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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667505/a-comprehensive-screening-shows-that-ergothioneine-is-the-most-abundant-antioxidant-in-the-wild-macrofungus-phylloporia-ribis-ryvarden
#1
Hengqiang Zhao, Minmin Zhang, Qian Liu, Xiaoli Wang, Ruixuan Zhao, Yanling Geng, Tityee Wong, Shengbo Li, Xiao Wang
The polar and non-polar extracts from the authenticated wild mushroom Phylloporia ribis were separated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and by reverse phase (RP)-HPLC, respectively. A split valve separated the eluents into two fractions for free-radical scavenging analysis and for structural identification. Forty-six compounds showed scavenging activity of the stable-free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The structures of 8 antioxidants (inosine, caffeic acid, ergothioneine, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, adenosine, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, apigenin, and naringenin) are characterized by Mass Spectrometer...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667460/clinical-utility-of-remote-platelet-function-measurement-using-p-selectin-assessment-of-aspirin-clopidogrel-and-prasugrel-and-bleeding-disorders
#2
Philip M Bath, Jane May, Stan Heptinstall
Vascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke are associated with increased platelet function whilst the risk of recurrence is reduced by antiplatelet agents such as aspirin, clopidogrel, and prasugrel. However, some patients exhibit high platelet reactivity, especially with clopidogrel. Existing platelet function tests may not be ideal in that they can be expensive, are often time consuming, and measurements must be made near to the patient and within a few hours of blood collection. Platelet activation leads to translocation of P-selectin from alpha-granules to the cell surface...
April 18, 2018: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667458/sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-ongoing-challenges-in-finding-mechanisms-and-prevention
#3
Doungporn Ruthirago, Parunyou Julayanont, Amputch Karukote, Mohamed Shehabeldin, Kenneth Nugent
Patients with epilepsy have a significantly higher risk of death than the general population. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of sudden death among patients with epilepsy. Despite on-going research, there are still deficits in our knowledge about the mechanisms, genetic factors, and prevention of SUDEP. Current evidence suggests that cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory dysfunction, and brainstem arousal system dysfunction are the major mechanisms of SUDEP, and animal models support the role of neurotransmitters, especially serotonin and adenosine, in pathophysiology of SUDEP...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666562/preclinical-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-18-f-fe-suppy-for-cancer-pet-imaging-limitations-of-a-xenograft-model-for-colorectal-cancer
#4
T Balber, J Singer, N Berroterán-Infante, M Dumanic, L Fetty, J Fazekas-Singer, C Vraka, L Nics, M Bergmann, K Pallitsch, H Spreitzer, W Wadsak, M Hacker, E Jensen-Jarolim, H Viernstein, M Mitterhauser
Molecular imaging probes such as PET-tracers have the potential to improve the accuracy of tumor characterization by directly visualizing the biochemical situation. Thus, molecular changes can be detected early before morphological manifestation. The A3 adenosine receptor (A3 AR) is described to be highly expressed in colon cancer cell lines and human colorectal cancer (CRC), suggesting this receptor as a tumor marker. The aim of this preclinical study was the evaluation of [18 F]FE@SUPPY as a PET-tracer for CRC using in vitro imaging and in vivo PET imaging...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666214/metabolic-abnormalities-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-a-mini-review
#5
REVIEW
Cara Tomas, Julia Newton
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), commonly known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology. CFS/ME is a heterogeneous disease associated with a myriad of symptoms but with severe, prolonged fatigue as the core symptom associated with the disease. There are currently no known biomarkers for the disease, largely due to the lack of knowledge surrounding the eitopathogenesis of CFS/ME. Numerous studies have been conducted in an attempt to identify potential biomarkers for the disease...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666144/sporadic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-sals-skeletal-muscle-response-to-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-sals-patients-in-a-rat-model
#6
Shruthi Shanmukha, Gayathri Narayanappa, Atchayaram Nalini, Phalguni Anand Alladi, Trichur R Raju
Skeletal muscle atrophy is the most prominent feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons. However, the contribution of skeletal muscle to disease progression remains elusive. Our previous studies have shown that intrathecal injection of cerebrospinal fluid from sporadic ALS patients (ALS-CSF) induces several degenerative changes in motor neurons and glia of neonatal rats. Here, we describe various pathologic events in the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle following intrathecal injection of ALS-CSF...
