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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764159/emerging-role-of-immunotherapy-for-childhood-cancers
#1
Rupert Handgretinger, Patrick Schlegel
Recent developments in cell and gene therapy have a great impact on the new therapeutic approaches in pediatric cancers. Monoclonal antibodies for neuroblastoma and bispecific antibodies for leukemia have induced significant clinical responses for otherwise chemorefractory patients. Moreover, cellular therapeutic approaches including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells as well as natural killer (NK) cells have the potential to cure patients with so far incurable malignancies and are the basis for future new therapies for pediatric cancer...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730298/exploring-the-biophysical-properties-of-phytosterols-in-the-plasma-membrane-for-novel-cancer-prevention-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Omar Fakih, Didem Sanver, David Kane, James L Thorne
Cancer is a global problem with no sign that incidences are reducing. The great costs associated with curing cancer, through developing novel treatments and applying patented therapies, is an increasing burden to developed and developing nations alike. These financial and societal problems will be alleviated by research efforts into prevention, or treatments that utilise off-patent or repurposed agents. Phytosterols are natural components of the diet found in an array of seeds, nuts and vegetables and have been added to several consumer food products for the management of cardio-vascular disease through their ability to lower LDL-cholesterol levels...
May 3, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707146/aloe-emodin-as-drug-candidate-for-cancer-therapy
#3
Nadire Özenver, Mohamed Saeed, Lütfiye Ömur Demirezer, Thomas Efferth
As a leading cause of global mortality, cancer frequently cannot be cured due to the development of drug resistance. Therefore, novel drugs are required. Naturally occurring anthraquinones are mostly present in Rumex and Rhamnus species and are of interest because of their structural similarity to anthracyclines as well established anticancer drugs. In the present study, we focused on the structural elucidation of phytochemicals from R. acetosella as well as the investigation of cytotoxicity and modes of action of the main anthraquinone aglycons (emodin, Aloe-emodin, physcion, rhein)...
April 3, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691298/enhanced-therapeutic-activity-of-non-internalizing-small-molecule-drug-conjugates-targeting-carbonic-anhydrase-ix-in-combination-with-targeted-interleukin-2
#4
Samuele Cazzamalli, Barbara Ziffels, Fontaine Widmayer, Patrizia Murer, Giovanni Pellegrini, Francesca Pretto, Sarah Wulhfard, Dario Neri
PURPOSE: Antibody-drug conjugates and small molecule-drug conjugates have been proposed as alternatives to conventional anti-cancer cytotoxic agents, with the potential to deliver bioactive payloads to the site of disease, helping spare normal tissues. Experimental Design: Here we describe a novel small molecule-drug conjugate, based on a high-affinity ligand specific to carbonic anhydrase IX. The product featured a peptidic linker, suitable for cleavage in the tumor extracellular environment, and monomethyl auristatin E as cytotoxic payload...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676087/-anti-breast-cancer-mechanism-of-flavonoids
#5
REVIEW
Bai-Bing Pang, Yuan-Kui Chu, Hua Yang
Flavonoids are a kind of ubiquitous natural products in plants and essential active ingredients of many medicinal plants. They have the characteristics of broad biological activity, high efficiency and low toxicity, with good prevention and cure effects on various types of tumors. Breast cancer is the commonest cancer disease and the main cause of cancer death in women worldwide. In China, the morbidity and mortality are still on the rise. Flavonoids can inhibit the occurrence and development of breast cancer in various aspects...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669996/structural-diversity-and-biological-activities-of-diterpenoids-derived-from-euphorbia-fischeriana-steud
#6
REVIEW
Baiyu Jian, Hao Zhang, Jicheng Liu
Diterpenoids are the focus of natural product drug discovery because of their great structural diversity and pronounced biological activities. Euphorbia fischeriana Steud is a Chinese traditional medicinal herb for curing edema, ascites, and cancer. This plant contains rich diterpenoids. Based on the carbon skeleton and substituents, it can be classified into thirteen subtypes: ent -abietane, daphnane, tigliane, ingenane, ent -atisane, ent -rosane, ent -kaurene, ent -kaurane, secotigliane, lathyrane, ent-pimarene, isopimarene and dimeric...
