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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433102/microplastics-in-oysters-saccostrea-cucullata-along-the-pearl-river-estuary-china
#1
Heng-Xiang Li, Li-Sha Ma, Lang Lin, Zhi-Xin Ni, Xiang-Rong Xu, Hua-Hong Shi, Yan Yan, Guang-Ming Zheng, Daniel Rittschof
As a transitional zone between riverine and marine environments, an estuary plays an important role for the sources, accumulation and transport of microplastics. Although estuarine environments are hotspots of microplastic pollution, the correlation between microplastic pollution and aquatic organisms is less known. Here we investigated microplastic pollution in wild oysters Saccostrea cucullata from 11 sampling sites along the Pearl River Estuary in South China. The microplastic abundances in oysters ranged from 1...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432699/population-genomics-of-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-across-diverse-agroclimatic-zones-of-niger
#2
Fanna Maina, Sophie Bouchet, Sandeep Marla, Zhenbin Hu, Jianan Wang, Aissata Mamadou, Magagi Abdou, Abdoul-Aziz Saïdou, Geoffrey Preston Morris
Improving adaptation of staple crops in developing countries is important to ensure food security. In the West African country of Niger, the staple crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is cultivated across diverse agroclimatic zones, but the genetic basis of local adaptation has not been described. The objectives of this study were to characterize the genomic diversity of sorghum from Niger and to identify genomic regions conferring local adaptation to agroclimatic zones and farmer preferences. We analyzed 516 Nigerien accessions for which local variety name, botanical race, and geographic origin were known...
February 12, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407553/circadian-regulation-of-grapevine-root-and-shoot-growth-and-their-modulation-by-photoperiod-and-temperature
#3
Kare P Mahmud, Bruno P Holzapfel, Yann Guisard, Jason P Smith, Sharon Nielsen, Suzy Y Rogiers
Some plant species demonstrate a pronounced 24 h rhythm in fine root growth but the endogenous and exogenous factors that regulate these diel cycles are unclear. Photoperiod and temperature are known to interact with diel patterns in shoot growth but it is uncertain how these environmental factors are interrelated with below-ground growth. In this particular study, the fine root system of two grapevine species was monitored over a period of ten days with a high resolution scanner, under constant soil moisture and three different photoperiod regimes...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358707/the-rna-binding-protein-ptbp1-is-necessary-for-b-cell-selection-in-germinal-centers
#4
Elisa Monzón-Casanova, Michael Screen, Manuel D Díaz-Muñoz, Richard M R Coulson, Sarah E Bell, Greta Lamers, Michele Solimena, Christopher W J Smith, Martin Turner
Antibody affinity maturation occurs in germinal centers (GCs), where B cells cycle between the light zone (LZ) and the dark zone. In the LZ, GC B cells bearing immunoglobulins with the highest affinity for antigen receive positive selection signals from helper T cells, which promotes their rapid proliferation. Here we found that the RNA-binding protein PTBP1 was needed for the progression of GC B cells through late S phase of the cell cycle and for affinity maturation. PTBP1 was required for proper expression of the c-MYC-dependent gene program induced in GC B cells receiving T cell help and directly regulated the alternative splicing and abundance of transcripts that are increased during positive selection to promote proliferation...
January 22, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314005/dynamics-of-oxygen-and-carbon-dioxide-in-rhizospheres-of-lobelia-dortmanna-a-planar-optode-study-of-belowground-gas-exchange-between-plants-and-sediment
#5
Nikola Lenzewski, Peter Mueller, Robert Johannes Meier, Gregor Liebsch, Kai Jensen, Ketil Koop-Jakobsen
Root-mediated CO2 uptake, O2 release and their effects on O2 and CO2 dynamics in the rhizosphere of Lobelia dortmanna were investigated. Novel planar optode technology, imaging CO2 and O2 distribution around single roots, provided insights into the spatiotemporal patterns of gas exchange between roots, sediment and microbial community. In light, O2 release and CO2 uptake were pronounced, resulting in a distinct oxygenated zone (radius: c. 3 mm) and a CO2 -depleted zone (radius: c. 2 mm) around roots. Simultaneously, however, microbial CO2 production was stimulated within a larger zone around the roots (radius: c...