April 16, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665726/dexmedetomidine-mitigates-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation-through-up-regulation-of-programmed-cell-death-protein-1-in-a-rat-spinal-cord-injury-model
#7
Hefan He, Yingying Zhou, Yilin Zhou, Jiayuan Zhuang, Xu He, Siyuan Wang, Wenping Lin
Excessive neuroinflammation aggravates neurological damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Controlling neuroinflammation might favor neuroregeneration and tissue repair. Dexmedetomidine is reported to inhibit post-SCI neuroinflammation in previous research. In the current study, to determine the mechanisms by which dexmedetomidine inhibits neuroinflammation, we tested the effect of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride on microglia in vitro and in a rat SCI model. We found that dexmedetomidine hydrochloride up-regulated programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), an immunoregulatory molecule, in activated microglia but not in resting microglia...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665374/spectrum-of-activity-testing-for-therapeutics-against-all-four-dengue-virus-serotypes-in-ag129-mouse-models-proof-of-concept-studies-with-the-adenosine-nucleoside-inhibitor-nitd-008
#8
Gregg N Milligan, Mellodee White, Diana Zavala, Richard B Pyles, Vanessa V Sarathy, Alan D T Barrett, Nigel Bourne
Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease of global public health importance caused by four genetically and serologically related viruses (DENV-1 to DENV-4). Efforts to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics for dengue have been slowed by the paucity of preclinical models that mimic human disease. DENV-2 models in interferon receptor deficient AG129 mice were an important advance but only allowed testing against a single DENV serotype. We have developed complementary AG129 mouse models of severe disseminated dengue infection using strains of the other three DENV serotypes...
April 14, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665355/combination-therapy-with-polydeoxyribonucleotide-and-proton-pump-inhibitor-enhances-therapeutic-effectiveness-for-gastric-ulcer-in-rats
#9
Il-Gyu Ko, Sung-Eun Kim, Jun-Jang Jin, Lakkyong Hwang, Eun-Sang Ji, Chang-Ju Kim, Jin-Hee Han, In Taik Hong, Min Seop Kwak, Jin Young Yoon, Hyun Phil Shin, Jung Won Jeon
AIMS: The main action of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is to inhibit gastric acid secretion, and PPIs are widely used to treat gastric ulcer (GU). However, if the action of promoting gastric mucosal regeneration is added, the effectiveness of GU treatment can be enhanced. Thus, in order to improve the therapeutic effect on GU, we tried to develop combination therapy promoting regeneration in injured tissue besides suppressing gastric acid secretion. MAIN METHODS: Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) was selected to evaluate tissue regeneration, and pantoprazole was chosen as one of the PPIs...
April 14, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665200/superchilled-storage-2-5-%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-c-extends-the-retention-of-taste-active-and-volatile-compounds-of-yellow-feather-chicken-soup
#10
Xiao Li, Jing Zhu, Jun Qi, Peng Wang, Xinglian Xu, Guanghong Zhou
This work investigated the effects of refrigerated storage (RS: 4 ± 1°C) and superchilled storage (SS: -2.5 ± 1°C) on non-volatile and volatile compounds in chicken soup made from Chinese yellow-feather broilers. The results from total viable count (TVC) and coliform analysis showed that soups were safe for human consumption after a storage period of 42 days. SS resulted in a significantly (p < .05) higher content of free amino acids (umami and sweet taste) and 5'-nucleotides (inosine 5'-monophosphate and adenosine 5'-monophosphate) from 21 to 42 days compared to RS...
April 17, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664760/effect-of-routine-clopidogrel-use-on-bleeding-complications-after-endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration
#11
Tracey N Webb, Eric Flenaugh, Ralitza Martin, Christopher Parks, Rabih I Bechara
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasonography has proven to be highly sensitive and specific in the diagnoses of patients with mediastinal and hilar adenopathy. Many of these patients are on a combination of clopidogrel (a compound that inhibits adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation) and aspirin due to neurological and/or cardiac-related comorbidities, and stopping anticoagulation may place these patients at high risk for potential complications. Our group has previously showed that thoracentesis with an 8-french catheter is safe in patients receiving clopidogrel and aspirin with low risk of complications...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663888/functional-cross-talk-between-adenosine-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors
#12
David Agustin Leon-Navarro, Jose Luis Albasanz, Mairena Martin
G-protein coupled receptors are transmembrane proteins widely expressed in cells and their transduction pathways are mediated by controlling second messenger levels through different G-protein interactions. Many of these receptors have been described as involved in the physiopathology of neurodegenerative diseases and even considered as potential targets for the design of novel therapeutic strategies. Endogenous and synthetic allosteric and orthosteric selective ligands are able to modulate GPCRs at both gene and protein expression levels and can also modify their physiological function...
April 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663879/anti-cancer-effects-of-metformin-recent-evidences-for-its-role-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-cancer
#13
Masoumeh Kheirandish, Hamidreza Mahboobi, Maryam Yazdanparast, Warda Kamal, Mohammad A Kamal
Metformin is widely used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recently growing evidence has shown its anti-cancer effects. The results are mainly obtained from observational studies and thus, little information is available concerning the mechanisms of action. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in the mechanism of action of metformin. The anti-cancer mechanisms of metformin include direct and indirect effects. The direct effects of metformin include AMPK-independent and AMPK-dependent effects, whereas the decrease in glucose level, hyperinsulinemia, and Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level was considered its indirect effects...
April 16, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663589/tying-trafficking-to-fusion-and-fission-at-the-mighty-mitochondria
#14
REVIEW
Trey Farmer, Naava Naslavsky, Steve Caplan
The mitochondrion is a unique organelle that serves as the main site of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation needed for energy in the cell. However, mitochondria also play essential roles in cell death through apoptosis and necrosis, as well as a variety of crucial functions related to stress regulation, autophagy, lipid synthesis, and calcium storage. There is a growing appreciation that mitochondrial function is regulated by the dynamics of its membrane fusion and fission; longer, fused mitochondria are optimal for ATP generation, whereas fission of mitochondria facilitates mitophagy and cell division...
