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Lipoprotein ratios

Takuya Oikawa, Yasuhiko Sakata, Kotaro Nochioka, Masanobu Miura, Kanako Tsuji, Takeo Onose, Ruri Abe, Shintaro Kasahara, Masayuki Sato, Takashi Shiroto, Jun Takahashi, Satoshi Miyata, Hiroaki Shimokawa
BACKGROUND: The beneficial prognostic impact of statins has been established in patients with ischemic heart disease but not in those with heart failure (HF). In addition, it is still unclear whether patients benefit from statins regardless of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 2444 consecutive stage C or D HF patients with ischemic heart disease registered in CHART-2 (Chronic Heart Failure Registry and Analysis in the Tohoku District 2), a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study in Japan...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Sarah A Aroner, Manja Koch, Kenneth J Mukamal, Jeremy D Furtado, James H Stein, Matthew C Tattersall, Robyn L McClelland, Majken K Jensen
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III), a small proinflammatory protein present on 6% to 7% of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, defines a subspecies of HDL adversely associated with coronary heart disease in primarily white cohorts. In a multi-ethnic population free of clinical cardiovascular disease, we evaluated the relationship between apoC-III-defined HDL subspecies and subclinical markers of atherosclerotic pathology. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated cross-sectional associations between apolipoprotein A-I concentrations of apoC-III-defined HDL subspecies, measured via ELISA and imaging measures of subclinical atherosclerosis, among 4659 participants in the MESA (The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) at baseline (2000-2002)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
George Hindy, Gunnar Engström, Susanna C Larsson, Matthew Traylor, Hugh S Markus, Olle Melander, Marju Orho-Melander
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Statin therapy is associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke supporting a causal role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However, more evidence is needed to answer the question whether LDL cholesterol plays a causal role in ischemic stroke subtypes. In addition, it is unknown whether high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides have a causal relationship to ischemic stroke and its subtypes. Our aim was to investigate the causal role of LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides in ischemic stroke and its subtypes through Mendelian randomization (MR)...
March 13, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Sae Bom Won, Young Hye Kwon
Offspring of female rats fed either a casein (CAS) diet or a low-isoflavone soy protein isolate (SPI) diet were compared in an animal model of chronic ethanol consumption to investigate whether maternal diet regulates the adaptive responses of offspring to postnatal ethanol exposure and potentially affects the development of liver disease in later life. Female rats were fed either a CAS or an SPI diet before mating, and during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring from the same litter were pair-fed either a control or ethanol diet for six weeks (CAS/CON, CAS/EtOH, SPI/CON, and SPI/EtOH groups)...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Elżbieta Pac-Kożuchowska, Anna Rakuś-Kwiatosz, Paulina Krawiec
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis may originate during the fetal period, therefore it is reasonable to identify early risk markers of lifestyle diseases. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between fetal and maternal factors, and the neonatal cord blood lipid profile in term newborns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study group, there were 206 healthy Polish newborns. Newborn characteristics included sex, gestational age at birth, Apgar score, and anthropometric data (weight and length at birth, neonatal ponderal index, head, chest and abdominal circumferences, placenta weight, and placental-fetal weight ratio)...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Faiza Qayyum, Bo K Lauridsen, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Klaus F Kofoed, Børge G Nordestgaard, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen
Aims: Myocardial infarction (MI) and gallstone disease (GSD) are intrinsically linked via cholesterol metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants in the gene encoding cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver, are associated with risk of MI and GSD in the general population. Methods and results: We performed tests of association between lipid levels and eight rare non-synonymous mutations and two common variants, rs2081687 and rs3808607, in CYP7A1 in 100 149 individuals from the general population...
