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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457131/keeping-an-eye-on-bardet-biedl-syndrome-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-role-of-bardet-biedl-syndrome-genes-in-the-eye
#1
Katie Weihbrecht, Wesley A Goar, Thomas Pak, Janelle E Garrison, Adam P DeLuca, Edwin M Stone, Todd E Scheetz, Val C Sheffield
Upwards of 90% of individuals with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) display rod-cone dystrophy with early macular involvement. BBS is an autosomal recessive, genetically heterogeneous, pleiotropic ciliopathy for which 21 causative genes have been discovered to date. In addition to retinal degeneration, the cardinal features of BBS include obesity, cognitive impairment, renal anomalies, polydactyly, and hypogonadism. Here, we review the genes, proteins, and protein complexes involved in BBS and the BBS model organisms available for the study of retinal degeneration...
September 2017: Medical Research Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456184/quantified-f-actin-morphology-is-predictive-of-phagocytic-capacity-of-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#2
Claudia Müller, Carol Charniga, Sally Temple, Silvia C Finnemann
With stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) replacement therapies in clinical testing, establishing potency of RPE prior to transplantation is imperative. Phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segment fragments (POS) is a key indicator of RPE functionality. Comparing RPE derived from different donor human adult RPE stem cell lines, we found that cells were either high-phagocytic or low-phagocytic despite sharing phagocytic receptors and ligands, junctional ZO-1, and lack of epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
February 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456174/bilateral-maculopathy-after-exposure-to-a-laser-pointer-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-findings
#3
R Clemente-Tomás, P Bayo-Calduch, P Neira-Ibáñez, A Gargallo-Benedicto, A M Duch-Samper
CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old man went to the emergency department the day after exposure to a laser pointer. Funduscopy revealed dispersed macular pigment alterations, and optical coherence tomography showed a disruption of the retinal layers. The visual acuity was counting fingers in both eyes. Nine months later, optical coherence tomography angiography showed a rarefaction in the choriocapillaris vascular flow in the area of the laser injuries. DISCUSSION: The retinal layer mainly damaged by the laser injury was the retinal pigment epithelium...
February 15, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456141/inhomogeneous-encoding-of-the-visual-field-in-the-mouse-retina
#4
Rebekah A Warwick, Nathali Kaushansky, Nimrod Sarid, Amir Golan, Michal Rivlin-Etzion
Stimulus characteristics of the mouse's visual field differ above and below the skyline. Here, we show for the first time that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the output neurons of the retina, gradually change their functional properties along the ventral-dorsal axis to allow better representation of the different stimulus characteristics. We conducted two-photon targeted recordings of transient-Offα-RGCs and found that they gradually became more sustained along the ventral-dorsal axis, revealing >5-fold-longer duration responses in the dorsal retina...
February 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455984/hyaluronate-coating-enhances-the-delivery-and-biocompatibility-of-gold-nanoparticles
#5
Bedia Begum Karakocak, Jue Liang, Pratim Biswas, Nathan Ravi
For targeted delivery with nanoparticles (NPs) as drug carriers, it is imperative that the NPs are internalized into the targeted cell. Surface properties of NPs influence their interactions with cells. We examined the responses of retinal pigment epithelial cells, NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells, and Chinese hamster ovary cells to gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in their nascent form as well as coated with end-thiolated hyaluronate (HS-HA). The grafting density of HS-HA on Au NPs was calculated based on total organic carbon measurements and thermal gravimetric analysis...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455557/the-effects-of-rutin-on-cisplatin-induced-oxidative-retinal-and-optic-nerve-injury-an-experimental-study
#6
Nurdan Gamze Taşlı, Turgay Uçak, Yücel Karakurt, Ferda Keskin Çimen, Aslı Özbek Bilgin, Nezahat Kurt, Halis Süleyman
AIM: To determine the role of rutin in prevention of cisplatin induced retinal and optic nerve injury in an experimental study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Totally 18 albino Wistar male rats were assigned into 3 groups, as follows: healthy controls (HC group), only cisplatin administered group for 14 days (CIS group), and Rutin + cisplatin administered group for 14 days (RC group). Blood samples were obtained from animals just before the scarification. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), Myeloperoxidase (MPO), total glutathione (tGSH), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels were investigated...