January 4, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215784/neither-dark-nor-light-but-shades-in-between-cocoa-merits-a-finer-sampling
#6
Lindsey Norgrove
Abdulai et al. (2017), working in Akumadan in the forest-savannah transition zone of Ghana, compared three cocoa (Theobroma cacao) systems in periods of wet, dry and extremely dry weather. These were cocoa grown: (a) in an agroforestry system under a leguminous tree (Albizia ferruginea); (b) in an agroforestry system under one of the most common shade trees (Antiaris toxicaria) in the region; and, (c) under "full sun conditions". During the extremely dry period, the cocoa in agroforestry systems had massive stress, reduced sap flux and high mortality...
December 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210963/central-ellipsoid-loss-associated-with-cone-dystrophy-and-kcnv2-mutation
#7
David Xu, Daniel Su, Steven Nusinowitz, David Sarraf
PURPOSE: To report a case of central ellipsoid loss with supernormal rod electroretinogram and KCNV2 gene mutation. METHODS: Retrospective case report. PATIENT: Thirty-eight-year-old man. RESULTS: We report a patient with longstanding vision loss and photophobia who illustrated central atrophy of the inner segment ellipsoid zone band on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Fundus autofluorescence displayed mild perifoveal mottled autofluorescence...
November 23, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203177/characterisation-analysis-of-expression-and-localisation-of-the-opsin-gene-repertoire-from-the-perspective-of-photoperiodism-in-the-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#8
Jorge Mariano Collantes-Alegre, Florian Mattenberger, Miquel Barberà, David Martínez-Torres
Organisms exhibit a wide range of seasonal responses as adaptions to predictable annual changes in their environment. These changes are originally caused by the effect of the Earth's cycles around the sun and its axial tilt. Examples of seasonal responses include floration, migration, reproduction and diapause. In temperate climate zones, the most robust variable to predict seasons is the length of the day (i.e. the photoperiod). The first step to trigger photoperiodic driven responses involves measuring the duration of the light-dark phases, but the molecular clockwork performing this task is poorly characterized...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114241/a-nanoscale-study-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-fluxes-in-mats-of-purple-sulfur-bacteria-implications-for-carbon-cycling-at-the-surface-of-coastal-sediments
#9
Cédric Hubas, Dominique Boeuf, Bruno Jesus, Najet Thiney, Yann Bozec, Christian Jeanthon
Mass blooms of purple sulfur bacteria growing seasonally on green stranded macroalgae have a major impact on the microbial composition and functionality of intertidal mats. To explore the active anoxygenic phototrophic community in purple bacterial mats from the Roscoff Aber Bay (Brittany, France), we conducted a combined approach including molecular and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses. To investigate the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen assimilation activities, NanoSIMS was coupled with a stable isotope probing (SIP) experiment and a compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080930/dysfunction-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-parafacial-zone-mediates-sleep-disturbances-in-a-streptozotocin-induced-rat-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Jin-Zhi Song, Su-Ying Cui, Xiang-Yu Cui, Xiao Hu, Yu-Nu Ma, Hui Ding, Hui Ye, Yong-He Zhang
Sleep disturbances are prevalent among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and often precede the onset and progression of dementia. However, there are no reliable animal models for investigating sleep disturbances in patients with sporadic AD (sAD), which accounts for more than 90% of all AD cases. In the present study, we characterize the sleep/wake cycles and explore a potential mechanism underlying sleep disturbance in a rat model of sAD induced via intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of streptozotocin (STZ)...
