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Radiation toxicology

Samane Naeeminejad, Reza Assaran Darban, Sima Beigoli, Mohammad Reza Saberi, Jamshidkhan Chamani
The interaction between synthesized heterocyclic benzene sulfonamide compounds, N-(7-benzyl-5,6-biphenyl-2m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-4-yl)-benzene sulfonamide (HBS1), N-(7-benzyl-5,6-biphenyl-2-m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d] pyrimidine-4-yl)-4-methyl- benzene sulfonamide (HBS2) and N-(7-benzyl-5,6-biphenyl-2-m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-4-yl)-4-chloro-benzene sulfonamide (HBS3) with Hb was studied by fluorescence quenching, zeta potentional, circular dichroism and molecular modeling techniques. The fluorescence spectroscopy experiments were performed in order to study the conformational changes, possibly due to a discrete reorganization of Trp residues during binding between HBS derivatives and Hb...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Shulin Zhuang, Xuan Lv, Liumeng Pan, Liping Lu, Zhiwei Ge, Jiaying Wang, Jingpeng Wang, Jinsong Liu, Weiping Liu, Chunlong Zhang
Benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers (BUVSs) are prominent chemicals widely used in industrial and consumer products to protect against ultraviolet radiation. They are becoming contaminants of emerging concern since their residues are frequently detected in multiple environmental matrices and their toxicological implications are increasingly reported. We herein investigated the antiandrogenic activities of eight BUVSs prior to and after human CYP3A4-mediated metabolic activation/deactivation by the two-hybrid recombinant human androgen receptor yeast bioassay and the in vitro metabolism assay...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Henry C H Fong, Jeff C H Ho, Angela H Y Cheung, K P Lai, William K F Tse
Benozophenone (BP) type UV filters are extensively used in the personal care products to provide protection against the harmful effects of UV radiation. BPs are one of the primary components in the UV filter family, in which benophenone-2 (BP2) is widely used as a UV filter reagent in the sunscreen. Humans used these personal care products directly on skin and the chemicals will be washed away to the water system. BP2 has been identified as one of the endocrine disruptor chemicals, which can inference the synthesis, metabolism, and action of endogenous hormones...
December 2016: Chemosphere
A Ya Bolsunovsky, E A Trofimova, A V Zueva, D V Dementiev
The first results of the use of the Allium test for estimation of toxicity of bottom sediments in the Yenisei River and the effect of external γ-radiation under laboratory conditions are presented. The effect of stimulation of the onion root growth, i.e., the absence of toxicity was discovered in toxicological experiments using bottom sediments and under external γ-radiation. The stimulating effect of radiation on the growth of onion roots limits the use of the Allium test for testing samples from the Yenisei River ecosystem in the zone subjected to the impact of radioactive discharges from the Mining and Chemical Combine...
July 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Camille Verry, Sandrine Dufort, Emmanuel Luc Barbier, Olivier Montigon, Michel Peoc'h, Philippe Chartier, François Lux, Jacques Balosso, Olivier Tillement, Lucie Sancey, Géraldine Le Duc
AIM: This study reports the use of gadolinium-based AGuIX nanoparticles (NPs) as a theranostic tool for both image-guided radiation therapy and radiosensitization of brain tumors. MATERIALS & METHODS: Pharmacokinetics and regulatory toxicology investigations were performed on rodents. The AGuIX NPs' tumor accumulation was studied by MRI before 6-MV irradiation. RESULTS: AGuIX NPs exhibited a great safety profile. A single intravenous administration enabled the tumor delineation by MRI with a T1 tumor contrast enhancement up to 24 h, and the tumor volume reduction when combined with a clinical 6-MV radiotherapy...
September 2016: Nanomedicine
Jiaying Wang, Liumeng Pan, Shenggan Wu, Liping Lu, Yiwen Xu, Yanye Zhu, Ming Guo, Shulin Zhuang
Ultraviolet (UV) filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hongyan Li, Yuxuan He, Jiawei Yan, Qiuyue Zhao, Cuixia Di, Hong Zhang
The toxicological mechanism of low sperm motility induced by iron ion radiation (IIR) was investigated in mice. Reproductive organ indices were measured following whole-body irradiation with a 2Gy iron ion beam. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence were used to analyze protein expression, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm altered gene expression. Reproductive organ indices and sperm motility were lowest 2 weeks after IIR. Sperm function changes via testis and cauda epididymis function were also determined at this time point...