February 19, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455260/performance-evaluation-of-state-of-the-art-local-feature-detectors-and-descriptors-in-the-context-of-longitudinal-registration-of-retinal-images
#7
Sajib K Saha, Di Xiao, Shaun Frost, Yogesan Kanagasingam
In this paper we systematically evaluate the performance of several state-of-the-art local feature detectors and descriptors in the context of longitudinal registration of retinal images. Longitudinal (temporal) registration facilitates to track the changes in the retina that has happened over time. A wide number of local feature detectors and descriptors exist and many of them have already applied for retinal image registration, however, no comparative evaluation has been made so far to analyse their respective performance...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454993/in-vitro-studies-of-disease-linked-variants-of-human-trna-nucleotidyltransferase-reveal-decreased-thermal-stability-and-altered-catalytic-activity
#8
M Leibovitch, P J Hanic-Joyce, P B M Joyce
Mutations in the human TRNT1 gene encoding tRNA nucleotidyltransferase (tRNA-NT), an essential enzyme responsible for addition of the CCA (cytidine-cytidine-adenosine) sequence to the 3'-termini of tRNAs, have been linked to disease phenotypes including congenital sideroblastic anemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers and developmental delay (SIFD) or retinitis pigmentosa with erythrocyte microcytosis. The effects of these disease-linked mutations on the structure and function of tRNA-NT have not been explored...
February 15, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454858/expression-of-heat-shock-protein-70-and-cell-death-kinetics-after-different-thermal-impacts-on-cultured-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#9
Katharina Kern, Carla-Lotta Mertineit, Ralf Brinkmann, Yoko Miura
Recent technologies are broadening the possibility to treat the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with different thermal impacts, from sublethal to lethal ranges. Thus temperature-dependent subcellular molecular responses need to be elucidated in more detail. In this study, RPE cell viability and expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were investigated after thermal irradiation with different temperature increase using an in-vitro model. Primary porcine RPE cell cultures were irradiated with different laser power of a thulium laser (λ = 1940 nm, beam-diameter 30 mm) for 10 s, such that the maximal temperatures at the center of the culture dish (Tmax ) reach 40, 44, 47, 51 or 59 °C after 10s' irradiation...
February 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454857/distinct-cd40l-receptors-mediate-inflammasome-activation-and-secretion-of-il-1%C3%AE-and-mcp-1-in-cultured-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#10
Zong-Mei Bian, Matthew G Field, Susan G Elner, J Michelle Kahlenberg, Victor M Elner
CD40L signaling occurs in several diseases with inflammatory components, including ocular and retinal diseases. However, it has never been evaluated as a pathogenic mechanism in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or as an inducer of inflammasome formation in any cell type. mRNA and protein levels of CD40, IL-1β, NALP1, NALP3, caspase-1, and caspase-5 were determined by RT-PCR, qPCR, and Western blot. CD40L receptor (CD40, α5β1, and CD11b) expression was determined by Western and immunofluorescent staining...
February 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454661/rethinking-phagocytes-clues-from-the-retina-and-testes
#11
REVIEW
Kristen K Penberthy, Jeffrey J Lysiak, Kodi S Ravichandran
Specialized phagocytes are a newly appreciated classification of phagocyte that currently encompasses Sertoli cells (SCs) of the testes and the retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) of the retina. While these cells support very different tissues, they have a striking degree of similarity both as phagocytes and in ways that go beyond cell clearance. The clearance of apoptotic germ cells, cell debris, and used photoreceptor outer segments are critical functions of these cells, and the unique nature of their clearance events make specialized phagocytes uniquely suited for studying the larger implications of cell clearance in vivo...
February 14, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454660/development-and-course-of-scars-in-the-comparison-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-treatments-trials
#12
Ebenezer Daniel, Wei Pan, Gui-Shuang Ying, Benjamin J Kim, Juan E Grunwald, Frederick L Ferris, Glenn J Jaffe, Cynthia A Toth, Daniel F Martin, Stuart L Fine, Maureen G Maguire
PURPOSE: To describe risk factors for scar formation and changes to fibrotic scar through 5 years in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1061 subjects in CATT. METHODS: Color photographic and fluorescein angiographic images from baseline and 1, 2, and 5 years were evaluated. Incidence of scar formation was estimated with Kaplan-Meier curves...
February 14, 2018: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454659/predicting-visual-acuity-by-using-machine-learning-in-patients-treated-for-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#13
Markus Rohm, Volker Tresp, Michael Müller, Christoph Kern, Ilja Manakov, Maximilian Weiss, Dawn A Sim, Siegfried Priglinger, Pearse A Keane, Karsten Kortuem
PURPOSE: To predict, by using machine learning, visual acuity (VA) at 3 and 12 months in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) after initial upload of 3 anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections. DESIGN: Database study. PARTICIPANTS: For the 3-month VA forecast, 653 patients (379 female) with 738 eyes and an average age of 74.1 years were included. The baseline VA before the first injection was 0...
February 14, 2018: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454658/return-to-the-operating-room-after-macular-surgery-iris-registry-analysis
#14
D Wilkin Parke, Flora Lum
PURPOSE: To investigate the rate of return to the operating room after vitrectomy surgery to treat macular hole or epiretinal membrane. DESIGN: A retrospective registry cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals receiving care in ophthalmology practices participating in the Academy IRIS (Intelligent Research in Sight) Registry. METHODS: Data from the IRIS Registry were analyzed for patients who underwent vitrectomy for macular holes or epiretinal membranes...