October 28, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017090/combinatory-effects-of-low-concentrations-of-17%C3%AE-etinylestradiol-and-citalopram-on-non-reproductive-behavior-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#11
Tove Porseryd, Martin Kellner, Nasim Reyhanian Caspillo, Kristina Volkova, Lubna Elabbas, Shahid Ullah, Håkan Olsén, Patrik Dinnétz, Inger Porsch Hällström
Sewage effluents contain pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals, exposing aquatic organisms to complex mixtures. The consequences of exposure to combinations of different classes of drugs in fish are largely unknown. In this study, we exposed adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) males and females for two weeks to low, environmentally relevant concentrations of the endocrine disrupting chemical 17α-etinylestradiol (EE2) and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, alone and in combination, and analyzed behaviors of importance for population fitness, scototaxis (light/dark preference), the novel tank test and shoal cohesion...
October 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987464/reentrainment-of-the-circadian-pacemaker-during-jet-lag-east-west-asymmetry-and-the-effects-of-north-south-travel
#12
Casey O Diekman, Amitabha Bose
The normal alignment of circadian rhythms with the 24-h light-dark cycle is disrupted after rapid travel between home and destination time zones, leading to sleep problems, indigestion, and other symptoms collectively known as jet lag. Using mathematical and computational analysis, we study the process of reentrainment to the light-dark cycle of the destination time zone in a model of the human circadian pacemaker. We calculate the reentrainment time for travel between any two points on the globe at any time of the day and year...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978732/diatoms-dominate-the-eukaryotic-metatranscriptome-during-spring-in-coastal-dead-zone-sediments
#13
Elias Broman, Varvara Sachpazidou, Mark Dopson, Samuel Hylander
An important characteristic of marine sediments is the oxygen concentration that affects many central metabolic processes. There has been a widespread increase in hypoxia in coastal systems (referred to as 'dead zones') mainly caused by eutrophication. Hence, it is central to understand the metabolism and ecology of eukaryotic life in sediments during changing oxygen conditions. Therefore, we sampled coastal 'dead zone' Baltic Sea sediment during autumn and spring, and analysed the eukaryotic metatranscriptome from field samples and after incubation in the dark under oxic or anoxic conditions...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946369/the-effects-of-different-dry-roast-parameters-on-peanut-quality-using-an-industrial-belt-type-roaster-simulator
#14
Xiaolei Shi, Lisa O Dean, Jack P Davis, K P Sandeep, Timothy H Sanders
Peanuts roasted to equivalent surface colors at different temperature/time combinations can vary substantially in chemical and physical properties related to product quality. This study used a pilot plant scale roaster that simulates the configurations of one of the most common industrial roaster, a multi-zone belt roaster. Jumbo-size runner-type peanuts were systematically roasted at 5 temperatures (149-204°C) to three Hunter l-values of 53, 48.5, and 43, corresponding to light, medium, and dark roasts. Moisture and tocopherol contents were more closely correlated with roast color rather than temperature, with exceptions at 149°C...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935768/the-microanatomic-segregation-of-selection-by-apoptosis-in-the-germinal-center
#15
Christian T Mayer, Anna Gazumyan, Ervin E Kara, Alexander D Gitlin, Jovana Golijanin, Charlotte Viant, Joy Pai, Thiago Y Oliveira, Qiao Wang, Amelia Escolano, Max Medina-Ramirez, Rogier W Sanders, Michel C Nussenzweig
B cells undergo rapid cell division and affinity maturation in anatomically distinct sites in lymphoid organs called germinal centers (GCs). Homeostasis is maintained in part by B cell apoptosis. However, the precise contribution of apoptosis to GC biology and selection is not well defined. We developed apoptosis-indicator mice and used them to visualize, purify, and characterize dying GC B cells. Apoptosis is prevalent in the GC, with up to half of all GC B cells dying every 6 hours. Moreover, programmed cell death is differentially regulated in the light zone and the dark zone: Light-zone B cells die by default if they are not positively selected, whereas dark-zone cells die when their antigen receptors are damaged by activation-induced cytidine deaminase...
