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Radiation toxicology

Michael E Wyde, Thomas L Horn, Myles H Capstick, John M Ladbury, Galen Koepke, Perry F Wilson, Grace E Kissling, Matthew D Stout, Niels Kuster, Ronald L Melnick, James Gauger, John R Bucher, David L McCormick
Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) causes heating, which can lead to detrimental biological effects. To characterize the effects of RFR exposure on body temperature in relation to animal size and pregnancy, a series of short-term toxicity studies was conducted in a unique RFR exposure system. Young and old B6C3F1 mice and young, old, and pregnant Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) or Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) RFR (rats = 900 MHz, mice = 1,900 MHz) at specific absorption rates (SARs) up to 12 W/kg for approximately 9 h a day for 5 days...
March 14, 2018: Bioelectromagnetics
Peter Sykora, Ylenia Chiari, Andrew Heaton, Nickolas Moreno, Scott Glaberman, Robert W Sobol
DNA damage has been linked to genomic instability and the progressive breakdown of cellular and organismal homeostasis, leading to the onset of disease and reduced longevity. Insults to DNA from endogenous sources include base deamination, base hydrolysis, base alkylation, and metabolism-induced oxidative damage that can lead to single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks. Alternatively, exposure to environmental pollutants, radiation or ultra-violet light, can also contribute to exogenously derived DNA damage...
March 14, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Zulfiqar Qutrio Baloch, Muhammad Hussain, Shabber Agha Abbas, Jorge L Perez, Muhammad Ayyaz
The development of methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy (MACM) represents a severe complication of chronic methamphetamine abuse. MACM-induced irreversible structural and functional changes in the heart can eventually lead to decompensated heart failure, ultimately requiring heart transplantation. In this case report we present a 47-year old male with a previous history of chronic amphetamine abuse who presented to the emergency room with severe dyspnea at rest associated with mild substernal non-radiating chest pain...
2018: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
Timothy B Legare, Oteni Hamilton, Sarah Dhannoon, Sayed Ali
Non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) is a rare paraneoplastic condition caused most commonly by metastatic mesenchymal tumors. A 74-year-old non-diabetic male with an eight-year history of metastatic sarcomatoid lung cancer presented with altered mental status. His previous treatment included a lobectomy and radiation. Laboratory investigations were significant for blood glucose of 28 mg/dL, confirming hypoglycemia. He was hypokalemic, a condition seen in approximately 50% of patients with NICTH, at 2...
December 20, 2017: Curēus
Chiara Carla Piccinetti, Alfredo De Leo, Gloria Cosoli, Lorenzo Scalise, Basilio Randazzo, Graziano Cerri, Ike Olivotto
The augmented exposure of both environment and human being to electromagnetic waves and the concomitant lack of an unequivocal knowledge about biological consequences of these radiations, raised public interest on electromagnetic pollution. In this context, the present study aims to evaluate the biological effects on zebrafish (ZF) embryos of 100 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure through a multidisciplinary protocol. Because of the shared synteny between human and ZF genomes that validated its use in biomedical research, toxicology and developmental biology studies, ZF was here selected as experimental model and a measurement protocol and biological analyses have been set up to clearly discriminate between RF-EMF biological and thermal effects...
February 21, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Tânia Gomes, You Song, Dag A Brede, Li Xie, Kristine B Gutzkow, Brit Salbu, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Among aquatic organisms, invertebrate species such as the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna are believed to be sensitive to gamma radiation, although information on responses at the individual, biochemical and molecular level is scarce. Following gamma radiation exposure, biological effects are attributed to the formation of free radicals, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequently oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA in exposed organisms. Thus, in the present study, effects and modes of action (MoA) have been investigated in D...
