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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069642/alpha-1-antitrypsin-enhances-islet-engraftment-by-suppression-of-instant-blood-mediated-inflammatory-reaction
#1
Jingjing Wang, Zhen Sun, Wenyu Gou, David B Adams, Wanxing Cui, Katherine A Morgan, Charlie Strange, Hongjun Wang
Islet cell transplantation has limited effectiveness because of an instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) that occurs immediately after cell infusion and leads to dramatic β cell death. In intraportal islet transplantation models using mouse and human islets, we demonstrated that alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT, Prolastin-C), a serine protease inhibitor used for the treatment of AAT deficiency, inhibits IBMIR and cytokine-induced inflammation in islets. In mice, more diabetic recipients reached normoglycemia after intraportal islet transplantation when they were treated with AAT compared to mice treated with saline...
January 9, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025655/targets-and-probes-for-non-invasive-imaging-of-%C3%AE-cells
#2
REVIEW
Andreas Jodal, Roger Schibli, Martin Béhé
β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements...
December 26, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013047/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ameliorate-hyperglycemia-through-regulating-hepatic-glucose-metabolism-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#3
Min Xie, Hao Jie Hao, Yu Cheng, Zong Yan Xie, Ya Qi Yin, Qi Zhang, Jie Qing Gao, Hong Yu Liu, Yi Ming Mu, Wei Dong Han
Infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been identified in the rapid alleviation in hyperglycemia of diabetic individuals, but the mechanism involved has not been adequately explained by these cells' potential role in modulating system insulin sensitivity and islet regeneration. In this study, we demonstrated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) produced significantly lower blood glucose via promoting hepatic glycogen synthesis and inhibiting hepatic glucose production within 24 h after infusion in T2DM rats...
December 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009527/reg2-expression-is-required-for-pancreatic-islet-compensation-in-response-to-aging-and-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#4
Qing Li, Bing Li, Xiaoliang Miao, Christopher Ramgattie, Zu-Hua Gao, Jun-Li Liu
Maintaining pancreatic β-cell mass and function is essential for normal insulin production and glucose homeostasis. Regenerating islet-derived 2 (Reg2, Reg II, human orthologue Reg1B) gene is normally expressed in pancreatic acinar cells and significantly induced in responses to diabetes, pancreatitis, high-fat diet and during pancreatic regeneration. In order to evaluate the role of endogenous Reg2 production in normal β-cell function, we characterized Reg2 gene deficient mice normally and when subjected to several pathological challenges...
December 23, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007509/keratoameloblastoma-of-the-mandible
#5
S Anajar, A Lakhbal, R Abada, M Mahtar
INTRODUCTION: Keratoameloblastoma is an extremely rare odontogenic tumor, as only 18 cases have been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: The authors report a case of keratoameloblastoma in a 32-year-old woman and review the literature concerning the clinical features, radiological appearance, histopathological findings and treatment options. DISCUSSION: Keratoameloblastoma is a rare tumor observed more frequently in males (sex ratio: 3:1) characterized by extensive keratin production in odontogenic islets and fibrous stroma...
December 19, 2016: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003935/aggregation-of-engineered-human-%C3%AE-cells-into-pseudoislets-insulin-secretion-and-gene-expression-profile-in-normoxic-and-hypoxic-milieu
#6
Marie-José Lecomte, Séverine Pechberty, Cécile Machado, Sandra Da Barroca, Philippe Ravassard, Raphaël Scharfmann, Paul Czernichow, Bertrand Duvillié
Innovative treatments to cure type 1 diabetes are being actively researched. Among the different strategies, the replacement of β-cells has given promising results. Classically, islets from cadaveric donors are transplanted into diabetic patients, but recently phase I clinical trials that use stem cell-derived β-cells have been started. Such protocols require either an immunosuppressive treatment or the macroencapsulation of the β-cells. They involve cell aggregation and the exposure of the cells to hypoxia...
December 3, 2016: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001066/preparation-of-s-allylcysteine-enriched-black-garlic-juice-and-its-antidiabetic-effects-in-streptozotocin-induced-insulin-deficient-mice
#7
Jun Ho Kim, Su Hyun Yu, Yun Jeong Cho, Jeong Hoon Pan, Hyung Taek Cho, Jeong Ho Kim, Hyejin Bong, Yeojin Lee, Moon Han Chang, Ye Jin Jeong, Garam Choi, Young Jun Kim
S-Allylcysteine (SAC), produced in large amounts during the aging process of garlic via enzymatic hydrolysis, is known as a key compound responsible for the multiple pharmacological activities of aged black garlic. This study investigated the effects of enzyme- and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-assisted extraction on the content of the bioactive compounds, including SAC, in black garlic juice (BGJ) and evaluated the antidiabetic effects of SAC-enriched BGJ in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice. The aging process increased the contents of SAC, total polyphenols, and total flavonoids in garlic juice...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999107/heparanase-overexpression-induces-glucagon-resistance-and-protects-animals-from-chemically-induced-diabetes
#8
Dahai Zhang, Fulong Wang, Nathaniel Lal, Amy Pei-Ling Chiu, Andrea Wan, Jocelyn Jia, Denise Bierende, Stephane Flibotte, Sunita Sinha, Ali Asadi, Xiaoke Hu, Farnaz Taghizadeh, Thomas Pulinilkunnil, Corey Nislow, Israel Vlodavsky, James D Johnson, Timothy J Kieffer, Bahira Hussein, Brian Rodrigues
Heparanase, a protein with enzymatic and nonenzymatic properties, contributes toward disease progression and prevention. In the current study, a fortuitous observation in transgenic mice globally overexpressing heparanase (hep-tg) was the discovery of improved glucose homeostasis. We examined the mechanisms that contribute toward this improved glucose metabolism. Heparanase overexpression was associated with enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hyperglucagonemia, in addition to changes in islet composition and structure...
January 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998954/glucagon-producing-cells-are-increased-in-mas-deficient-mice
#9
Janaína Felix Braga, Daniela Ravizzoni Dartora, Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader, Robson Augusto Souza Santos
It has been shown that angiotensin(1-7) (Ang(1-7)) produces several effects related to glucose homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of genetic deletion of Ang(1-7), the GPCR Mas, on the glucagon-producing cells. C57BL6/N Mas(-/-) mice presented a significant and marked increase in pancreatic α-cells (number of cells: 146 ± 21 vs 67 ± 8 in WT; P < 0.001) and the percentage per islet (17.9 ± 0.91 vs 12.3 ± 0.9% in WT; P < 0.0001) with subsequent reduction of β-cells percentage (82...
January 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982034/a-tlr9-agonist-promotes-il-22-dependent-pancreatic-islet-allograft-survival-in-type-1-diabetic-mice
#10
Deepak Tripathi, Sambasivan Venkatasubramanian, Satyanarayana S Cheekatla, Padmaja Paidipally, Elwyn Welch, Amy R Tvinnereim, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati
Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising potential cure for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Islet allografts can survive long term in the liver parenchyma. Here we show that liver NK1.1(+) cells induce allograft tolerance in a T1D mouse model. The tolerogenic effects of NK1.1(+) cells are mediated through IL-22 production, which enhances allograft survival and increases insulin secretion. Increased expression of NKG2A by liver NK1.1(+) cells in islet allograft-transplanted mice is involved in the production of IL-22 and in the reduced inflammatory response to allografts...
December 16, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973427/expression-of-3-mercaptopyruvate-sulfurtransferase-in-the-mouse
#11
Masahiro Tomita, Noriyuki Nagahara, Takaaki Ito
3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST) is one of the principal enzymes for the production of hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides in mammalians, and emerging evidence supports the physiological significance of MST. As a fundamental study of the physiology and pathobiology of MST, it is necessary to establish the tissue distribution of MST in mice. In the present study, the expression of MST in various organs of adult and fetal mice was analyzed by Western blotting and enzyme-immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the histology of MST gene-deficient mice was examined...
December 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960594/development-of-islet-organoids-from-h9-human-embryonic-stem-cells-in-biomimetic-3d-scaffolds
#12
Weiwei Wang, Sha Jin, Kaiming Ye
Success in the differentiating human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into insulin-secreting β cells raises new hopes for diabetes treatment. In this work, we demonstrated the feasibility of developing islet organoids from hESCs within biomimetic 3D scaffolds. We showed that such a 3D microenvironment is critical to the generation of pancreatic endoderm and endocrine from hESCs. The organoids formed consisted of pancreatic α, β, δ, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cells. A high level co-expression of PDX1, NKX6...
December 13, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959861/human-pancreatic-islet-production-from-research-protocols-to-standardized-multicenter-manufacturing
#13
Federico Bertuzzi, Luciano Gregorio De Carlis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957767/ethylene-carbodiimide-fixed-donor-splenocytes-combined-with-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-induce-indefinite-donor-specific-protection-to-mice-cardiac-allografts
#14
Xingqiang Lai, Longhui Qiu, Yi Zhao, Shuangjin Yu, Chang Wang, Jin Zhang, Fen Ning, Lizhong Chen, Guodong Chen
Peritransplant infusion of ethylene carbodiimide fixed donor splenocytes(ECDI-SPs) induces protection of islet and cardiac allografts. However, pro-inflammatory cytokine production during the peritransplantation period may negate the effect of ECDI-SPs. Therefore, we hypothesized that blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion while increasing levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines would enhance the tolerance-induced efficacy of ECDI-SPs. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using ECDI-SPs combined with a short course of α1-antitrysin (AAT) for induction of tolerance...