April 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615394/nephrotoxicity-and-chinese-herbal-medicine
#7
Bo Yang, Yun Xie, Maojuan Guo, Mitchell H Rosner, Hongtao Yang, Claudio Ronco
Chinese herbal medicine has been practiced for the prevention, treatment, and cure of diseases for thousands of years. Herbal medicine involves the use of natural compounds, which have relatively complex active ingredients with varying degrees of side effects. Some of these herbal medicines are known to cause nephrotoxicity, which can be overlooked by physicians and patients due to the belief that herbal medications are innocuous. Some of the nephrotoxic components from herbs are aristolochic acids and other plant alkaloids...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604589/oncosis-like-cell-death-is-induced-by-berberine-through-erk1-2-mediated-impairment-of-mitochondrial-aerobic-respiration-in-gliomas
#8
Yuxue Sun, Jing Yu, Xinrui Liu, Chaochao Zhang, Junguo Cao, Guihong Li, Xingxing Liu, Yong Chen, Haiyan Huang
Gliomas, the most common primary malignant brain tumor, exhibit high metabolic activity. The targeting of metabolism alterations, particularly in mitochondria, is emerging as an efficient approach for curing cancers. Here, we showed that berberine, a natural compound that is used as an antibacterial agent, could reduce cellular viability and induce oncosis-like death, characterized by cell swelling, cytoplasmic vacuoles and plasma membrane blebbing, in gliomas, and that these effects were correlated with intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion...
March 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587429/plant-derived-anticancer-agents-lessons-from-the-pharmacology-of-geniposide-and-its-aglycone-genipin
#9
REVIEW
Solomon Habtemariam, Giovanni Lentini
For centuries, plants have been exploited by mankind as sources of numerous cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Good examples of anticancer compounds of clinical significance today include the taxanes (e.g., taxol), vincristine, vinblastine, and the podophyllotoxin analogues that all trace their origin to higher plants. While all these drugs, along with the various other available therapeutic options, brought some relief in cancer management, a real breakthrough or cure has not yet been achieved. This critical review is a reflection on the lessons learnt from decades of research on the iridoid glycoside geniposide and its aglycone, genipin, which are currently used as gold standard reference compounds in cancer studies...
March 26, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563317/extended-release-of-perioperative-immunotherapy-prevents-tumor-recurrence-and-eliminates-metastases
#10
Chun Gwon Park, Christina A Hartl, Daniela Schmid, Ellese M Carmona, Hye-Jung Kim, Michael S Goldberg
Cancer immunotherapy can confer durable benefit, but the percentage of patients who respond to this approach remains modest. The ability to concentrate immunostimulatory compounds at the site of disease can overcome local immune tolerance and reduce systemic toxicity. Surgical resection of tumors may improve the efficacy of immunotherapy by removing the concentrated immunosuppressive microenvironment; however, it also removes tumor-specific leukocytes as well as tumor antigens that may be important to establishing antitumor immunity...
March 21, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562589/an-interplay-between-senescence-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-role-in-pathogenesis-and-therapeutic-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Elzbieta Pawlowska, Joanna Szczepanska, Magdalena Szatkowska, Janusz Blasiak
Autophagy, cellular senescence, programmed cell death and necrosis are key responses of a cell facing a stress. These effects are partly interconnected, but regulation of their mutual interactions is not completely clear. That regulation seems to be especially important in cancer cells, which have their own program of development and demand more nutrition and energy than normal cells. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) belongs to the most aggressive and most difficult to cure cancers, so studies on its pathogenesis and new therapeutic strategies are justified...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554469/simulating-the-impact-of-risk-based-screening-and-treatment-on-breast-cancer-outcomes-with-miscan-fadia
#12
Jeroen J van den Broek, Nicolien T van Ravesteyn, Eveline A Heijnsdijk, Harry J de Koning
The MISCAN-Fadia microsimulation model uses continuous tumor growth to simulate the natural history of breast cancer and has been used extensively to estimate the impact of screening and adjuvant treatment on breast cancer incidence and mortality trends. The model simulates individual life histories from birth to death, with and without breast cancer, in the presence and in the absence of screening and treatment. Life histories are simulated according to discrete events such as birth, tumor inception, the tumor's clinical diagnosis diameter in the absence of screening, and death from breast cancer or death from other causes...
April 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515791/adverse-effects-of-paternal-chemotherapy-exposure-on-the-progeny-brain-intergenerational-chemobrain
#13
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rafal Woycicki, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Gerlinde A S Metz, Olga Kovalchuk
Recent advances in cancer treatments have led to significant increases in cure rates. Most cancer patients are treated with various cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. These treatment modalities are mutagenic and genotoxic and cause a wide array of late-occurring health problems, and even exert a deleterious influence on future offspring. The adverse effects from exposed parents on offspring are referred to as transgenerational effects, and currently little is known about chemotherapy-induced transgenerational effects...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486200/endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-indications-and-application-in-western-endoscopy-practice
#14
Michael J Bourke, Horst Neuhaus, Jacques J Bergman
Endoscopic submucosal dissection was developed in Japan, early in this century, to provide a minimally invasive yet curative treatment for the large numbers of patients with early gastric cancer identified by the national screening program. Previously, the majority of these patients were treated surgically at substantial cost and with significant risk of short- and long-term morbidity. En-bloc excision of these early cancers, most with a limited risk of nodal metastasis, allowed complete staging of the tumor, stratification of the subsequent therapeutic approach, and potential cure...
