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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666146/identification-of-circadian-clock-modulators-from-existing-drugs
#1
T Katherine Tamai, Yusuke Nakane, Wataru Ota, Akane Kobayashi, Masateru Ishiguro, Naoya Kadofusa, Keisuke Ikegami, Kazuhiro Yagita, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi, Masaki Sudo, Taeko Nishiwaki-Ohkawa, Ayato Sato, Takashi Yoshimura
Chronic circadian disruption due to shift work or frequent travel across time zones leads to jet-lag and an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The development of new pharmaceuticals to treat circadian disorders, however, is costly and hugely time-consuming. We therefore performed a high-throughput chemical screen of existing drugs for circadian clock modulators in human U2OS cells, with the aim of repurposing known bioactive compounds. Approximately 5% of the drugs screened altered circadian period, including the period-shortening compound dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; also known as prasterone)...
April 17, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665320/reduced-lymphotoxin-beta-production-by-tumour-cells-is-associated-with-loss-of-follicular-dendritic-cell-phenotype-and-diffuse-growth-in-follicular-lymphoma
#2
Giuseppina Pepe, Arianna Di Napoli, Claudia Cippitelli, Stefania Scarpino, Emanuela Pilozzi, Luigi Ruco
Cytokine production is essential for follicular dendritic cell (FDC) maintenance and organization of germinal centres. In follicular lymphoma, FDCs are often disarrayed and may lack antigens indicative of terminal differentiation. We investigated the in situ distribution of cells producing lymphotoxin-beta (LTB), lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) transcripts in human reactive lymph nodes and in follicular lymphomas with follicular or diffuse growth pattern. LTB was the cytokine most abundantly produced in germinal centres...
April 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656228/generating-cycle-flow-between-dark-and-light-zones-with-double-paddlewheels-to-improve-microalgal-growth-in-a-flat-plate-photo-bioreactor
#3
Jun Cheng, Junchen Xu, Hongxiang Lu, Qing Ye, Jianzhong Liu, Junhu Zhou
Double paddlewheels were proposed to generate cycle flow for increasing horizontal fluid velocity between dark and light zones in a flat plate photo-bioreactor, which strengthened the mass transfer and the mixing effect to improve microalgal growth with 15% CO2 . Numerical fluid dynamics were used to simulate the cycle flow field with double paddlewheels. The local flow field measured with particle image velocimetry fitted well with the numerical simulation results. The horizontal fluid velocity in the photo-bioreactor was markedly increased from 5...
April 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610316/long-term-in-vivo-recording-of-circadian-rhythms-in-brains-of-freely-moving-mice
#4
Long Mei, Yanyan Fan, Xiaohua Lv, David K Welsh, Cheng Zhan, Eric Erquan Zhang
Endogenous circadian clocks control 24-h physiological and behavioral rhythms in mammals. Here, we report a real-time in vivo fluorescence recording system that enables long-term monitoring of circadian rhythms in the brains of freely moving mice. With a designed reporter of circadian clock gene expression, we tracked robust Cry1 transcription reporter rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of WT, Cry1 -/- , and Cry2 -/- mice in LD (12 h light, 12 h dark) and DD (constant darkness) conditions and verified that signals remained stable for over 6 mo...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600144/noble-metal-modified-titania-with-visible-light-activity-for-the-decomposition-of-microorganisms
#5
Maya Endo, Zhishun Wei, Kunlei Wang, Baris Karabiyik, Kenta Yoshiiri, Paulina Rokicka, Bunsho Ohtani, Agata Markowska-Szczupak, Ewa Kowalska
Commercial titania photocatalysts were modified with silver and gold by photodeposition, and characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). It was found that silver co-existed in zero valent (core) and oxidized (shell) forms, whereas gold was mainly zero valent. The obtained noble metal-modified samples were examined with regard to antibacterial ( Escherichia coli ( E. coli )) and antifungal ( Aspergillus niger ( A...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527915/age-dependent-effect-of-long-term-microwave-radiation-on-postnatal-neurogenesis-in-rats-morphological-and-behavioral-study
#6
A Raček, K Beňová, P Arnoul, M Závodská, A Angelidis, V Cigánková, V Šimaiová, E Račeková
Processes of adult neurogenesis can be influenced by environmental factors. Here, we investigated the effect of microwave radiation (MWR) on proliferation and cell dying in the rat rostral migratory stream (RMS) - a migration route for the neuroblasts of the subventricular zone. Adult and juvenile (two weeks old) rats were exposed to a pulsed-wave MWR at the frequency of 2.45 GHz for 3 h daily during 3 weeks. Adult rats were divided into two groups: without survival and with two weeks survival after irradiation...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525873/retinal-findings-in-a-patient-of-french-ancestry-with-cabp4-related-retinal-disease
#7
Vasily Mikhaïlovitch Smirnov, Christina Zeitz, Nagasamy Soumittra, Isabelle Audo, Sabine Defoort-Dhellemmes
INTRODUCTION: CABP4-related retinal dysfunction is a cone-rod synaptic transmission disorder with electronegative electroretinogram (ERG) waveform. It is a rare retinal dysfunction that can be classified into the incomplete form of congenital stationary night blindness. Absent foveal reflex and overall foveal thinning were previously reported, but in most cases the fundus appearance was described as nearly normal. We report here peculiar macular changes in a patient of French ancestry harbouring CABP4 mutations...
