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Radiation toxicology

U Ezema, D Daberkow, T Delord, L Guidry, N R Sells
INTRODUCTION: Left main coronary artery (LMCA); thrombus with an acute myocardial infarction identified with coronary angiography is a clinically rare condition with an extremely high mortality rate. We present a case of LMCA thrombus that presented as a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI);. CASE: A 45-year-old woman with a history of tobacco use and hyperlipidemia presented with a complaint of 10/10 "hard pain" across her chest radiating to her left shoulder and breast which woke her from sleep...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
Omar A Alsager, Ahmed A Basfar, Majid Muneer
The induced degradation and detoxification of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) in aqueous media by gamma irradiation were carefully evaluated in this study. Gamma radiation at absorbed doses as low as 20 kGy was able to degrade 2-NP to reach a removal of at least 85% across the investigated range of concentration (50-150 ppm). 2-NP breaks down to aromatic based compounds with increasing number of byproducts upon increasing the radiation treatment from the absorbed dose of 50% decomposition (D50) to the absorbed dose of 90% decomposition (D90), after which no byproducts could be detected indicating the formation of undetectable aliphatic hydrocarbons, insoluble, or volatile byproducts...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Technology
Fabrizio Bardelli, Giulia Veronesi, Silvana Capella, Donata Bellis, Laurent Charlet, Alessia Cedola, Elena Belluso
Once penetrated into the lungs of exposed people, asbestos induces an in vivo biomineralisation process that leads to the formation of a ferruginous coating embedding the fibres. The ensemble of the fibre and the coating is referred to as asbestos body and is believed to be responsible for the high toxicological outcome of asbestos. Lung tissue of two individuals subjected to prolonged occupational exposure to crocidolite asbestos was investigated using synchrotron radiation micro-probe tools. The distribution of K and of elements heavier than Fe (Zn, Cu, As, and Ba) in the asbestos bodies was observed for the first time...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Angela Ivask, Kirk G Scheckel, Pankaj Kapruwan, Vicki Stone, Hong Yin, Nicolas H Voelcker, Enzo Lombi
Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results revealed that Zn speciation profiles of 30 nm and 80 nm ZnO nanoparticles, and ZnSO4- exposed cells were almost identical with the prevailing species being Zn-cysteine. This suggests that ZnO nanoparticles are rapidly transformed during a standard in vitro toxicological assay, and are sequestered intracellularly, analogously to soluble Zn...
March 2017: Nanotoxicology
Jo Ellen Hinck, Danielle Cleveland, William G Brumbaugh, Greg Linder, Julia Lankton
The risks to wildlife and humans from uranium (U) mining in the Grand Canyon watershed are largely unknown. In addition to U, other co-occurring ore constituents contribute to risks to biological receptors depending on their toxicological profiles. This study characterizes the pre-mining concentrations of total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl), U, and zinc (Zn); radiation levels; and histopathology in biota (vegetation, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals) at the Canyon Mine...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Fatma A Ragab, Helmi I Heiba, Marwa G El-Gazzar, Sahar M Abou-Seri, Walaa A El-Sabbagh, Reham M El-Hazek
In this work, novel series of pyran, thiophene and thienopyrimidine derivatives based on 2-acetamide-thiadiazole scaffold were designed and synthesized for evaluation as selective COX-2 inhibitors in-vitro and investigated in-vivo as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents against carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model in irradiated rats, since its well-known that ionizing radiation plays an important role in exaggerating the inflammatory responses and in enhancing the release of inflammatory mediators in experimental animals...
January 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Tritala K Vaidyanathan, Jayalakshmi Vaidyanathan, Pambadikandathil Philipose Lizymol, Saraswathy Ariya, Kalliyana Venketeswaran Krishnan
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to characterize the efficiency of polymerization of Type 1 and Type 2 initiators for visible light cure of a BisGMA-TEGDMA monomer mixture. METHODS: Raman spectroscopy was used to follow conversion during polymerization of a BisGMA-TEGDMA mixture using a Type I photoinitiator diphenyl(2,4,6 dimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (TPO) and a Type II photoinitiator camphorquinone (CQ) and an amine, both initiators at 0.5wt.%. Different light exposure times and storage times after light curing were used as variables...
