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Islet production

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640379/comparative-and-correlative-assessments-of-cytokine-complement-and-antibody-patterns-in-pediatric-type-1-diabetes
#1
M Abdel-Latif, A A Abdel-Moneim, M H El-Hefnawy, R G Khalil
One of the most widespread and effective environmental factors is the infection with enteroviruses (EVs) which accelerate β - cell destruction in type 1 diabetes (T1D). This study represented a comparison between diabetic EV(+) and EV- children as well as correlation analysis between autoantibodies, T1D markers, cytokines, complement activation products and anti- coxsackievirus (CV) IgG. EV RNA was detected in Egyptian children with T1D (26.2%) and healthy controls (0%). Detection of anti - CV IgG in T1D - EV(+) resulted in 64% positivity...
June 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632821/encapsulated-islet-transplantation-where-do-we-stand
#2
Vijayaganapathy Vaithilingam, Sumeet Bal, Bernard E Tuch
Transplantation of pancreatic islets encapsulated within immuno-protective microcapsules is a strategy that has the potential to overcome graft rejection without the need for toxic immunosuppressive medication. However, despite promising preclinical studies, clinical trials using encapsulated islets have lacked long-term efficacy, and although generally considered clinically safe, have not been encouraging overall. One of the major factors limiting the long-term function of encapsulated islets is the host's immunological reaction to the transplanted graft which is often manifested as pericapsular fibrotic overgrowth (PFO)...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632819/enzyme-development-for-human-islet-isolation-five-decades-of-progress-or-stagnation
#3
Daniel Brandhorst, Heide Brandhorst, Paul R V Johnson
In comparison to procedures used for the separation of individual cell types from other organs, the process of human pancreatic islet isolation aims to digest the pancreatic exocrine matrix completely without dispersing the individual cells within the endocrine cell cluster. This objective is unique within the field of tissue separation, and outlines the challenge of islet isolation to balance two opposing priorities. Although significant progress has been made in the characterization and production of enzyme blends for islet isolation, there are still numerous areas which require improvement...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630088/the-islet-resident-macrophage-is-in-an-inflammatory-state-and-senses-microbial-products-in-blood
#4
Stephen T Ferris, Pavel N Zakharov, Xiaoxiao Wan, Boris Calderon, Maxim N Artyomov, Emil R Unanue, Javier A Carrero
We examined the transcriptional profiles of macrophages that reside in the islets of Langerhans of 3-wk-old non-obese diabetic (NOD), NOD.Rag1(-/-), and B6.g7 mice. Islet macrophages expressed an activation signature with high expression of Tnf, Il1b, and MHC-II at both the transcript and protein levels. These features are common with barrier macrophages of the lung and gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, injection of lipopolysaccharide induced rapid inflammatory gene expression, indicating that blood stimulants are accessible to the macrophages and that these macrophages can sense them...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616498/xenotransplantation-a-special-case-of-one-health
#5
REVIEW
Joachim Denner
The chronic shortage of human transplants to treat tissue and organ failure has led to the development of xenotransplantation, the transplantation of cells, tissues and organs from another species to human recipients. For a number of reasons, pigs are best suited as donor animals. Successful, routine xenotransplantation would have an enormous impact on the health of the human population, including the young, who sometimes require a replacement organ or islet cells, but especially the elderly, who more often suffer the consequences of organ failure...
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611472/cd11a-icam-1-blockade-combined-with-il-2-targeting-therapy-causes-a-paradoxical-acceleration-of-type-1-diabetes
#6
Ekua W Brenu, Timothy J Bartley, Casey M Wright, Emma Hamilton-Williams
Enhancement of regulatory T cell (Treg) function is the goal of many immunotherapies aimed at treating type 1 diabetes (T1D). The use of IL-2 is hindered by its effects on other populations such as effector T cells and NK cells. Combination therapies aimed at suppressing effector T cells while using IL-2 to expand Tregs could be beneficial and have been trialed in T1D patients. We have investigated a combination therapy using IL-2 and αCD11a blocking antibody to simultaneously expand Tregs and suppress the activation and migration of autoreactive T cells...
June 14, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599848/dynamic-membrane-interactions-of-antibacterial-and-antifungal-biomolecules-and-amyloid-peptides-revealed-by-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#7
REVIEW
Akira Naito, Nobuaki Matsumori, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy
A variety of biomolecules acting on the cell membrane folds into a biologically active structure in the membrane environment. It is, therefore, important to determine the structures and dynamics of such biomolecules in a membrane environment. While several biophysical techniques are used to obtain low-resolution information, solid-state NMR spectroscopy is one of the most powerful means for determining the structure and dynamics of membrane bound biomolecules such as antibacterial biomolecules and amyloidogenic proteins; unlike X-ray crystallography and solution NMR spectroscopy, applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy are not limited by non-crystalline, non-soluble nature or molecular size of membrane-associated biomolecules...