March 10, 2018: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511414/histologic-characterization-of-kratom-use-associated-liver-injury
#8
Michael Riverso, Michael Chang, Consuelo Soldevila-Pico, Jinping Lai, Xiuli Liu
Kratom is an herbal product derived from the leaves of Southeast Asian Mitragyna speciosa trees. It has traditionally been used by indigenous people to relieve fatigue and manage pain, diarrhea, or opioid withdrawal. The use of kratom has become more commonplace in the United States for similar purposes. Only rare reports of kratom liver toxicity exist in the literature but without histologic characterization. Herein, we report one case of kratom use-associated liver toxicity in a 38-year-old patient. The patient complained of dark colored urine and light colored stools after using kratom...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499086/adaptive-responses-of-mature-giant-chloroplasts-in-the-deep-shade-lycopod-selaginella-erythropus-to-prolonged-light-and-dark-periods
#9
Rabia Ghaffar, Marieluise Weidinger, Barbara Mähnert, Michael Schagerl, Irene Lichtscheidl
Deep-shade plants have adapted to low-light conditions by varying morphology and physiology of cells and chloroplasts, but it still remains unclear, if prolonged periods of high-light or darkness induce additional modifications in chloroplasts' anatomy and pigment patterns. We studied giant chloroplasts (bizonoplasts) of the deep-shade lycopod Selaginella erythropus in epidermal cells of mature fully developed microphylls and subjected them to prolonged darkness and high-light conditions. Chloroplast size and ultrastructure were investigated by light and electron microscopy...
March 2, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479034/lethal-chronotoxicity-induced-by-seven-metal-compounds-in-mice
#10
Hiroki Yoshioka, Tsunemasa Nonogaki, Yasuro Shinohara, Masumi Suzui, Yurie Mori, Gi-Wook Hwang, Katsumi Ohtani, Nobuhiko Miura
The aim of the present study is to investigate the "chronotoxicity" of seven metal compounds (Hg, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, or Fe) by assessing how their toxicity varies with circadian periodicity. Male ICR mice were injected with each metal compound intraperitoneally at 6 different time points over the course of a day (zeitgeber time [ZT]: ZT2, ZT6, ZT10, ZT14, ZT18 and ZT22). Mortality was then monitored until 14 days after the injection. Our investigation demonstrated that mice were tolerant against Ni toxicity during dark phase, on the other hand, they were tolerant against Cr toxicity during light phase...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433102/microplastics-in-oysters-saccostrea-cucullata-along-the-pearl-river-estuary-china
#11
Heng-Xiang Li, Li-Sha Ma, Lang Lin, Zhi-Xin Ni, Xiang-Rong Xu, Hua-Hong Shi, Yan Yan, Guang-Ming Zheng, Daniel Rittschof
As a transitional zone between riverine and marine environments, an estuary plays an important role for the sources, accumulation and transport of microplastics. Although estuarine environments are hotspots of microplastic pollution, the correlation between microplastic pollution and aquatic organisms is less known. Here we investigated microplastic pollution in wild oysters Saccostrea cucullata from 11 sampling sites along the Pearl River Estuary in South China. The microplastic abundances in oysters ranged from 1...
February 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432699/population-genomics-of-sorghum-sorghum-bicolor-across-diverse-agroclimatic-zones-of-niger
#12
Fanna Maina, Sophie Bouchet, Sandeep Marla, Zhenbin Hu, Jianan Wang, Aissata Mamadou, Magagi Abdou, Abdoul-Aziz Saïdou, Geoffrey Preston Morris
Improving adaptation of staple crops in developing countries is important to ensure food security. In the West African country of Niger, the staple crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is cultivated across diverse agroclimatic zones, but the genetic basis of local adaptation has not been described. The objectives of this study were to characterize the genomic diversity of sorghum from Niger and to identify genomic regions conferring local adaptation to agroclimatic zones and farmer preferences. We analyzed 516 Nigerien accessions for which local variety name, botanical race, and geographic origin were known...