May 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445452/exploiting-immune-cell-metabolic-machinery-for-functional-hiv-cure-and-the-prevention-of-inflammaging
#15
REVIEW
Clovis S Palmer, Riya Palchaudhuri, Hassan Albargy, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Suzanne M Crowe
An emerging paradigm in immunology suggests that metabolic reprogramming and immune cell activation and functions are intricately linked. Viral infections, such as HIV infection, as well as cancer force immune cells to undergo major metabolic challenges. Cells must divert energy resources in order to mount an effective immune response. However, the fact that immune cells adopt specific metabolic programs to provide host defense against intracellular pathogens and how this metabolic shift impacts immune cell functions and the natural course of diseases have only recently been appreciated...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436404/from-systems-biology-to-p4-medicine-applications-in-respiratory-medicine
#16
Guillaume Noell, Rosa Faner, Alvar Agustí
Human health and disease are emergent properties of a complex, nonlinear, dynamic multilevel biological system: the human body. Systems biology is a comprehensive research strategy that has the potential to understand these emergent properties holistically. It stems from advancements in medical diagnostics, "omics" data and bioinformatic computing power. It paves the way forward towards "P4 medicine" (predictive, preventive, personalised and participatory), which seeks to better intervene preventively to preserve health or therapeutically to cure diseases...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414635/a-new-approach-to-estimate-time-to-cure-from-cancer-registries-data
#17
Olayidé Boussari, Gaëlle Romain, Laurent Remontet, Nadine Bossard, Morgane Mounier, Anne-Marie Bouvier, Christine Binquet, Marc Colonna, Valérie Jooste
BACKGROUND: Cure models have been adapted to net survival context to provide important indicators from population-based cancer data, such as the cure fraction and the time-to-cure. However existing methods for computing time-to-cure suffer from some limitations. METHODS: Cure models in net survival framework were briefly overviewed and a new definition of time-to-cure was introduced as the time TTC at which P(t), the estimated covariate-specific probability of being cured at a given time t after diagnosis, reaches 0...
April 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410239/what-the-oncologist-can-learn-from-diabetes-studies-epidemiology-prevention-management-cure
#18
REVIEW
Adriana Albini, Marco Gallo
Notwithstanding massive efforts and investment in improving cancer therapy, the limited progress made in reducing overall mortality has mostly been achieved through early diagnosis. Mortality rates for cardiovascular disease are in decline, a success attributable in large part to an active prevention approach coupled with identification of risk factors and biomarkers. Promising natural and synthetic molecules including numerous flavonoids have the potential to be used in diabetes care and in prevention of cardiovascular pathologies...
February 2, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388073/vertical-modeling-analysis-of-competing-risks-data-with-a-cure-fraction
#19
Mioara Alina Nicolaie, Jeremy M G Taylor, Catherine Legrand
In this paper, we extend the vertical modeling approach for the analysis of survival data with competing risks to incorporate a cure fraction in the population, that is, a proportion of the population for which none of the competing events can occur. The proposed method has three components: the proportion of cure, the risk of failure, irrespective of the cause, and the relative risk of a certain cause of failure, given a failure occurred. Covariates may affect each of these components. An appealing aspect of the method is that it is a natural extension to competing risks of the semi-parametric mixture cure model in ordinary survival analysis; thus, causes of failure are assigned only if a failure occurs...
January 31, 2018: Lifetime Data Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356626/not-everyone-fits-the-mold-intratumor-and-intertumor-heterogeneity-and-innovative-cancer-drug-design-and-development
#20
Kevin Dzobo, Dimakatso Alice Senthebane, Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Arielle Rowe, Collet Dandara, M Iqbal Parker
Disruptive innovations in medicine are game-changing in nature and bring about radical shifts in the way we understand human diseases, their treatment, and/or prevention. Yet, disruptive innovations in cancer drug design and development are still limited. Therapies that cure all cancer patients are in short supply or do not exist at all. Chief among the causes of this predicament is drug resistance, a mechanism that is much more dynamic than previously understood. Drug resistance has limited the initial success experienced with biomarker-guided targeted therapies as well...
January 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
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