November 29, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Nopphon Siranart, Eleanor A Blakely, Alden Cheng, Naval Handa, Rainer K Sachs
Complex mixed radiation fields exist in interplanetary space, and little is known about their late effects on space travelers. In silico synergy analysis default predictions are useful when planning relevant mixed-ion-beam experiments and interpreting their results. These predictions are based on individual dose-effect relationships (IDER) for each component of the mixed-ion beam, assuming no synergy or antagonism. For example, a default hypothesis of simple effect additivity has often been used throughout the study of biology...
December 2016: Radiation Research
Samane Naeeminejad, Reza Assaran Darban, Sima Beigoli, Mohammad Reza Saberi, Jamshidkhan Chamani
The interaction between synthesized heterocyclic benzene sulfonamide compounds, N-(7-benzyl-56-biphenyl-2m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[23-d]pyrimidine-4-yl)-benzene sulfonamide (HBS1), N-(7-benzyl-56-biphenyl-2-m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[23-d] pyrimidine-4-yl)-4-methyl- benzene sulfonamide (HBS2), and N-(7-benzyl-56-biphenyl-2-m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[23-d]pyrimidine-4-yl)-4-chloro-benzene sulfonamide (HBS3) with Hb was studied by fluorescence quenching, zeta potentional, circular dichroism, and molecular modeling techniques. The fluorescence spectroscopy experiments were performed in order to study the conformational changes, possibly due to a discrete reorganization of Trp residues during binding between HBS derivatives and Hb...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Shulin Zhuang, Xuan Lv, Liumeng Pan, Liping Lu, Zhiwei Ge, Jiaying Wang, Jingpeng Wang, Jinsong Liu, Weiping Liu, Chunlong Zhang
Benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers (BUVSs) are prominent chemicals widely used in industrial and consumer products to protect against ultraviolet radiation. They are becoming contaminants of emerging concern since their residues are frequently detected in multiple environmental matrices and their toxicological implications are increasingly reported. We herein investigated the antiandrogenic activities of eight BUVSs prior to and after human CYP3A4-mediated metabolic activation/deactivation by the two-hybrid recombinant human androgen receptor yeast bioassay and the in vitro metabolism assay...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
Henry C H Fong, Jeff C H Ho, Angela H Y Cheung, K P Lai, William K F Tse
Benozophenone (BP) type UV filters are extensively used in the personal care products to provide protection against the harmful effects of UV radiation. BPs are one of the primary components in the UV filter family, in which benophenone-2 (BP2) is widely used as a UV filter reagent in the sunscreen. Humans used these personal care products directly on skin and the chemicals will be washed away to the water system. BP2 has been identified as one of the endocrine disruptor chemicals, which can inference the synthesis, metabolism, and action of endogenous hormones...
December 2016: Chemosphere
A Ya Bolsunovsky, E A Trofimova, A V Zueva, D V Dementiev
The first results of the use of the Allium test for estimation of toxicity of bottom sediments in the Yenisei River and the effect of external γ-radiation under laboratory conditions are presented. The effect of stimulation of the onion root growth, i.e., the absence of toxicity was discovered in toxicological experiments using bottom sediments and under external γ-radiation. The stimulating effect of radiation on the growth of onion roots limits the use of the Allium test for testing samples from the Yenisei River ecosystem in the zone subjected to the impact of radioactive discharges from the Mining and Chemical Combine...
July 2016: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Camille Verry, Sandrine Dufort, Emmanuel Luc Barbier, Olivier Montigon, Michel Peoc'h, Philippe Chartier, François Lux, Jacques Balosso, Olivier Tillement, Lucie Sancey, Géraldine Le Duc
AIM: This study reports the use of gadolinium-based AGuIX nanoparticles (NPs) as a theranostic tool for both image-guided radiation therapy and radiosensitization of brain tumors. MATERIALS & METHODS: Pharmacokinetics and regulatory toxicology investigations were performed on rodents. The AGuIX NPs' tumor accumulation was studied by MRI before 6-MV irradiation. RESULTS: AGuIX NPs exhibited a great safety profile. A single intravenous administration enabled the tumor delineation by MRI with a T1 tumor contrast enhancement up to 24 h, and the tumor volume reduction when combined with a clinical 6-MV radiotherapy...