October 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Alexander Tishin, Alexander A Shtil, Alexander P Pyatakov, Vladimir I Zverev
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Methods of local or loco-regional anticancer treatment are of the utmost importance because the therapeutic 'power' is applied directly to the disease site. Consequently, general toxicity is minimized. Hyperthermia, that is, a sustained increase of intratumoral temperature up to 45 oC, has been investigated as a perspective treatment modality alone and/or in combination with ionizing radiation or chemotherapy. Still, the surrounding tissues can be damaged by the external heat...
July 19, 2016: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Naritoshi Mukumoto, Masao Nakayama, Hiroaki Akasaka, Yasuyuki Shimizu, Saki Osuga, Daisuke Miyawaki, Kenji Yoshida, Yasuo Ejima, Yasushi Miura, Keiji Umetani, Takeshi Kondoh, Ryohei Sasaki
Micro-slit-beam radiation therapy (MRT) using synchrotron-generated X-ray beams allows for extremely high-dose irradiation. However, the toxicity of MRT in central nervous system (CNS) use is still unknown. To gather baseline toxicological data, we evaluated mortality in normal mice following CNS-targeted MRT. Male C57BL/6 J mice were head-fixed in a stereotaxic frame. Synchrotron X-ray-beam radiation was provided by the SPring-8 BL28B2 beam-line. For MRT, radiation was delivered to groups of mice in a 10 × 12 mm unidirectional array consisting of 25-μm-wide beams spaced 100, 200 or 300 μm apart; another group of mice received the equivalent broad-beam radiation therapy (BRT) for comparison...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Giulia B Costa, Carmen Simioni, Débora T Pereira, Fernanda Ramlov, Marcelo Maraschin, Fungyi Chow, Paulo A Horta, Zenilda L Bouzon, Éder C Schmidt
Sargassum cymosum was exposed to cadmium (Cd) to determine any physiological and ultrastructural effects. To accomplish this, S. cymosum samples were cultivated under photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and Cd (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg L(-1)) during 7 and 14 days in laboratory-controlled conditions (0 mg L(-1) Cd at both exposure times as control). Seaweeds had high retention capacity (over 90 %) for both exposure times. Growth rates showed significant increases by 14 days, especially for 0.1 and 0...
June 28, 2016: Protoplasma
Kalpana Mujoo, E Brian Butler, Raj K Pandita, Clayton R Hunt, Tej K Pandita
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) hold great promise in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, functional genomics, toxicological studies and cell-based therapeutics due to their unique characteristics of self-renewal and pluripotency. Novel methods for generation of pluripotent stem cells and their differentiation to the specialized cell types such as neuronal cells, myocardial cells, hepatocytes and beta cells of the pancreas and many other cells of the body are constantly being refined. Pluripotent stem cell derived differentiated cells, including neuronal cells or cardiac cells, are ideal for stem cell transplantation as autologous or allogeneic cells from healthy donors due to their minimal risk of rejection...
July 2016: Radiation Research
Thomas Frenzel, Marcus Bauser, Markus Berger, Christoph Stephan Hilger, Christa Hegele-Hartung, Gregor Jost, Christian Neis, Kaspar Hegetschweiler, Björn Riefke, Detlev Suelzle, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVE: Characterization of BAY-576, a new x-ray contrast agent which is not based on iodine, but rather on the heavy metal hafnium. Compared with iodine, hafnium provides better x-ray absorption in the energy range of computed tomography (CT) and allows images of comparable quality to be acquired at a significantly reduced radiation dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A range of standard methods were used to explore the physicochemistry of BAY-576 as well as its tolerability in in vitro assays, its pharmacokinetics and toxicology in rats, and its performance in CT imaging in rabbits...
June 14, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Ângela Almeida, Vânia Calisto, M Rosário M Domingues, Valdemar I Esteves, Rudolf J Schneider, Amadeu M V M Soares, Etelvina Figueira, Rosa Freitas
In the aquatic environment, pharmaceutical drugs are submitted to degradation processes, where photodegradation is one of the most important mechanisms affecting the fate, persistence and toxicity of the compounds. Carbamazepine, a widely used antiepileptic, is known to suffer photodegradation in water bodies and generate photoproducts, some of them with higher potential toxicity than the parent compound. Therefore, to evaluate the toxic effects of CBZ when combined with its photoproducts, an acute exposure (96h) with the edible clam Scrobicularia plana was performed using environmental concentrations of CBZ (0...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Theodosia Maina, Mark W Konijnenberg, Petra KolencPeitl, Piotr Garnuszek, Berthold A Nock, Aikaterini Kaloudi, Marko Kroselj, Katja Zaletel, Helmut Maecke, Rosalba Mansi, Paola Erba, Elisabeth von Guggenberg, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Renata Mikolajczak, Clemens Decristoforo
INTRODUCTION: From a series of radiolabelled cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin analogues, (111)In-CP04 ((111)In-DOTA-(DGlu)6-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) was selected for further translation as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical towards a first-in-man study in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). A freeze-dried kit formulation for multicentre application has been developed. We herein report on biosafety, in vivo stability, biodistribution and dosimetry aspects of (111)In-CP04 in animal models, essential for the regulatory approval of the clinical trial...
August 25, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Benjamin B Kasten, Michael T Azure, Trenton R Schoeb, Darrell R Fisher, Kurt R Zinn
INTRODUCTION: The biodistribution and toxicology of a radiotherapeutic (212)Pb-trastuzumab conjugate were evaluated in nonhuman primates to meet the investigational new drug requirements prior to a phase I clinical trial in human subjects. METHODS: Male cynomolgus monkeys (n=3/group) were injected intraperitoneally with the (212)Pb-trastuzumab conjugate and terminated at 8h, 10d, and 90d post-injection. Quantitative imaging studies in phantoms and monkeys were conducted using a planar gamma camera and a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector out to 48h following injection...
July 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Ya Sh Khalimov, A N Vasenko, S Yu Matveev, P V Agafonov
The first field therapy department in our country was established in the S.M.Kirov Military Medical Academy in November, 1955. The new department was established by merging of academical Department's of military toxicology, nuclear weapon and field therapy course, taught in Hospital Therapy Department. The new department was imposed as teaching and research center of organizational issues of field therapy, pathology and clinic of radiation injuries and injuries due to chemical agents. Scientific researches were also conducted on the same direction...
January 2016: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Rodrigo Almeda, Tracy E Harvey, Tara L Connelly, Sarah Baca, Edward J Buskey
Toxic effects of petroleum to marine zooplankton have been generally investigated using dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and in the absence of sunlight. In this study, we determined the influence of natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to naupliar stages of the planktonic copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus. Low concentrations of dispersed crude oil (1 μL L(-1)) caused a significant reduction in survival, growth and swimming activity of copepod nauplii after 48 h of exposure...
June 2016: Chemosphere
Yu E Kvacheva
In the present review, the data on the pathology of acute and chronic polonium injuries available from the an open-access domestic and foreign literature are primarily systemized and analyzed. The historical background of the research is presented in brief. On the basis of clinical and experimental generalizations, the current concept regarding the pathogenesis of polonium intoxication has been developed.
November 2015: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
John W Wills, George E Johnson, Shareen H Doak, Lya G Soeteman-Hernández, Wout Slob, Paul A White
Genetic toxicity testing has traditionally been used for hazard identification, with dichotomous classification of test results serving to identify genotoxic agents. However, the utility of genotoxicity data can be augmented by employing dose-response analysis and point of departure determination. Via interpolation from a fitted dose-response model, the benchmark dose (BMD) approach estimates the dose that elicits a specified (small) effect size. BMD metrics and their confidence intervals can be used for compound potency ranking within an endpoint, as well as potency comparisons across other factors such as cell line or exposure duration...
May 2016: Mutagenesis
G N Krasovskiy, Yu Rakhmanin, N Egorova
The present study is devoted to theoretical questions of optimization of integrated assessment of the composition and properties of drinking water with the use of the Water Quality Index (WQI) and considering in it all 4 criteria for its hygienic quality-sanitary-toxicological, microbiological, radiation and organoleptic. There is presented a sequence of the analysis of benchmark data of the laboratory study of drinking water, including the selection of priority indices, their distribution into 4 groups according to hygienic criteria, calculations the ratios of real values (C) of indices to their hygiene MPC and the final calculation of the WQI...
September 2015: Gigiena i Sanitariia
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