June 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599386/amelioration-of-hyperglycemia-and-associated-metabolic-abnormalities-by-a-combination-of-fenugreek-trigonella-foenum-graecum-seeds-and-onion-allium-cepa-in-experimental-diabetes
#8
Seetur R Pradeep, Krishnapura Srinivasan
BACKGROUND: Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and onion (Allium cepa) are independently known to have antidiabetic effects through different mechanisms. The beeneficial influence of a combination of dietary fenugreek seeds and onion on hyperglycemia and its associated metabolic abnormalities were evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes was experimentally induced with streptozotocin and diabetic rats were fed with 10% fenugreek or 3% onion or their combination for 6 weeks...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597607/immaturity-of-insulin-secretion-by-pancreatic-islets-isolated-from-one-human-neonate
#9
Jean-Claude Henquin, Myriam Nenquin
Human β-cells are functionally mature by the age of one year. The timing and mechanisms of this maturation are unknown owing to the exceptional availability of testable tissue. Here, we report the first in vitro study of insulin secretion by islets from a 5 day-old newborn. Glucose alone was inefficient but glucose-stimulation became concentration-dependent, displayed a biphasic time-course and was of similar magnitude as in infant islets when β-cell cAMP was raised by forskolin. Tolbutamide alone was effective in low glucose, but its effect was not augmented by high glucose...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592636/interleukin-6-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-from-apoptosis-by-stimulation-of-autophagy
#10
Amelia K Linnemann, Joseph Blumer, Michelle R Marasco, Therese J Battiola, Heidi M Umhoefer, Jee Young Han, Dudley W Lamming, Dawn Belt Davis
IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with complex roles in inflammation and metabolic disease. The role of IL-6 as a pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine is still unclear. Within the pancreatic islet, IL-6 stimulates secretion of the prosurvival incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) by α cells and acts directly on β cells to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro Uncovering physiologic mechanisms promoting β-cell survival under conditions of inflammation and stress can identify important pathways for diabetes prevention and treatment...
June 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580341/targeting-innate-immunity-to-downmodulate-adaptive-immunity-and-reverse-type-1-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Arata Itoh, William M Ridgway
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by specific destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells accompanied by evidence of beta-cell-directed autoimmunity such as autoreactive T cells and islet autoantibodies (IAAs). Currently, T1D cannot be prevented or reversed in humans. T1D is easy to prevent in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) spontaneous mouse model but reversing new-onset T1D in mice is more difficult. Since the discovery of the T-cell receptor in the 1980s and the subsequent identification of autoreactive T cells directed toward beta-cell antigens (eg, insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase), the dream of antigen-specific immunotherapy has dominated the field with its promise of specificity and limited side effects...
2017: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580285/opposing-effects-of-prostaglandin-e2-receptors-ep3-and-ep4-on-mouse-and-human-%C3%AE-cell-survival-and-proliferation
#12
Bethany A Carboneau, Jack A Allan, Shannon E Townsend, Michelle E Kimple, Richard M Breyer, Maureen Gannon
OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemia and systemic inflammation, hallmarks of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), can induce the production of the inflammatory signaling molecule Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in islets. The effects of PGE2 are mediated by its four receptors, E-Prostanoid Receptors 1-4 (EP1-4). EP3 and EP4 play opposing roles in many cell types due to signaling through different G proteins, Gi and GS, respectively. We previously found that EP3 and EP4 expression are reciprocally regulated by activation of the FoxM1 transcription factor, which promotes β-cell proliferation and survival...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580284/nnt-reverse-mode-of-operation-mediates-glucose-control-of-mitochondrial-nadph-and-glutathione-redox-state-in-mouse-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#13
Laila R B Santos, Carole Muller, Arnaldo H de Souza, Hilton K Takahashi, Peter Spégel, Ian R Sweet, Heeyoung Chae, Hindrik Mulder, Jean-Christophe Jonas
OBJECTIVE: The glucose stimulation of insulin secretion (GSIS) by pancreatic β-cells critically depends on increased production of metabolic coupling factors, including NADPH. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) typically produces NADPH at the expense of NADH and ΔpH in energized mitochondria. Its spontaneous inactivation in C57BL/6J mice was previously shown to alter ATP production, Ca(2+) influx, and GSIS, thereby leading to glucose intolerance. Here, we tested the role of NNT in the glucose regulation of mitochondrial NADPH and glutathione redox state and reinvestigated its role in GSIS coupling events in mouse pancreatic islets...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571932/detection-of-the-relatively-slow-growing-propionibacterium-acnes-in-seven-matrices-of-blood-components-and-advanced-therapeutical-medicinal-products
#14
Nicole Arlt, Remo Rothe, Thomas Juretzek, Heidrun Peltroche, Torsten Tonn, Rainer Moog
BACKGROUND: Relatively slow-growing bacteria like Propionibacterium acnes represent a challenge for quality control investigations in sterility release testing of blood components and advanced therapeutic medicinal products (ATMPs). METHODS: A convenient validation with 7 matrices was performed using buffy coat, stem cells, islet cells, natural killer cells, red blood cells, platelets and plasma in the microbial detection system Bact/Alert(®)3D incubator. All matrix samples were spiked twofold with Propionibacterium acnes with approximately 50 colony forming units (CFUs) per bottle in iAST and iNST culture bottles for 14days using a multishot bioball...