September 2016: Nanomedicine
Jiaying Wang, Liumeng Pan, Shenggan Wu, Liping Lu, Yiwen Xu, Yanye Zhu, Ming Guo, Shulin Zhuang
Ultraviolet (UV) filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hongyan Li, Yuxuan He, Jiawei Yan, Qiuyue Zhao, Cuixia Di, Hong Zhang
The toxicological mechanism of low sperm motility induced by iron ion radiation (IIR) was investigated in mice. Reproductive organ indices were measured following whole-body irradiation with a 2Gy iron ion beam. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence were used to analyze protein expression, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm altered gene expression. Reproductive organ indices and sperm motility were lowest 2 weeks after IIR. Sperm function changes via testis and cauda epididymis function were also determined at this time point...
October 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Alexander M Tishin, Alexander A Shtil, Alexander P Pyatakov, Vladimir I Zverev
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Methods of local or loco-regional anticancer treatment are of the utmost importance because the therapeutic 'power' is applied directly to the disease site. Consequently, general toxicity is minimized. Hyperthermia, that is, a sustained increase of intratumoral temperature up to 45oC, has been investigated as a perspective treatment modality alone and/or in combination with ionizing radiation or chemotherapy. Still, the surrounding tissues can be damaged by the external heat...
2016: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Naritoshi Mukumoto, Masao Nakayama, Hiroaki Akasaka, Yasuyuki Shimizu, Saki Osuga, Daisuke Miyawaki, Kenji Yoshida, Yasuo Ejima, Yasushi Miura, Keiji Umetani, Takeshi Kondoh, Ryohei Sasaki
Micro-slit-beam radiation therapy (MRT) using synchrotron-generated X-ray beams allows for extremely high-dose irradiation. However, the toxicity of MRT in central nervous system (CNS) use is still unknown. To gather baseline toxicological data, we evaluated mortality in normal mice following CNS-targeted MRT. Male C57BL/6 J mice were head-fixed in a stereotaxic frame. Synchrotron X-ray-beam radiation was provided by the SPring-8 BL28B2 beam-line. For MRT, radiation was delivered to groups of mice in a 10 × 12 mm unidirectional array consisting of 25-μm-wide beams spaced 100, 200 or 300 μm apart; another group of mice received the equivalent broad-beam radiation therapy (BRT) for comparison...
January 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
Giulia B Costa, Carmen Simioni, Débora T Pereira, Fernanda Ramlov, Marcelo Maraschin, Fungyi Chow, Paulo A Horta, Zenilda L Bouzon, Éder C Schmidt
Sargassum cymosum was exposed to cadmium (Cd) to determine any physiological and ultrastructural effects. To accomplish this, S. cymosum samples were cultivated under photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and Cd (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg L(-1)) during 7 and 14 days in laboratory-controlled conditions (0 mg L(-1) Cd at both exposure times as control). Seaweeds had high retention capacity (over 90 %) for both exposure times. Growth rates showed significant increases by 14 days, especially for 0.1 and 0...
March 2017: Protoplasma
Kalpana Mujoo, E Brian Butler, Raj K Pandita, Clayton R Hunt, Tej K Pandita
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) hold great promise in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, functional genomics, toxicological studies and cell-based therapeutics due to their unique characteristics of self-renewal and pluripotency. Novel methods for generation of pluripotent stem cells and their differentiation to the specialized cell types such as neuronal cells, myocardial cells, hepatocytes and beta cells of the pancreas and many other cells of the body are constantly being refined. Pluripotent stem cell derived differentiated cells, including neuronal cells or cardiac cells, are ideal for stem cell transplantation as autologous or allogeneic cells from healthy donors due to their minimal risk of rejection...
July 2016: Radiation Research
Thomas Frenzel, Marcus Bauser, Markus Berger, Christoph Stephan Hilger, Christa Hegele-Hartung, Gregor Jost, Christian Neis, