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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906012/determinants-of-time-to-antiretroviral-treatment-initiation-and-subsequent-mortality-on-treatment-in-a-cohort-in-rural-northern-malawi
#1
Jeremy Philip Brown, Bagrey Ngwira, Terence Tafatatha, Amelia Catharine Crampin, Neil French, Olivier Koole
BACKGROUND: To optimise care HIV patients need to be promptly initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and subsequently retained on treatment. In this study we report on the interval between enrolment and treatment initiation, and investigate subsequent attrition and mortality of patients on ART at a rural clinic in Malawi. METHODS: HIV-positive individuals were recruited to a cohort study between January 2008 and August 2011 at Chilumba Rural Hospital (CRH). Outcomes were ascertained, up to 7 years after enrolment, through follow-up and by linkage to ART registers and the Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS)...
July 8, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904862/risk-factors-for-barrett-s-oesophagus
#2
REVIEW
Neel Sharma, Khek Yu Ho
BACKGROUND: Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is a premalignant condition associated with the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Globally, the incidence of OAC is rising. Furthermore, the prognosis regarding the morbidity and mortality of OAC is bleak, with an estimated 5-year survival of 10-15%. Hence, detection of the premalignant phase is paramount. Endoscopy and biopsy sampling is the mainstay of diagnosis. Patients may present with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or be completely asymptomatic...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903267/skeletal-muscle-quality-as-assessed-by-ct-derived-skeletal-muscle-density-is-associated-with-6-month-mortality-in-mechanically-ventilated-critically-ill-patients
#3
Wilhelmus G P M Looijaard, Ingeborg M Dekker, Sandra N Stapel, Armand R J Girbes, Jos W R Twisk, Heleen M Oudemans-van Straaten, Peter J M Weijs
BACKGROUND: Muscle quantity at intensive care unit (ICU) admission has been independently associated with mortality. In addition to quantity, muscle quality may be important for survival. Muscle quality is influenced by fatty infiltration or myosteatosis, which can be assessed on computed tomography (CT) scans by analysing skeletal muscle density (SMD) and the amount of intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT). We investigated whether CT-derived low skeletal muscle quality at ICU admission is independently associated with 6-month mortality and other clinical outcomes...
December 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903151/how-to-manage-the-obese-patient-with-cancer
#4
Andrew G Renehan, Michelle Harvie, Ramsey I Cutress, Michael Leitzmann, Tobias Pischon, Sacha Howell, Anthony Howell
Purpose Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) is common among patients with cancer. We reviewed management issues in the obese patient with cancer, focusing on how obesity influences treatment selection (including chemotherapy dosing), affects chemotherapy toxicity and surgical complications, and might be a treatment effect modifier. Methods The majority of evidence is drawn from observational studies and secondary analyses of trial data, typically analyzed in N × 3 BMI categories (normal weight, overweight, and obese) matrix structures...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900068/body-mass-index-and-mortality-according-to-gender-in-a-community-dwelling-elderly-population-the-3-year-follow-up-findings-from-the-living-profiles-of-older-people-surveys-in-korea
#5
Seon Yeong Yu, Byung Sung Kim, Chang Won Won, Hyunrim Choi, Sunyoung Kim, Hyung Woo Kim, Min Joung Kim
BACKGROUND: Body mass index is widely regarded as an important predictor of mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between body mass index and mortality and to compare community-dwelling elderly people in South Korea according to sex. METHODS: Data were collected from the 2008 and 2011 Living Profiles of Older People Surveys, which comprised 10,613 community-living South Korean men and women aged 65 years or older. The participants were stratified into five groups according to body mass index as defined by the World Health Organization guidelines...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899001/drug-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#6
REVIEW
Emma Mead, Greg Atkinson, Bernd Richter, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Louise Baur, Nicholas Finer, Eva Corpeleijn, Claire O'Malley, Louisa J Ells
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed (subsets not available on Ovid), LILACS as well as the trial registers ICTRP (WHO) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Searches were undertaken from inception to March 2016...
November 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897994/disability-physical-inactivity-and-impaired-health-related-quality-of-life-are-not-different-in-metabolically-healthy-vs-unhealthy-obese-subjects
#7
Lorenzo M Donini, Gianluca Merola, Eleonora Poggiogalle, Carla Lubrano, Lucio Gnessi, Stefania Mariani, Silvia Migliaccio, Andrea Lenzi
BACKGROUND: Obesity represents a major health hazard, affecting morbidity, psychological status, physical functionality, quality of life, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between metabolically healthy (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy (MUO) obese subjects with regard to physical activity, disability, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). METHODS: All subjects underwent a multidimensional evaluation, encompassing the assessment of body composition, metabolic biomarkers and inflammation, physical activity level (IPAQ questionnaire), disability (TSD-OC test), and HR-QoL (SF-36 questionnaire)...
November 25, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895905/outcomes-of-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-at-a-bariatric-unit-in-south-africa
#8
Chrysis Sofianos, Constantinos Sofianos
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has gained popularity over the years as a standalone procedure. In 2014, it was the most rapidly growing bariatric procedure. The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of LSG at a single bariatric unit in Johannesburg, South Africa, using the Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS) standardised scoring. METHODS: A retrospective record review and analysis was carried out using data collected from patients who had LSGs...
December 2016: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892965/diabetes-mellitus-and-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-mortality-in-japan-the-japan-collaborative-cohort-study
#9
Ce Tan, Mitsuru Mori, Yasushi Adachi, Kenji Wakai, Sadao Suzuki, Koji Suzuki, Shuji Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Akiko Tamakoshi
Objective: Our aim was to estimate whether diabetes mellitus (DM) may be associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality in Japan. Methods: The Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study is a nationwide prospective study, initiated in 1988, which involves 110,585 subjects (age range: from 40 to 79 years; 46,395 males and 64,190 females). Our present analysis population comprised 96,081 (40,510 men and 55,571 women) who provided details on DM history. The questionnaire also included age, sex, weight, height, family history of CRC, smoking, drinking and exercise habits, and education...
January 10, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888764/clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-young-women-and-men-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#10
Qinghua Ma, Jinwen Wang, Jing Jin, Ming Gao, Fang Liu, Shanshan Zhou, Feng Tian, Jie Liu, Yuqi Liu, Yundai Chen
OBJECTIVES: The clinical characteristics and prognosis of young women (≤50years) with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are still unclear. METHODS: A total of 5196 patients with ACS were enrolled from the cardiac center of Chinese PLA General Hospital and Anzhen Hospital. The clinical characteristics of these patients were analyzed. Then the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials electronic databases were searched from January 2001 to July 2016...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888288/nonlinear-association-of-bmi-with-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-mortality-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-414-587-participants-in-prospective-studies
#11
Francesco Zaccardi, Nafeesa N Dhalwani, Dimitris Papamargaritis, David R Webb, Gavin J Murphy, Melanie J Davies, Kamlesh Khunti
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The relationship between BMI and mortality has been extensively investigated in the general population; however, it is less clear in people with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the association of BMI with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We searched electronic databases up to 1 March 2016 for prospective studies reporting associations for three or more BMI groups with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 25, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887863/body-mass-index-and-mortality-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-11-449-participants
#12
Hui Liu, Shouling Wu, Yun Li, Lixia Sun, Zhe Huang, Liming Lin, Yan Liu, Chunpeng Ji, Hualing Zhao, Chunhui Li, Lu Song, Hongliang Cong
AIMS: To investigate the association between body-mass index and mortality in Chinese adults T2DM. METHODS: 11,449 participants of Kailuan Study with T2DM were included in this prospective cohort study. All-cause mortality was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to estimate the association between BMI and mortality. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 7.25±1.42years, 1254 deaths occurred...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886982/impact-of-norepinephrine-weight-based-dosing-compared-with-non-weight-based-dosing-in-achieving-time-to-goal-mean-arterial-pressure-in-obese-patients-with-septic-shock
#13
Nina Vadiei, Mitchell J Daley, Manasa S Murthy, Carrie S Shuman
BACKGROUND: Currently, a lack of standardization exists in norepinephrine dosing units, the first-line vasopressor for septic shock. Timely achievement of goal mean arterial pressure (MAP) is dependent on optimal vasopressor dosing. OBJECTIVE: To determine if weight-based dosing (WBD) of norepinephrine leads to earlier time to goal MAP compared with non-WBD in obese patients with septic shock. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter cohort study...
November 24, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885536/safety-and-outcome-of-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-following-removal-of-adjustable-gastric-banding-lessons-from-109-patients-in-a-single-center-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Niv Pencovich, Guy Lahat, Orit Goldray, Subhi Abu-Abeid, Joseph M Klausner, Shai Meron Eldar
BACKGROUND: Although considered a common bariatric procedure, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is associated with high rates of weight loss failure and long-term complications. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to re-assess the safety and outcome of conversion of failed LAGB to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and nine patients underwent conversion from LAGB to LSG (78 females, mean age 43 ± 11...
November 24, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884868/combined-associations-of-body-weight-and-lifestyle-factors-with-all-cause-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-men-and-women-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Nicola Veronese, Yanping Li, JoAnn E Manson, Walter C Willett, Luigi Fontana, Frank B Hu
OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate the combined associations of diet, physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking with body weight on risk of all cause and cause specific mortality. DESIGN:  Longitudinal study with up to 32 years of follow-up. SETTING:  Nurses' Health Study (1980-2012) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012). PARTICIPANTS:  74 582 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 39 284 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who were free from cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline...
November 24, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884387/initial-results-of-the-national-registry-of-incisional-hernia
#16
José Antonio Pereira, Manuel López-Cano, Pilar Hernández-Granados, Xavier Feliu
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to the data from the National Registry of Incisional Hernia (EVEREG) to determine the reality of the treatment of this condition in Spain. METHODS: EVEREG is an online prospective database which has been functioning since July 2012; operations for incisional hernia are anonymously recorded. RESULTS: Up to March 2015, 4501 hernias from 95 of the 113 participating hospitals were registered. The mean age of the patients was 62...
November 21, 2016: Cirugía Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883321/body-size-and-outcomes-in-dialysis-and-transplant-patients-does-it-matter
#17
Mehmet Sukru Sever
The terminologies of "body size", "body mass index (BMI)", "body weight", "large BMI" and "obesity" are controversial for defining the effects of "adiposity" or "fat excess" on the outcomes of dialysis and transplant patients. However, probably these terminologies will be continued to be used in the future as well, because of being older and simpler terminologies. In the general population obesity is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, while, it conferred a survival advantage to dialysis patients...
November 1, 2016: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880070/influence-of-premature-mortality-on-the-link-between-type-2-diabetes-and-hip-fracture-the-fremantle-diabetes-study
#18
Emma Hamilton, Wendy A Davis, David G Bruce, Timothy M E Davis
CONTEXT: Most studies of hip fracture complicating diabetes have used selected patients with incomplete data. None has considered the competing risk of death. OBJECTIVE: To determine influence of the competing risk of death on the association between type 2 diabetes and hip fracture. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study. SETTING: Urban community. PATIENTS: 1,291 participants with type 2 diabetes (mean±SD age 64...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880050/stable-state-proadrenomedullin-level-in-copd-patients-a-validation-study
#19
Maaike Zuur-Telgen, Paul VanderValk, Job van der Palen, Huib A M Kerstjens, Marjolein Brusse-Keizer
In patients with stable COPD, proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) has been shown to be a good predictor for mortality. This study aims to provide an external validation of earlier observed cut-off values used by Zuur-Telgen et al. and Stolz.et al. in COPD patients in stable state and at hospitalization for an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). From the COMIC cohort study we included 545 COPD patients with a blood sample obtained in stable state (n = 490) and/or at hospitalization for an AECOPD (n = 101). Time to death was compared between patients with MR-proADM cut-off scores 0...
November 23, 2016: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880044/tuberculosis-airway-obstruction-and-mortality-in-a-finnish-population
#20
Tiina Mattila, Markku Heliövaara, Harri Rissanen, Paul Knekt, Pauli Puukka, Tuula Vasankari
There is little long-term follow-up data concerning the association between past pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), airway obstruction and mortality. We aimed to analyse a national health examination survey data from 6701 adult Finns undergoing spirometry between 1978 and 1980 (follow-up through 2013). We identified TB either through a disease history or by a TB-indicative scar on a chest x-ray. We specified obstruction using the lower limit of normal (LLN) and classified severity using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages 1-4...
November 23, 2016: COPD
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