February 23, 2018: European Heart Journal
Sam J L van der Tuin, Zhuang Li, Jimmy F P Berbée, Inge Verkouter, Linda E Ringnalda, Annette E Neele, Jan B van Klinken, Sander S Rensen, Jingyuan Fu, Menno P J de Winther, Albert K Groen, Patrick C N Rensen, Ko Willems van Dijk, Yanan Wang
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreases hepatic CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) expression albeit that the underlying mechanism is disputed. We recently showed that plasma CETP is mainly derived from Kupffer cells (KCs). In this study, we investigated the role of KC subsets in the mechanism by which LPS reduces CETP expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: In CETP-transgenic mice, LPS markedly decreased hepatic CETP expression and plasma CETP concentration without affecting hepatic macrophage number...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Martin Tibuakuu, Sina Kianoush, Andrew P DeFilippis, John W McEvoy, Di Zhao, Eliseo Guallar, Christie M Ballantyne, Ron C Hoogeveen, Michael J Blaha, Erin D Michos
Despite the causal role of cigarette smoking in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We evaluated the joint relation between smoking and inflammatory markers with ASCVD risk. We tested cross-sectional associations of self-reported smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (packs/day) with lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 ) activity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in 10,506 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities participants at Visit 4 (1996 to 1998)...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Ling Chen, Yufeng Li, Fang Zhang, Simin Zhang, Xianghai Zhou, Linong Ji
AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the association between serum ferritin levels and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus risk in a Chinese population. METHODS: This cohort study assessed 2,225 Chinese individuals aged 25-75 years. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed using the 1999 World Health Organization definition with a median follow-up period of 20 months. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident diabetes when serum ferritin concentrations increased by one standard deviation...
March 7, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Mohammad Abu Zaid, Wambui G Gathirua-Mwangi, Chunkit Fung, Patrick O Monahan, Omar El-Charif, Annalynn M Williams, Darren R Feldman, Robert J Hamilton, David J Vaughn, Clair J Beard, Ryan Cook, Sandra K Althouse, Shirin Ardeshir-Rouhani-Fard, Paul C Dinh, Howard D Sesso, Lawrence H Einhorn, Sophie D Fossa, Lois B Travis
Background: Testicular cancer survivors (TCS) are at significantly increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), with metabolic syndrome (MetS) an established risk factor. No study has addressed clinical and genetic MetS risk factors in North American TCS. Patients and Methods: TCS were aged <55 years at diagnosis and received first-line chemotherapy. Patients underwent physical examination, and had lipid panels, testosterone, and soluble cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) evaluated. A single nucleotide polymorphism in rs523349 (5-α-reductase gene, SRD5A2 ), recently implicated in MetS risk, was genotyped...
March 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Aleksandra Uruska, Dorota Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Pawel Niedzwiecki, Monika Pietrzak, Bogna Wierusz-Wysocka
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is an important clinical issue in patients with type 1 diabetes due to worse metabolic control and risk of development of chronic complications. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate simple and easily available parameters as indirect markers of IR in adults with type 1 diabetes and correlate it with the results of hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. METHODS: The study included 88 patients (62 men), aged 34...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Soon-Young Kim, Dong-Il Kim
Aging is associated with increased body fat and lower lean body mass, which leads to increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the association of regular participation in walking and body mass index (BMI) with metabolic syndrome and its 5 criteria in elderly Koreans. A total of 3554 (male = 1581, female = 1973) elderly subjects (age ≥ 65 years), who participated in the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V) were analyzed in this cross-sectional study...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Claus Uhrenholt Christensen, Emilie Glavind, Karen Louise Thomsen, Yong Ook Kim, Sara Heebøll, Detlef Schuppan, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Christian Würtz Heegaard, Henning Grønbæk
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic cholesterol deposition drives inflammation and fibrosis in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) protein plays an important role in regulating intracellular cholesterol trafficking and homeostasis. We hypothesized that intravenous NPC2 supplementation reduces cholesterol accumulation, hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis in a nutritional NASH rat model. METHODS: Rats were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet for four weeks resulting in moderately severe NASH...