October 13, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934124/n-halamine-biocidal-materials-with-superior-antimicrobial-efficacies-for-wound-dressings
#16
Buket Demir, Roy M Broughton, Mingyu Qiao, Tung-Shi Huang, S D Worley
This work demonstrated the successful application of N-halamine technology for wound dressings rendered antimicrobial by facile and inexpensive processes. Four N-halamine compounds, which possess different functional groups and chemistry, were synthesized. The N-halamine compounds, which contained oxidative chlorine, the source of antimicrobial activity, were impregnated into or coated onto standard non-antimicrobial wound dressings. N-halamine-employed wound dressings inactivated about 6 to 7 logs of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria in brief periods of contact time...
September 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899751/homeostatic-and-circadian-mechanisms-of-bioluminescence-regulation-differ-between-a-forest-and-a-facultative-cave-species-of-glowworm-arachnocampa
#17
Sarah E Berry, Joshua Gilchrist, David J Merritt
Glowworms, members of the keroplatid fly genus, Arachnocampa, glow to attract prey. Here we describe substantial differences in the bioluminescence regulatory systems of two species; one is a troglophile with populations both in caves and outside of caves in wet forest (Arachnocampa tasmaniensis) and the other has no known cave populations (Arachnocampa flava). We find that A. tasmaniensis is ready to initiate bioluminescence at any time darkness is encountered. In contrast, A. flava shows a homeostatic control of bioluminescence; it is unlikely to initiate bioluminescence when exposed to dark pulses during the photophase and it does so with a long latency...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888038/influence-of-littoral-periphyton-on-whole-lake-metabolism-relates-to-littoral-vegetation-in-humic-lakes
#18
Jussi Vesterinen, Shawn P Devlin, Jari Syväranta, Roger I Jones
The role of littoral habitats in lake metabolism has been underrated, especially in humic lakes, based on an assumption of low benthic primary production (PP) due to low light penetration into water. This assumption has been challenged by recent recognition of littoral epiphyton dominance of whole-lake PP in a small highly humic lake and of epiphyton as an important basal food source for humic lake biota. However, as these studies have mostly concerned single lakes, there is a need to test their wider generality...
September 9, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852865/microalgal-cultivation-and-hydrodynamic-characterization-using-a-novel-tubular-photobioreactor-with-helical-blade-rotors
#19
Lichen He, Weimin Yang, Changfeng Guan, Hua Yan, Pengcheng Fu
Industrial-scale microalgal cultivation for food, feedstocks and biofuel production is limited by several engineering factors, such as cultivation systems. As a closed microalgal growth system, tubular photobioreactors are the most preferred ones in the mass algae production. In this work, microalgal cultivation and hydrodynamic characterization using a novel tubular photobioreactor equipped with helical blade rotors (HBRs) were investigated, with the aid of computational fluid dynamics and cultivation experiments to evaluate the effect of HBRs on the performance of tubular photobioreactor and growth of the Chlorella sp...
December 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790889/the-calcineurin-binding-activity-dependent-splice-variant-dynamin1xb-is-highly-enriched-in-synapses-in-various-regions-of-the-central-nervous-system
#20
Marie-Lisa Eich, Ekta Dembla, Silke Wahl, Mayur Dembla, Karin Schwarz, Frank Schmitz
In the present study, we generated and characterized a splice site-specific monoclonal antibody that selectively detects the calcineurin-binding dynamin1 splice variant dynamin1xb. Calcineurin is a Ca(2+)-regulated phosphatase that enhances dynamin1 activity and is an important Ca(2+)-sensing mediator of homeostatic synaptic plasticity in neurons. Using this dynamin1xb-specific antibody, we found dynamin1xb highly enriched in synapses of all analyzed brain regions. In photoreceptor ribbon synapses, dynamin1xb was enriched in close vicinity to the synaptic ribbon in a manner indicative of a peri-active zone immunolabeling...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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