGCC)n·(GGCCCC)n in the C9orf72 promoter has been shown to be the cause of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD). The C9orf72 repeat can form four-stranded structures; the cationic porphyrin (TMPyP4) binds and distorts these structures. METHODS: Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and circular dichroism (CD) were used to study the binding of TMPyP4 to the C-rich and G-rich DNA and RNA oligos containing the hexanucleotide repeat at pH 7...
December 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Simon Baijot, Carlos Cevallos, David Zarka, Axelle Leroy, Hichem Slama, Cecile Colin, Nicolas Deconinck, Bernard Dan, Guy Cheron
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating event-related potential (ERP) evoked in a Cue-Go/NoGo paradigm have shown lower frontal N1, N2 and central P3 in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to typically developing children (TDC). However, the electroencephalographic (EEG) dynamics underlying these ERPs remain largely unexplored in ADHD. METHODS: We investigate the event-related spectral perturbation and inter-trial coherence linked to the ERP triggered by visual Cue-Go/NoGo stimuli, in 14 children (7 ADHD and 7 TDC) aged 8 to 12 years...
December 20, 2017: Brain Sciences
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