February 14, 2018: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454631/update-on-visual-function-and-choroidal-retinal-thickness-alterations-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
J Obis, M Satue, R Alarcia, L E Pablo, E Garcia-Martin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative process that affects 7.5 million people around the world. Since 2004, several studies have demonstrated changes in various retinal layers in PD using optical coherence tomography (OCT). However, there are some discrepancies in the results of those studies. Some of them have correlated retinal thickness with the severity or duration of the disease, demonstrating that OCT measurements may be an innocuous and easy biomarker for PD progression. Other studies have demonstrated visual dysfunctions since early phases of the disease...
February 14, 2018: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454595/growth-hormone-promotes-synaptogenesis-and-protects-neuroretinal-dendrites-against-kainic-acid-ka-induced-damage
#16
Thomas Fleming, Carlos G Martinez-Moreno, Martha Carranza, Maricela Luna, Steve Harvey, Carlos Arámburo
There is increasing evidence that suggests a possible role for GH in retinal development and synaptogenesis. While our previous studies have focused largely on embryonic retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), our current study demonstrates that GH has a synaptogenic effect in retinal primary cell cultures, increasing the abundance of both pre- (SNAP25) and post- (PSD95) synaptic proteins. In the neonatal chick, kainate (KA) treatment was found to damage retinal synapses and abrogate GH expression. In response to damage, an increase in Cy3-GH internalization into RGCs was observed when administered shortly before or after damage...
February 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454561/flexible-neural-hardware-supports-dynamic-computations-in-retina
#17
REVIEW
Michal Rivlin-Etzion, William N Grimes, Fred Rieke
The ability of the retina to adapt to changes in mean light intensity and contrast is well known. Classically, however, adaptation is thought to affect gain but not to change the visual modality encoded by a given type of retinal neuron. Recent findings reveal unexpected dynamic properties in mouse retinal neurons that challenge this view. Specifically, certain cell types change the visual modality they encode with variations in ambient illumination or following repetitive visual stimulation. These discoveries demonstrate that computations performed by retinal circuits with defined architecture can change with visual input...
February 14, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454364/cyclosporine-a-does-not-prevent-second-eye-involvement-in-leber-s-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#18
Stéphanie Leruez, Christophe Verny, Dominique Bonneau, Vincent Procaccio, Guy Lenaers, Patrizia Amati-Bonneau, Pascal Reynier, Clarisse Scherer, Adriana Prundean, Christophe Orssaud, Xavier Zanlonghi, Marie-Bénédicte Rougier, Caroline Tilikete, Dan Miléa
BACKRGROUND: Evaluation of the efficacy of oral cyclosporine A as a prophylactic agent in preventing second-eye involvement in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in a prospective, open-label, non-randomized, multicenter pilot study. Only LHON patients aged 18 years or more, with confirmed primary mitochondrial DNA mutations and strictly unilateral optic neuropathy occurring within 6 months prior to enrolment, were included in the study. All these patients, receiving treatment with oral cyclosporine (Neoral®, Novartis) at 2...
February 17, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453727/floating-flap-of-internal-limiting-membrane-in-myopic-macular-hole-surgery
#19
Kenji Yamashiro, Eri Kinoshita-Nakano, Toru Ota, Yoko Jingami, Isao Nakata, Hisako Hayashi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the surgical results of macular hole (MH) in patients with high myopia treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) leaving the internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap floating in vitreous fluid at the edge of the MH. METHODS: Nine highly myopic eyes with MH of nine consecutive patients who underwent PPV were retrospectively evaluated. Three eyes were accompanied by retinal detachment (RD). ILM peeling was performed around the MH and some part of the ILM flap was left attached to the edge of the MH...
February 16, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453673/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-discerns-preclinical-diabetic-retinopathy-in-eyes-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-without-clinical-diabetic-retinopathy
#20
Dan Cao, Dawei Yang, Zhongning Huang, Yunkao Zeng, Jun Wang, Yunyan Hu, Liang Zhang
AIMS: To investigate changes in retinal vascular plexuses and choriocapillaris in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) without diabetic retinopathy (DR) and healthy controls using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: A total of 71 DM2 and 67 healthy control subjects were included. All subjects underwent OCTA examination (RTVue-XR Avanti; Optovue, Fremont, CA, USA). Average vessel density in superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP) and choriocapillaris, parafoveal vessel density in SCP and DCP, FAZ area (mm 2 ) in SCP, microaneurysms and capillary nonperfusion were taken into analysis...
February 16, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
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