February 12, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407553/circadian-regulation-of-grapevine-root-and-shoot-growth-and-their-modulation-by-photoperiod-and-temperature
#13
Kare P Mahmud, Bruno P Holzapfel, Yann Guisard, Jason P Smith, Sharon Nielsen, Suzy Y Rogiers
Some plant species demonstrate a pronounced 24 h rhythm in fine root growth but the endogenous and exogenous factors that regulate these diel cycles are unclear. Photoperiod and temperature are known to interact with diel patterns in shoot growth but it is uncertain how these environmental factors are interrelated with below-ground growth. In this particular study, the fine root system of two grapevine species was monitored over a period of ten days with a high resolution scanner, under constant soil moisture and three different photoperiod regimes...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358707/the-rna-binding-protein-ptbp1-is-necessary-for-b-cell-selection-in-germinal-centers
#14
Elisa Monzón-Casanova, Michael Screen, Manuel D Díaz-Muñoz, Richard M R Coulson, Sarah E Bell, Greta Lamers, Michele Solimena, Christopher W J Smith, Martin Turner
Antibody affinity maturation occurs in germinal centers (GCs), where B cells cycle between the light zone (LZ) and the dark zone. In the LZ, GC B cells bearing immunoglobulins with the highest affinity for antigen receive positive selection signals from helper T cells, which promotes their rapid proliferation. Here we found that the RNA-binding protein PTBP1 was needed for the progression of GC B cells through late S phase of the cell cycle and for affinity maturation. PTBP1 was required for proper expression of the c-MYC-dependent gene program induced in GC B cells receiving T cell help and directly regulated the alternative splicing and abundance of transcripts that are increased during positive selection to promote proliferation...
March 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314005/dynamics-of-oxygen-and-carbon-dioxide-in-rhizospheres-of-lobelia-dortmanna-a-planar-optode-study-of-belowground-gas-exchange-between-plants-and-sediment
#15
Nikola Lenzewski, Peter Mueller, Robert Johannes Meier, Gregor Liebsch, Kai Jensen, Ketil Koop-Jakobsen
Root-mediated CO2 uptake, O2 release and their effects on O2 and CO2 dynamics in the rhizosphere of Lobelia dortmanna were investigated. Novel planar optode technology, imaging CO2 and O2 distribution around single roots, provided insights into the spatiotemporal patterns of gas exchange between roots, sediment and microbial community. In light, O2 release and CO2 uptake were pronounced, resulting in a distinct oxygenated zone (radius: c. 3 mm) and a CO2 -depleted zone (radius: c. 2 mm) around roots. Simultaneously, however, microbial CO2 production was stimulated within a larger zone around the roots (radius: c...
April 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215784/neither-dark-nor-light-but-shades-in-between-cocoa-merits-a-finer-sampling
#16
LETTER
Lindsey Norgrove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210963/central-ellipsoid-loss-associated-with-cone-dystrophy-and-kcnv2-mutation
#17
David Xu, Daniel Su, Steven Nusinowitz, David Sarraf
PURPOSE: To report a case of central ellipsoid loss with supernormal rod electroretinogram and KCNV2 gene mutation. METHODS: Retrospective case report. PATIENT: Thirty-eight-year-old man. RESULTS: We report a patient with longstanding vision loss and photophobia who illustrated central atrophy of the inner segment ellipsoid zone band on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Fundus autofluorescence displayed mild perifoveal mottled autofluorescence...
November 23, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203177/characterisation-analysis-of-expression-and-localisation-of-the-opsin-gene-repertoire-from-the-perspective-of-photoperiodism-in-the-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#18
Jorge Mariano Collantes-Alegre, Florian Mattenberger, Miquel Barberà, David Martínez-Torres
Organisms exhibit a wide range of seasonal responses as adaptions to predictable annual changes in their environment. These changes are originally caused by the effect of the Earth's cycles around the sun and its axial tilt. Examples of seasonal responses include floration, migration, reproduction and diapause. In temperate climate zones, the most robust variable to predict seasons is the length of the day (i.e. the photoperiod). The first step to trigger photoperiodic driven responses involves measuring the duration of the light-dark phases, but the molecular clockwork performing this task is poorly characterized...
January 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114241/a-nanoscale-study-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-fluxes-in-mats-of-purple-sulfur-bacteria-implications-for-carbon-cycling-at-the-surface-of-coastal-sediments
#19
Cédric Hubas, Dominique Boeuf, Bruno Jesus, Najet Thiney, Yann Bozec, Christian Jeanthon
Mass blooms of purple sulfur bacteria growing seasonally on green stranded macroalgae have a major impact on the microbial composition and functionality of intertidal mats. To explore the active anoxygenic phototrophic community in purple bacterial mats from the Roscoff Aber Bay (Brittany, France), we conducted a combined approach including molecular and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses. To investigate the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen assimilation activities, NanoSIMS was coupled with a stable isotope probing (SIP) experiment and a compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080930/dysfunction-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-parafacial-zone-mediates-sleep-disturbances-in-a-streptozotocin-induced-rat-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Jin-Zhi Song, Su-Ying Cui, Xiang-Yu Cui, Xiao Hu, Yu-Nu Ma, Hui Ding, Hui Ye, Yong-He Zhang
Sleep disturbances are prevalent among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and often precede the onset and progression of dementia. However, there are no reliable animal models for investigating sleep disturbances in patients with sporadic AD (sAD), which accounts for more than 90% of all AD cases. In the present study, we characterize the sleep/wake cycles and explore a potential mechanism underlying sleep disturbance in a rat model of sAD induced via intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of streptozotocin (STZ)...
February 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
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