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G F Medley, H C Turner, R F Baggaley, C Holland, T D Hollingsworth
Diagnostics play a crucial role in determining treatment protocols and evaluating success of mass drug administration (MDA) programmes used to control soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The current diagnostic, Kato-Katz, relies on inexpensive, reusable materials and can be used in the field, but only trained microscopists can read slides. This diagnostic always underestimates the true prevalence of infection, and the accuracy worsens as the true prevalence falls. We investigate how more sensitive diagnostics would impact on the management and life cycle of MDA programmes, including number of mass treatment rounds, health impact, number of unnecessary treatments and probability of elimination...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Kristin J Robinson, Melissa Keaney, Jon J Vermeire, Joseph F Urban, Shawn R Lockery, John M Hawdon
The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device ('chip') that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping) of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs) are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels...
September 15, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Brian Lassen, Marilin Janson, Arvo Viltrop, Kädi Neare, Pirje Hütt, Irina Golovljova, Lea Tummeleht, Pikka Jokelainen
We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14-18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T...
2016: PloS One
Adane Derso, Endalkachew Nibret, Abaineh Munshea
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 among 384 pregnant women...
September 30, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kevin Gipson, Ryan Avery, Heena Shah, Derek Pepiak, Rodolfo E Bégué, John Malone, Luke A Wall
Löffler syndrome, a fulminant eosinophilic pneumonitis associated with the larval migratory phase of human parasites, is rarely reported in the United States. A previously healthy 8-year-old male was hospitalized with tachypnea, cough, hypoxemia, and fever of one week's duration. History revealed exposure to pigs on his family's farm in southernmost Louisiana, where the patient was responsible for cleaning the farm's pigpens. His fingernails were soiled and extremely short, with the edge of the nail bed exposed secondary to onychophagia...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Aurélia Stefani, Marie Cheuret, Duc N'Guyen, Stéphane Simon, Paul Brousse, Bernard Carme, Mathieu Nacher
INTRODUCTION: Most studies on nematode-malaria interactions were conducted outside of the Americas. The objective of the present study was thus to study the relation between malaria and nematodes in a cohort of children in an Amazonian village. METHODS: Odds ratios for intestinal nematode infections as an explanatory variable to malaria resistant vs. malaria sensitive were computed. RESULTS: Ascaris lumbricoides was significantly more frequent in the 'resistant' malaria group than in the 'sensitive' one...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
M Bagayan, D Zongo, A Oueda, H Sorgho, B Savadogo, F Drabo, A Ouedraogo, J N Poda, B G Kabre, Y Zhang
To determine the current status of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among schoolchildren after 10 years of mass treatment with praziquantel. Parasitological surveys were conducted in 2013 in 22 primary schools located in 11 regions of Burkina Faso. Urine filtration methods and Kato-Katz techniques for stool were used to detect the eggs of Schistosoma hæmatobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and STH. 3514 schoolchildren aged from 7 to 11 (1.415 ± 9) years participated in the study. The prevalence of S...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Jolanta Zdybel, Jacek Karamon, Mirosław Różycki, Ewa Bilska-Zając, Teresa Kłapeć, Tomasz Cencek
Because traditional methods used for sewage sludge parasitological examinations have low sensitivity, a new, highly effective method (own method - OM) was devised. The principle of this method is to eliminate the flocculent effect on the structure of sewage sludge by mechanically damaging floccules in the presence of surfactants and to increase the effectiveness of egg isolation processes in large volumes of liquids. The objective of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of the OM in detecting nematode eggs in sewage sludge samples containing flocculants...
September 28, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Junho Jung, Youngin Park, Ock-Joo Kim
Until the 1950s, Ascaris was regarded as an essential part of life which controls every aspect of human physiology among Koreans. Therefore, Ascaris should not be removed from human body. Efforts from medical professionals and the Korean government officials who wished to push forward the parasite control program, had to constantly contest with this perception of Ascaris among ordinary Koreans. In 1966, the 'Parasitic Disease Prevention Act' was promulgated and 'the Korean Association for Parasite Eradication (KAPE)' established in Korea...
August 2016: Ŭi Sahak
Christoph Lübbert, Sophie Schneitler
In recent years, global and regional crises have led to extraordinary worldwide migration, accompanied by an increase in long-distance travel from Western countries. Both are linked to a rising incidence of rare parasitic and infectious diseases in first world countries, including in the biliary tract. Areas covered: A selective literature research in PubMed was performed to review the most important parasitic and infectious biliary diseases, which are caused by a wide variety of pathogens and may be latent over long periods, with chronic courses leading to cholangitis, hepatic failure or development of cholangiocarcinoma...