2018: PloS One
Masahide Tokue, Raisuke Iijima, Masao Moroi, Masato Nakamura
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of intensive optimal medical therapy (OMT) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). To investigate our hypothesis that patients with and without OMT achievement differed with respect to the risk of future cardiac events, we investigated the endothelial function in patients with CAD who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and contemporary medical therapy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal cohort study to evaluate the endothelial function in 96 consecutive patients at 12 h after admission and 3 months at <12 h after admission and at 3 months after discharge by measuring the brachial artery dilatation after 5 min of forearm ischemia flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
March 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Hiroyuki Itabe, Rina Kato, Naoko Sasabe, Takashi Obama, Matsuo Yamamoto
Oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to be involved in various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. The presence of oxLDL in the human circulatory system and in atherosclerotic lesions has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Studies have shown the significance of circulating oxLDL in various systemic diseases, including acute myocardial infarction and diabetic mellitus. Several different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures to measure oxLDL were utilized...
March 6, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Yunes Panahi, Parisa Kianpour, Reza Mohtashami, Stephen L Atkin, Alexandra E Butler, Ramezan Jafari, Roghayeh Badeli, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is potentially treatable, though there are few therapeutic agents available. Artichoke leaf extract (ALE) has shown potential as a hepatoprotective agent. This study sought to determine if ALE had therapeutic utility in patients with established NAFLD. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group trial, 100 subjects with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD were randomized to either ALE 600 mg daily or placebo for a 2-month period...
March 9, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Juho Tynkkynen, Vincent Chouraki, Sven J van der Lee, Jussi Hernesniemi, Qiong Yang, Shuo Li, Alexa Beiser, Martin G Larson, Katri Sääksjärvi, Martin J Shipley, Archana Singh-Manoux, Robert E Gerszten, Thomas J Wang, Aki S Havulinna, Peter Würtz, Krista Fischer, Ayse Demirkan, M Arfan Ikram, Najaf Amin, Terho Lehtimäki, Mika Kähönen, Markus Perola, Andres Metspalu, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Mika Ala-Korpela, Ramachandran S Vasan, Mika Kivimäki, Cornelia M van Duijn, Sudha Seshadri, Veikko Salomaa
INTRODUCTION: Metabolite, lipid, and lipoprotein lipid profiling can provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We studied eight prospective cohorts with 22,623 participants profiled by nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry metabolomics. Four cohorts were used for discovery with replication undertaken in the other four to avoid false positives. For metabolites that survived replication, combined association results are presented...
February 28, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
K Tabeta, M Hosojima, M Nakajima, S Miyauchi, H Miyazawa, N Takahashi, Y Matsuda, N Sugita, Y Komatsu, K Sato, T Ishikawa, K Akiishi, K Yamazaki, K Kato, A Saito, H Yoshie
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous reports suggest that several serum biomarkers play roles in the pathogenesis, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in periodontitis caused by bacterial infections, linking chronic periodontitis to atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD). The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate, in a Japanese cross-sectional community survey, potential serum biomarkers of periodontitis that are associated with ASVD and chronic periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study cohort included a total of 108 male subjects who underwent annual health examinations...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Ajax M Atta, João Paulo C G Silva, Mittermayer B Santiago, Isabela S Oliveira, Rodrigo C Oliveira, Maria Luiza B Sousa Atta
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the presence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian SLE patients by evaluating their lipid profile and immune status, including the production of autoantibodies and cytokines involved in atherogenesis. Ninety-four female SLE patients participated in this study and, based on their lipid profile, were classified as dyslipidemic or not. All were tested for antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), antiphospholipid antibodies, and autoantibodies to extractable nuclear antigens and double-stranded DNA...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Jie Sun, Jinhao Xu, Yizhao Shen, Hongrong Wang, Mengzhi Wang, Lihuai Yu
Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine an optimal balance between the amount of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) to metabolizable glucose (MG) on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and growth performance of 8 to 10-month-old heifers. Methods: A total of 15 healthy Holstein heifers weighing an average of 256 kg (8 month of age) were randomly assigned to three groups of five. Treatment diets consisted of the following three peNDF8...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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