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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823059/influence-of-dextrins-on-the-production-of-spiramycin-and-impurity-components-by-streptomyces-ambofaciens
#1
Kaiya Yao, Shuhong Gao, Yanjie Wu, Zhen Zhao, Wen Wang, Quangui Mao
Spiramycin is a 16-membered macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens and used in human medicine for the treatment of various respiratory tract and genital infections. Several impurities were detected in spiramycin-fermentation broth, especially impurities D and F, which decreased the separation-extraction yield and increased production cost. Dextrins, as the main carbon source, influence the accumulation of spiramycin and impurities. In this work, two types of dextrin from vendor Y and Z were compared to study their influences on spiramycin production...
August 19, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822994/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-stimulates-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-in-human-adipocytes
#2
Joanna Góralska, Agnieszka Śliwa, Anna Gruca, Urszula Raźny, Monika Chojnacka, Anna Polus, Bogdan Solnica, Małgorzata Malczewska-Malec
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are relatively new pharmacological agents used to normalize glucose level in type 2 diabetes. Recently, GLP-1RAs have been approved for the treatment of obesity to reduce body weight in non-diabetic patients. The extra-pancre-atic effects of GLP-1RAs, as well as their molecular mechanism of action, are still poorly understood. Thus this study was aimed to verify the hypothesis that the mechanism of action of the GLP-1RAs involves mitochondria and that GLP-1RAs administration can improve mitochondrial functions...
August 19, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822849/cyclic-3-5-adenosine-monophosphate-camp-signaling-in-the-anterior-pituitary-gland-in-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Laura C Hernández-Ramírez, Giampaolo Trivellin, Constantine A Stratakis
The cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was the first among the so-called "second messengers" to be described. It is conserved in most organisms and functions as a signal transducer by mediating the intracellular effects of multiple hormones and neurotransmitters. In this review, we first delineate how different members of the cAMP pathway ensure its correct compartmentalization and activity, mediate the terminal intracellular effects, and allow the crosstalk with other signaling pathways. We then focus on the pituitary gland, where cAMP exerts a crucial function by controlling the responsiveness of the cells to hypothalamic hormones, neurotransmitters and peripheral factors...
August 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822657/a-systematic-review-of-muscle-morphology-and-function-in-intermittent-claudication
#4
REVIEW
Amy E Harwood, Stephanie King, Joshua Totty, George E Smith, Natalie Vanicek, Ian C Chetter
OBJECTIVE: Intermittent claudication (IC) is frequently associated with deterioration in walking capacity and physical function, and it can often result in an impairment in balance. Whereas supervised exercise is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence as the first-line treatment, the mechanism behind walking improvement is poorly understood. The existing literature suggests that there may be some physiologic change to the skeletal muscle contributing to the functional impairment, but these data are conflicting...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822596/corrigendum-to-extracellular-atp-and-adenosine-the-yin-and-yang-in-immune-responses-molecular-aspects-of-medicine-55-2017-9-19
#5
M M Faas, T Saez, P de Vos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821991/transcranial-doppler-in-autonomic-testing-standards-and-clinical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Brahyan Galindo-Mendez, Ana-Lucia Garcia-Guarniz, Estibaliz Villarreal-Vitorica, Vera Novak
When cerebral blood flow falls below a critical limit, syncope occurs and, if prolonged, ischemia leads to neuronal death. The cerebral circulation has its own complex finely tuned autoregulatory mechanisms to ensure blood supply to the brain can meet the high metabolic demands of the underlying neuronal tissue. This involves the interplay between myogenic and metabolic mechanisms, input from noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons, and the release of vasoactive substrates, including adenosine from astrocytes and nitric oxide from the endothelium...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820988/integrating-printed-microfluidics-with-silicon-photomultipliers-for-miniaturised-and-highly-sensitive-atp-bioluminescence-detection
#7
M F Santangelo, S Libertino, A P F Turner, D Filippini, W C Mak
Bioluminescence has been widely used for important biosensing applications such as the measurement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy unit in biological systems and an indicator of vital processes. The current technology for detection is mainly based on large equipment such as readers and imaging systems, which require intensive and time-consuming procedures. A miniaturised bioluminescence sensing system, which would allow sensitive and continuous monitoring of ATP, with an integrated and low-cost disposable microfluidic chamber for handling of biological samples, is highly desirable...