December 13, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942583/tissue-distribution-and-clonal-diversity-of-the-t-and-b-cell-repertoire-in-type-1-diabetes
#15
Howard R Seay, Erik Yusko, Stephanie J Rothweiler, Lin Zhang, Amanda L Posgai, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Marissa Vignali, Ryan O Emerson, John S Kaddis, Dave Ko, Maki Nakayama, Mia J Smith, John C Cambier, Alberto Pugliese, Mark A Atkinson, Harlan S Robins, Todd M Brusko
The adaptive immune repertoire plays a critical role in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. However, efforts to characterize B cell and T cell receptor (TCR) profiles in T1D subjects have been largely limited to peripheral blood sampling and restricted to known antigens. To address this, we collected pancreatic draining lymph nodes (pLN), "irrelevant" nonpancreatic draining lymph nodes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and splenocytes from T1D subjects (n = 18) and control donors (n = 9) as well as pancreatic islets from 1 T1D patient; from these tissues, we collected purified CD4(+) conventional T cells (Tconv), CD4(+) Treg, CD8(+) T cells, and B cells...
December 8, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931512/xenotransplanted-pig-sertoli-cells-inhibit-both-the-alternative-and-classical-pathways-of-complement-mediated-cell-lysis-while-pig-islets-are-killed
#16
Kandis Wright, Rachel Dziuk, Payal Mital, Gurvinder Kaur, Jannette M Dufour
Xenotransplantation has vast clinical potential but is limited by the potent immune responses generated against xenogeneic tissue. Immune-privileged Sertoli cells (SCs) survive xenotransplantation long term (90 days) without immunosuppression, making SCs an ideal model to identify xenograft survival mechanisms. Xenograft rejection includes the binding of natural and induced antibodies and the activation of the complement cascade. Using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, wherein cells were cultured with human serum and complement, we demonstrated that neonatal pig SCs (NPSCs) are resistant to complement-mediated cell lysis and express complement inhibitory factors, membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46), and decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) at significantly higher levels than neonatal pig islets (NPIs), which served as non-immune-privileged controls...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923539/the-roles-of-the-co-culture-of-mescs-with-pancreatic-islets-and-liver-stromal-cells-in-the-differentiation-of-definitive-endoderm-cells
#17
Hoveizi Elham, Fathi Fardin, Hashemitabar Mahmod
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have a pluripotent ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lineages in vitro. Investigating the roles of the co-culture of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) with pancreatic islets (PL) and liver stromal cells (LSCs) in the differentiation of definitive endoderm (DE) cells was the purpose of this study. Here by using PL derived from adult mouse and LSCs derived from mouse fetal liver, we are trying to introduce a new protocol which is devoid of growth factors. We calculated mESCs indirectly for 7 days and then we analyzed the resulting cells regarding DE genes and protein expression using qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry...
December 3, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912756/mechanisms-of-inflammatory-responses-and-development-of-insulin-resistance-how-are-they-interlinked
#18
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the major hallmark for pathogenesis and etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). IR is directly interlinked with various inflammatory responses which play crucial role in the development of IR. Inflammatory responses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of IR which is one of the main causative factor for the etiology of T2DM. METHODS: A comprehensive online English literature was searched using various electronic search databases...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905899/a-case-of-extragastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-complicated-by-severe-hypoglycemia-a-unique-presentation-of-a-rare-tumor
#19
Zeb Saeed, Solaema Taleb, Carmella Evans-Molina
BACKGROUND: Non-Islet Cell Tumor Hypoglycemia (NICTH) is a rare paraneoplastic cause of hypoglycemia arising from excess tumor production of insulin-like growth factor. The objective of this report is to describe an unusual case of Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (EGIST) associated NICTH. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64 year-old African female was brought to the emergency room with a 1-month history of recurrent syncope, weight loss, and abdominal bloating. Serum blood glucose was discovered to 39 mg/dL, when insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide were suppressed...
December 1, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893617/differential-role-of-b-cells-and-il-17-versus-ifn-%C3%AE-during-early-and-late-rejection-of-pig-islet-xenografts-in-mice
#20
Hee Kap Kang, Shusen Wang, Anil Dangi, Xiaomin Zhang, Amar Singh, Lei Zhang, James M Rosati, Wilma Suarez-Pinzon, Xuelian Deng, Xiaoyan Chen, Edward B Thorp, Bernhard J Hering, Stephen D Miller, Xunrong Luo
BACKGROUND: Xenogeneic islet transplantation is an emerging therapeutic option for diabetic patients. However, immunological tolerance to xenogeneic islets remains a challenge. METHODS: The current study used a pig-to-mouse discordant xenogeneic islet transplant model to examine anti-donor xenogeneic immune responses during early and late rejection, and to determine experimental therapeutic interventions that promote durable pig islet xenograft survival. RESULTS: We found that during early acute rejection of pig islet xenografts, the rejecting hosts exhibited a heavy graft infiltration with B220 B cells and a robust anti-pig antibody production...
November 23, 2016: Transplantation
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