April 16, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663535/hypothyroidism-and-hyperthyroidism-change-ectoenzyme-activity-in-rat-platelets
#15
Jucimara Baldissarelli, Adriana Santi, Roberta Schmatz, Caroline C Martins, Daniela Zanini, Karine P Reichert, Gustavo R Thomé, Taís V Palma, Pauline da Costa, Vera M Morsch, Maria R C Schetinger
The purinergic system has an important role in the regulation of vascular functions. The interference of thyroid hormones in this system and in cardiovascular events has been studied in recent years. However, the mechanisms involved in vascular, purinergic, and oxidative changes in thyroid disorders are not completely understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess purinergic enzyme activity in platelets from rats with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism induced, respectively, by continuous exposure to methimazole (MMI) at 20 mg/100 mL or L-thyroxine at 1...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663481/the-ampk-v-atpase-ph-axis-a-key-regulator-of-the-pro-fibrogenic-phenotype-of-human-hepatic-stellate-cells
#16
Giusi Marrone, Francesco De Chiara, Katrin Böttcher, Ana Levi, Dipok Dhar, Lisa Longato, Giuseppe Mazza, Zhenzhen Zhang, Martina Marrali, Anabel Fernández- Iglesias, Andrew Hall, Tu Vinh Luong, Benoit Viollet, Massimo Pinzani, Krista Rombouts
Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are characterized by activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) which is associated with higher intracellular pH (pHi). The vacuolar H+ adenosine-tri-phosphatase (v-ATPase) multi-subunit complex is a key regulator of intracellular pH homeostasis. The present work was aimed at investigating the functional role of v-ATPase in primary human HSC (hHSC) activation and its modulation by specific AMPK subunits. Here, we demonstrated that the expression of different v-ATPase subunits was increased in in vivo and in vitro activated hHSC, compared to non-activated hHSC...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663407/ground-beef-high-in-total-fat-and-saturated-fatty-acids-decreases-x-receptor-signaling-targets-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-men-and-women
#17
Seong H Choi, Ghazal Gharahmany, Rosemary L Walzem, Thomas H Meade, Stephen B Smith
We hypothesized that consumption of saturated fatty acids in the form of high-fat ground beef for 5 weeks would depress liver X receptor signaling targets in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and that changes in gene expression would be associated with the corresponding changes in lipoprotein cholesterol (C) concentrations. Older men (n = 5, age 68.0 ± 4.6 years) and postmenopausal women (n = 7, age 60.9 ± 3.1 years) were assigned randomly to consume ground-beef containing 18% total fat (18F) or 25% total fat (25F), five patties per week for 5 weeks with an intervening 4-week washout period...
April 16, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663369/specific-blockade-cd73-alters-the-exhausted-phenotype-of-t-cells-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#18
Wei-Wei Deng, Yi-Cun Li, Si-Rui Ma, Liang Mao, Guang-Tao Yu, Lin-Lin Bu, Ashok B Kulkarni, Wen-Feng Zhang, Zhi-Jun Sun
The adenosine-induced immunosuppression hampers the immune response toward tumor cells and facilitates the tumor cells to evade immunosurveillance. CD73, an ecto-5-nucleotidase, is the ectoenzyme dephosphorylating extracellular AMP to adenosine. Here, using immunocompetent transgenic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) mouse model, immune profiling showed high expression of CD73 on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was associated with an 'exhausted' phenotype. Further, treatment with anti-CD73 monoclonal antibody (mAb) significantly blunted the tumor growth in the mouse model, and the blockade of CD73 reversed the 'exhausted' phenotype of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells through downregulation of total expression of PD-1 and CTLA-4 on T cells...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662820/effects-of-selenium-on-the-survival-and-invasion-of-trophoblasts
#19
Jee Yoon Na, Jin Seok, Sohae Park, Jung Seok Kim, Gi Jin Kim
Objective: Placental oxidative stress is known to be a factor that contributes to pregnancy failure. The aim of this study was to determine whether selenium could induce antioxidant gene expression and regulate invasive activity and mitochondrial activity in trophoblasts, which are a major cell type of the placenta. Methods: To understand the effects of selenium on trophoblast cells exposed to hypoxia, the viability and invasive activity of trophoblasts were analyzed...
March 2018: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662780/distinct-metabolic-programs-induced-by-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-bmp2-in-human-articular-chondrocytes-with-osteoarthritis
#20
Cuicui Wang, Richard M Silverman, Jie Shen, Regis J O'Keefe
Objectives: Cellular energy metabolism is important for the function of all tissues, including cartilage. Recent studies indicate that superficial and deep subpopulations of articular chondrocytes (ACs) have distinct metabolic profiles. At the cellular and molecular level, osteoarthritis (OA) is characterised by alteration from a healthy homoeostatic state towards a catabolic state. Several molecular pathways, including transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling, have been identified as critical players in the pathogenesis and progression of OA...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
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