July 27, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820983/a-sensitive-method-for-the-separation-and-quantification-of-low-level-adenine-nucleotides-using-porous-graphitic-carbon-based-liquid-chromatography-and-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
Sonia Bustamante, Robert B Gilchrist, Dulama Richani
A liquid chromatography coupled to heated electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of low nanomolar level adenine nucleotides AMP, ADP, ATP, cyclic AMP (cAMP), and the nucleoside adenosine. For analyte retention and separation, reverse phase chromatography using porous graphitic carbon (PGC) was employed as it provided full resolution. The erratic chromatographic behaviour characteristic of PGC, including deterioration of analyte resolution and increased peak tailing (leading to decreased sensitivity), was mitigated by incorporating acidic equilibration within runs using a quaternary gradient...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820319/a-to-i-rna-editing-thinking-beyond-the-single-nucleotide
#9
Nabeel S Ganem, Ayelet T Lamm
Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing is a conserved process, which is performed by ADAR enzymes. By changing nucleotides in coding regions of genes and altering codons, ADARs expand the cell's protein repertoire. This function of the ADAR enzymes is essential for human brain development. However, most of the known editing sites are in non-coding repetitive regions in the transcriptome and the purpose of editing in these regions is unclear. Recent studies, which have shown that editing levels of transcripts vary between tissues and developmental stages in many organisms, suggest that the targeted RNA and ADAR editing are both regulated...
August 18, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819965/enzymes-involved-in-ampylation-and-deampylation
#10
Amanda K Casey, Kim Orth
Posttranslational modifications are covalent changes made to proteins that typically alter the function or location of the protein. AMPylation is an emerging posttranslational modification that involves the addition of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to a protein. Like other, more well-studied posttranslational modifications, AMPylation is predicted to regulate the activity of the modified target proteins. However, the scope of this modification both in bacteria and in eukaryotes remains to be fully determined...
August 18, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819898/regulation-of-hepatic-na-k-atpase-in-obese-female-and-male-rats-involvement-of-erk1-2-ampk-and-rho-rock
#11
Julijana Stanimirovic, Milan Obradovic, Anastasija Panic, Voin Petrovic, Dragan Alavantic, Irena Melih, Esma R Isenovic
In this study, we assessed whether the disturbed regulation of sodium/potassium-adenosine-triphosphatase (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) occurs as a consequence of obesity-induced IR in sex-specific manner. We also assessed whether alterations of IRS/PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, AMPKα, and RhoA/ROCK signaling cascades have an important role in this pathology. Female and male Wistar rats (150-200 g, 8 weeks old) were fed a standard laboratory diet or a high-fat (HF) diet (42% fat) for 10 weeks. The activity of hepatic Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Rho, and the association of IRS-1/p85 were assessed in liver...
August 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819885/adenosine-assisted-clipping-of-intracranial-aneurysms
#12
Torstein R Meling, Luis Romundstad, Geir Niemi, Jon Narum, Per Kristian Eide, Angelika G Sorteberg, Wilhelm A Sorteberg
Temporary parent vessel clip occlusion in aneurysm surgery is not always practical or feasible. Adenosine-induced transient cardiac arrest may serve as an alternative. We retrospectively reviewed our clinical database between September 2011 and July 2014. All patients who underwent microsurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms under adenosine-induced asystole were included. A total of 18 craniotomies were performed, and 18 aneurysms were clipped under adenosine-induced asystole (7 basilar arteries, 8 internal carotid arteries, 1 middle cerebral artery, and 1 anterior communicating artery) in 16 patients (10 females, 6 males)...
August 17, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819643/membrane-localization-of-acetylated-cnk1-mediates-a-positive-feedback-on-raf-erk-signaling
#13
Adrian Fischer, Wignand W D Mühlhäuser, Bettina Warscheid, Gerald Radziwill
Spatiotemporal control is a common mechanism that modulates activity and function of signal transducers in the signaling network. We identified acetylation of CNK1 (connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras-1) as a late step in the activation of CNK1 signaling, accompanied with prolonged stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We identified the acetyltransferase CREB (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein)-binding protein and the deacetylase SIRT2 (sirtuin type 2) as novel binding partners of CNK1, modulating the acetylation state of CNK1...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819113/insights-into-the-role-of-endonuclease-v-in-rna-metabolism-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#14
Daniel García-Caballero, Guiomar Pérez-Moreno, Antonio M Estévez, Luis Miguel Ruíz-Pérez, Antonio E Vidal, Dolores González-Pacanowska
Inosine may arise in DNA as a result of oxidative deamination of adenine or misincorporation of deoxyinosine triphosphate during replication. On the other hand, the occurrence of inosine in RNA is considered a normal and essential modification induced by specific adenosine deaminases acting on mRNA and tRNA. In prokaryotes, endonuclease V (EndoV) can recognize and cleave inosine-containing DNA. In contrast, mammalian EndoVs preferentially cleave inosine-containing RNA, suggesting a role in RNA metabolism for the eukaryotic members of this protein family...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818799/an-ultrafiltration-and-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-diode-array-detector-and-mass-spectrometry-approach-for-screening-and-characterizing-thrombin-inhibitors-from-rhizoma-chuanxiong
#15
Qian Zhang, Yu-Xiu Yang, Su-Ying Li, Ya-Li Wang, Feng-Qing Yang, Hua Chen, Zhi-Ning Xia
Thrombin (THR) plays a significant role in thromboembolic diseases, direct THR inhibitors are a class of important clinical anticoagulant drugs. This study established a THR in-solution based biospecific extraction combined with ultrafiltration and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and mass spectrometry analysis (TUA) method to screen and identify ligands for THR in Rhizoma Chuanxiong. After evaluating the reliability of the present TUA method using positive (argatroban) and negative (adenosine, tirofiban, ticagrelor) control drugs, this method was successfully applied to detect eight potential active compounds in Rhizoma Chuanxiong...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818657/activity-guided-isolation-and-structural-identification-of-immunomodulating-substances-from-pleurotus-eryngii-byproducts
#16
Yanan Sun, Wenxiang Li
A two-step extraction process was used to investigate the bioactive substances from the byproducts of the fungus Pleurotus eryngii. Methanol extraction followed by extraction using different polar solvents coupled with silica column chromatography was carried out to separate the bioactive components. The immunomodulating activity of the extracts was investigated using Ana-1 mouse macrophage cells. At 25μg/mL, the butyl alcohol extract showed the highest enhancement of Ana-1 cell proliferative activity and secretion of cytokines...