October 4, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mohammad S Khuroo, Ajaz A Rather, Naira S Khuroo, Mehnaaz S Khuroo
Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis (HPA) was described as a clinical entity from Kashmir, India in 1985. HPA is caused by invasion and migration of nematode, Ascaris lumbricoides, in to the biliary tract and pancreatic duct. Patients present with biliary colic, cholangitis, cholecystitis, hepatic abscesses and acute pancreatitis. Ascarides traverse the ducts repeatedly, get trapped and die, leading to formation of hepatolithiasis. HPA is ubiquitous in endemic regions and in Kashmir, one such region, HPA is the etiological factor for 36...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Miguel M Cabada, Maria Luisa Morales, Martha Lopez, Spencer T Reynolds, Elizabeth C Vilchez, Andres G Lescano, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Hector Hugo Garcia, Clinton A White
Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Giuseppina Ortu, Mohamad Assoum, Udo Wittmann, Sarah Knowles, Michelle Clements, Onésime Ndayishimiye, Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Colleen Lau, Archie Clements, Alan Fenwick, Ricardo J Soares Magalhaes
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are amongst the most prevalent infections in the world. Mass drug administration (MDA) programmes have become the most commonly used national interventions for endemic countries to achieve elimination. This paper aims to describe the effect of an 8-year MDA programme on the prevalence, intensity of infection and co-infection of STH in Burundi from 2007 to 2014 and critically appraise the trajectory towards STH elimination in the country...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Bui Khac Hung, Nguyen Van De, Le Van Duyet, Jong-Yil Chai
To know the infection status of helminths in primary schoolchildren of southern parts of Vietnam, we performed an epidemiological study in Krong Pac district, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A total of 1,206 stool specimens were collected from ethnic Ede schoolchildren in 4 primary schools in 2015 and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. In addition, stool cultures were done by the Harada-Mori method to obtain hookworm larvae and then to clarify the species of hookworms infected. The results showed that the helminth infection rate was 25...
August 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Pelagie M Boko, Moudachirou Ibikounle, Ablawa Onzo-Aboki, Jean-Jacques Tougoue, Yollande Sissinto, Wilfrid Batcho, Dorothe Kinde-Gazard, Achille Kabore
In 2013, Benin developed strategies to control neglected tropical diseases and one of the first step was the disease mapping of the entire country in order to identify endemic districts of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STH). This study was carried out in 30 of the 77 districts of Benin. Of these 30 districts 22 were previously treated for Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) using the Ivermectin and Albendazole combination. In each district, five schools were selected and 50 children aged 8 to 14 years were sampled in each school, making a total of 250 children sampled in the district...
2016: PloS One
Fabienne Schubnell, Sereina von Ah, Robert Graage, Titus Sydler, Xaver Sidler, Daniela Hadorn, Walter Basso
In order to estimate the diversity, clinical involvement and zoonotic potential of parasites in pigs submitted for diagnosis to the PathoPig project of the Swiss Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office, faeces (n=125) from suckling piglets (n=39), weaners (n=60) and piglets beginning fattening (n=26) from 74 Swiss farms were examined by 3 coproscopical methods (i.e. sedimentation/zinc chloride-flotation; SAFC and Ziehl-Neelsen staining). Samples microscopically positive for Cryptosporidium were further tested by PCR/sequencing for species assessment...
December 2016: Parasitology International
Suzy J Campbell, Susana V Nery, Catherine A D'Este, Darren J Gray, James S McCarthy, Rebecca J Traub, Ross M Andrews, Stacey Llewellyn, Andrew J Vallely, Gail M Williams, Salvador Amaral, Archie Ca Clements
There is little evidence on prevalence or risk factors for soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Timor-Leste. This study describes the epidemiology, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), and socioeconomic risk factors of STH and intestinal protozoa among communities in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. As part of a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT), a baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted across 18 villages, with data from six additional villages. Stool samples were assessed for STH and protozoal infections using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and questionnaires administered to collect WASH and socioeconomic data...
September 8, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
C Muñoz-Antoli, A Pavón, P Pérez, R Toledo, J G Esteban
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) prevalence, intensity, polyparasitism and co-infections in 425 children from 3 schools of Laguna de Perlas (Nicaragua) were investigated. Single stool samples were analysed by the formalin-ether method and the Kato-Katz. A total of 402 (94.6%) children were infected. Trichuris trichiura 308 (72.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides 115 (27.1%) and Hookworms 54 (12.7%) were the most prevalent STHs. Polyparasitism (322; 75.8%) with two species was most prevalent (109; 25.6%). T. trichiura with A...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Taís Rondello Bonatti, Regina Maura Bueno Franco
Biosolid is the product of the activated sludge treatment system and its final disposition is subject of ongoing discussion as this residue can therefore harbor a great number and variety of pathogens. This study was aimed to (1) monitor the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in biosolid samples from a treatment plant in Campinas, SP, Brazil, (2) observe Giardia cyst wall morphological integrity in treated samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (3) verify the presence and viability of helminth eggs...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Maryam Hassan Esfehani, Abdolhadi Jahanshahi, Amirhossein Karimi
Ascariasis lumbricoides is the most common soil-transmitted helminth worldwide and most often is asymptomatic, although it can present with abdominal pain, malabsorption and growth failure, complete or partial obstraction in small bowel and biliary system and etc. Accidental encounters with ascaris during emergent abdominal surgeries are very rare and have been reported in less than a handful of papers. In this report, we describe this rare event from a country with low prevalence of this infection, and then review the literatures and clarify the possible challenges for surgeons during operation and postoperative follow-up...
July 2016: Chirurgia
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