February 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yijian Gong, Myles Capstick, Sven Kuehn, Perry Wilson, John Ladbury, Galen Koepke, David L McCormick, Ronald L Melnick, Niels Kuster
In this paper, we present the detailed life-time dosimetry analysis for rodents exposed in the reverberation exposure system designed for the two-year cancer bioassay study conducted by the National Toxicology Program of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The study required the well-controlled and characterized exposure of individually housed, unrestrained mice at 1900 MHz and rats at 900 MHz, frequencies chosen to give best uniformity exposure of organs and tissues. The wbSAR, the peak spatial SAR and the organ specific SAR as well as the uncertainty and variation due to the exposure environment, differences in the growth rates, and animal posture were assessed...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Myles Capstick, Niels Kuster, Sven Kuehn, Veronica Berdinas-Torres, Yijian Gong, Perry Wilson, John Ladbury, Galen Koepke, David L McCormick, James Gauger, Ronald L Melnick
In this paper we present the novel design features, their technical implementation, and an evaluation of the radio Frequency (RF) exposure systems developed for the National Toxicology Program (NTP) of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) studies on the potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of 2nd and 3rd generation mobile-phone signals. The system requirements for this 2-year NTP cancer bioassay study were the tightly-controlled lifetime exposure of rodents (1568 rats and 1512 mice) to three power levels plus sham simulating typical daily, and higher, exposures of users of GSM and CDMA (IS95) signals...
August 2017: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Jian-Hua Zhang, Hai-Liang Xin, Yue-Ming Xu, Yi Shen, Yu-Qiong He, Hsien-Yeh, Bing Lin, Hong-Tao Song, Juan-Liu, Hai-Yue Yang, Lu-Ping Qin, Qiao-Yan Zhang, Juan Du
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The medicinal plant Morinda officinalisHow. (MO) and its root have long been used in traditional medicines in China and northeast Asia as tonics for nourishing the kidney, strengthening the bone and enhancing immunofunction in the treatment of impotence, osteoporosis, depression and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and dermatitis. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to sum up updated and comprehensive information about traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of MO and provide insights into potential opportunities for future research and development of this plant...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Se-A Kim, Yu-Mi Lee, Je-Yong Choi, David R Jacobs, Duk-Hee Lee
Although the toxicity of synthetic chemicals at high doses is well known, chronic exposure to low-dose chemical mixtures has only recently been linked to many age-related diseases. However, it is nearly impossible to avoid the exposure to these low-dose chemical mixtures as humans are exposed to a myriad of synthetic chemicals as a part of their daily lives. Therefore, coping with possible harms due to low dose chemical mixtures is challenging. Interestingly, within the range of environmental exposure, disease risk does not increase linearly with increasing dose of chemicals, but often tends to plateau or even decrease with increasing dose...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Anna M Laszlo, Marta Ladanyi, Krisztina Boda, Jozsef Csicsman, Ferenc Bari, Andrea Serester, Zsolt Molnar, Krisztian Sepp, Marta Galfi, Marianna Radacs
Several studies have examined the potential biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on birds; however, little attention has been paid to the extremely low frequency (ELF; 0-300 Hz; 0-50 μT) radiation found in an urbanized environment. For monitoring the effects of ELF EMF, we used a turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) model, because the nucleated erythrocytes of turkeys contain β-adrenoceptors, and norepinephrine- (NE-) activated β-adrenoceptors have an important role in physiological and behavioral processes...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
Stephanie Lamart, Brian W Miller, Anne Van der Meeren, Anissa Tazrart, Jaime F Angulo, Nina M Griffiths
This work presents a comparison of three autoradiography techniques for imaging biological samples contaminated with actinides: emulsion-based, plastic-based autoradiography and a quantitative digital technique, the iQID camera, based on the numerical analysis of light from a scintillator screen. In radiation toxicology it has been important to develop means of imaging actinide distribution in tissues as these radionuclides may be heterogeneously distributed within and between tissues after internal contamination...
2017: PloS One
Christian Khalil, Wassim Shebaby
The focus of this research was on UVB radiation (280-320 nm) responsible for cellular changes in skin of acute and chronically exposed individuals. This study investigated the acute cellular damages triggered by UVB exposure of cultured human fibroblasts and keratinocyte cells immediately and 24 h post exposure in order to understand damage onset and progression. The study evaluated a number of cellular parameters including mitochondria, lysosomes, cell membrane, DNA damages as well as pro and anti-apoptotic protein expression levels...