August 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818208/catecholamine-dependent-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-a-pluripotent-stem-cell-model%C3%A2-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#17
Thomas Borchert, Daniela Hübscher, Celina I Guessoum, Tuan-Dinh D Lam, Jelena R Ghadri, Isabel N Schellinger, Malte Tiburcy, Norman Y Liaw, Yun Li, Jan Haas, Samuel Sossalla, Mia A Huber, Lukas Cyganek, Claudius Jacobshagen, Ralf Dressel, Uwe Raaz, Viacheslav O Nikolaev, Kaomei Guan, Holger Thiele, Benjamin Meder, Bernd Wollnik, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Thomas F Lüscher, Gerd Hasenfuss, Christian Templin, Katrin Streckfuss-Bömeke
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by an acute left ventricular dysfunction and is associated with life-threating complications in the acute phase. The underlying disease mechanism in TTS is still unknown. A genetic basis has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to establish an in vitro induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of TTS, to test the hypothesis of altered β-adrenergic signaling in TTS iPSC-cardiomyocytes (CMs), and to explore whether genetic susceptibility underlies the pathophysiology of TTS...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816773/synergistic-antitumor-effect-of-3-bromopyruvate-and-5-fluorouracil-against-human-colorectal-cancer-through-cell-cycle-arrest-and-induction-of-apoptosis
#18
Dianlong Chong, Linyan Ma, Fang Liu, Zhirui Zhang, Surong Zhao, Qiang Huo, Pei Zhang, Hailun Zheng, Hao Liu
3-Bromopyruvic acid (3-BP) is a well-known inhibitor of energy metabolism. It has been proposed as an anticancer agent as well as a chemosensitizer for use in combination with anticancer drugs. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for colorectal cancer; however, most patients develop resistance to 5-FU through various mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 3-BP has a synergistic antitumor effect with 5-FU on human colorectal cancer cells. In our study, combined 3-BP and 5-FU treatment upregulated p53 and p21, whereas cyclin-dependent kinase CDK4 and CDK2 were downregulated, which led to G0/G1 phase arrest...
September 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815566/maturation-promoting-factor-destabilization-mediates-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-induced-meiotic-resumption-in-rat-oocytes
#19
Meenakshi Tiwari, Shail K Chaube
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) mimics the action of luteinizing hormone (LH) and triggers meiotic maturation and ovulation in mammals. The mechanism by which hCG triggers meiotic resumption in mammalian oocytes remains poorly understood. We aimed to find out the impact of hCG surge on morphological changes, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), cell division cycle 25B (Cdc25B), Wee1, early mitotic inhibitor 2 (Emi2), anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), meiotic arrest deficient protein 2 (MAD2), phosphorylation status of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), its activity and cyclin B1 expression levels during meiotic resumption from diplotene as well as metaphase-II (M-II) arrest in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs)...
August 16, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815512/p2y2-receptor-functions-in-cancer-a-perspective-in-the-context-of-colorectal-cancer
#20
Fernand-Pierre Gendron, Morgane Placet, Guillaume Arguin
Purinergic signaling has recently emerged as a network of signaling molecules, enzymes and receptors that coordinates the action and behavior of cancerous cells. Extracellular adenosine 5' triphosphate activates a plethora of P2 nucleotide receptors that can putatively modulate cancer cell proliferation, survival and dissemination. In this context, the G protein-coupled P2Y2 receptor was identified as one of the entities coordinating the cellular and molecular events that characterize cancerous cells. In this chapter, we will look at the contribution of the P2Y2 receptor in cancer outcomes and use this information to demonstrate that the P2Y2 receptor represents a drug target of interest in the setting of colorectal cancer, for which the role and function of this receptor is poorly defined...
August 17, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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