May 19, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559246/neprilysin-is-required-for-angiotensin-1-7-s-ability-to-enhance-insulin-secretion-via-its-proteolytic-activity-to-generate-angiotensin-1-2
#15
Gurkirat S Brar, Breanne M Barrow, Matthew Watson, Ryan Griesbach, Edwina Choung, Andrew Welch, Bela Ruzsicska, Daniel P Raleigh, Sakeneh Zraika
Recent work has renewed interest in therapies targeting the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to improve β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. Studies show that generation of angiotensin-(1-7) by angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and its binding to the Mas receptor (MasR) improves glucose homeostasis, partly by enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Thus, islet ACE2 upregulation is viewed as a desirable therapeutic goal. Here, we show that although endogenous islet ACE2 expression is sparse, its inhibition abrogates angiotensin-(1-7)-mediated GSIS...
May 30, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550730/transplantation-of-aire-overexpressing-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-delays-the-onset-of-type-1-diabetes
#16
Dongbei Li, Bo Zhao, Yadong Luo, Steven Limbara, Bingjie Zhao, Xueyang Zou, Wei Yang, Yi Li
Autoimmune regulator (Aire) plays an indispensable role in maintaining central immune tolerance by promoting the ectopic expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and dendritic cells (DCs), which lead to the deletion of autoreactive T cells or the induction of Tregs and consequently prevent autoimmune disease development. Curing autoimmune diseases has always been a challenge. DC-based immunotherapy represents a new and effective method to establish tolerance...
May 24, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549991/pancreatic-derived-factor-impaired-glucagon-like-peptide-1-production-from-glutag-enterendorine-l-cell-line-and-intestines
#17
Fenghua Lai, Yan Chen, Huimei Lin, Xuelan Wang, Xiaonan Zhu, Yanbing Li, Haipeng Xiao, Xiaopei Cao
PURPOSE: Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER) is a pancreatic islet-specific cytokine that co-secretes with insulin. However, its biological function remains largely unknown. We have recently shown that the intestine might be its novel target tissue. The aim of this study was to clarify whether PANDER impacts the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). METHODS: We treated GLUTag cells from the mouse intestine L cell line with recombinant PANDER protein and hepatic overexpression of PANDER in an obese murine model...
May 24, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546444/glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-gfap-is-a-novel-biomarker-for-the-prediction-of-autoimmune-diabetes
#18
Zhengda Pang, Akifumi Kushiyama, Jiao Sun, Takako Kikuchi, Hiroki Yamazaki, Yasuhiko Iwamoto, Hiroshi Koriyama, Shota Yoshida, Munehisa Shimamura, Masayoshi Higuchi, Tomohiro Kawano, Yoichi Takami, Hiromi Rakugi, Ryuichi Morishita, Hironori Nakagami
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is expressed in peri-islet Schwann cells as well as in glia cells and has been reported to be an autoantigen candidate for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We confirmed that the production of the autoantibodies GFAP and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) was increased and inversely correlated with the concentration of secreted C peptide in female nonobese diabetic mice (T1DM model). Importantly, the development of T1DM in female nonobese diabetic mice at 30 wk of age was predicted by the positive GFAP autoantibody titer at 17 wk...
May 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542222/differential-expression-of-islet-glutaredoxin-1-and-5-with-high-reactive-oxygen-species-production-in-a-mouse-model-of-diabesity
#19
Sebastian Friedrich Petry, Fatemeh Sharifpanah, Heinrich Sauer, Thomas Linn
The onset and progression of diabetes mellitus type 2 is highly contingent on the amount of functional beta-cell mass. An underlying cause of beta-cell decay in diabetes is oxidative stress, which markedly affects the insulin producing pancreatic cells due to their poor antioxidant defence capacity. Consequently, disturbances of cellular redox signaling have been implicated to play a major role in beta-cell loss in diabetes mellitus type 2. There is evidence suggesting that the glutaredoxin (Grx) system exerts a protective role for pancreatic islets, but the exact mechanisms have not yet been elucidated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540689/involvement-of-micrornas-in-diabetes-and-its-complications
#20
Bin Wu, Daniel Miller
Diabetes is a severe condition worldwide. It is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and is caused by defects in insulin production, secretion, and action. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The pathogenesis of diabetes is complex and the underlying molecular mechanisms are only partially understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a fundamental role in diabetes and its complications. This chapter focuses on the dysregulation of miRNAs involved in the regulation of pancreatic islet insulin production and secretion as well as action and signaling in peripheral tissues...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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