2017: Toxicology Reports
Joanna A Ruszkiewicz, Adi Pinkas, Beatriz Ferrer, Tanara V Peres, Aristides Tsatsakis, Michael Aschner
Sunscreen application is the main strategy used to prevent the maladies inflicted by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Despite the continuously increasing frequency of sunscreen use worldwide, the prevalence of certain sun exposure-related pathologies, mainly malignant melanoma, is also on the rise. In the past century, a variety of protective agents against UV exposure have been developed. Physical filters scatter and reflect UV rays and chemical filters absorb those rays. Alongside the evidence for increasing levels of these agents in the environment, which leads to indirect exposure of wildlife and humans, recent studies suggest a toxicological nature for some of these agents...
2017: Toxicology Reports
A Ya Bolsunovsky, D V Dementyev, E A Trofimova, T A Zotina
Toxicological experiments with radioactive bottom sediments and extrinsic γ-irradiation have demonstrated that the growth of common elodea roots is suppressed by irradiation at doses several times lower than the established threshold dose. The effect of γ-irradiation on the growth of elodea stems has not been observed at any dose used. The data obtained show that elodea could be recommended for use as an indicator of biological effects of radiation in the range of low radiation doses.
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Catherine Lecomte-Pradines, Turid Hertel-Aas, Claire Coutris, Rodolphe Gilbin, Deborah Oughton, Frédéric Alonzo
Understanding how toxic contaminants affect wildlife species at various levels of biological organization (subcellular, histological, physiological, organism, and population levels) is a major research goal in both ecotoxicology and radioecology. A mechanistic understanding of the links between different observed perturbations is necessary to predict the consequences for survival, growth, and reproduction, which are critical for population dynamics. In this context, experimental and modeling studies were conducted using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Elizabeth Davlantes, Samuel Shartar, Jennifer Venero, Alaina Steck, Amelia Langston, Ziad N Kazzi
OBJECTIVES: The Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN) comprises >50 centers across the United States that are poised to care for victims of a radiation emergency. The network is organized around bone marrow transplant centers because these facilities excel in both radiation medicine and the care of patients with severe bone marrow depression. A radiation emergency may cause not only irradiation from an external source but also internal contamination with radioactive material. Because medical toxicologists are trained in radiation injury management and have expertise in the management of internal contamination, RITN centers may benefit from partnerships with medical toxicology resources, which may be located at academic medical centers, hospital inpatient clinical services, outpatient clinics, or poison control centers...
August 2017: Southern Medical Journal
Nilutpal Sharma Bora, Manash Pratim Pathak, Santa Mandal, Bhaskar Mazumder, Rudragoud Policegoudra, Pakalapati Srinivas Raju, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure has been known to cause irreparable damages to human skin. The daunting risk of UV radiation exposure faced by military personnel led to the development of a sunscreen formulation which has superior sun protection factor combined with the ability to counteract reactive oxygen species. The present work deals with the preclinical safety evaluation of the sunscreen formulation comprising of four US FDA approved UV filters; namely avobenzone, octinoxate, oxybenzone, titanium dioxide along with melatonin and pumpkin seed oil, via OECD protocols of assessing acute oral and dermal toxicity; skin sensitizing; skin irritating; ocular irritating and genotoxic potential...
July 8, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Ralph G Stahl, Jennifer L Stauber, William H Clements
Environmental toxicologists and chemists have been crucial to evaluating the chemical fate and toxicological effects of environmental contaminants, including chlorinated pesticides, before and after Rachel Carson's publication of Silent Spring in 1962. Like chlorinated pesticides previously, global climate change is widely considered to be one of the most important environmental challenges of our time. Over the past 30 yr, climate scientists and modelers have shown that greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 cause radiative forcing (climate forcing) and lead to increased global temperatures...
August 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Angélica B Barbezan, Regiane Martins, Jennifer B Bueno, Anna Lúcia C H Villavicencio
Food irradiation is an effective and safe method for preservation and long-term storage, and it is approved for use in over 60 countries for various applications in a wide variety of food products. This process is performed by use of accelerated electron beams, X-rays, or gamma radiation ((60) Co or (137) Cs). 2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are the only known radiolytic products generated from foods that have fatty acids (triglycerides) and are subjected to irradiation. Since the 1990s toxicological safety studies of 2-ACBs have been conducted extensively through synthetic compounds, then and tests to determine if the compounds have any mutagenic activity are strictly necessary...
July 2017: Journal of Food Science
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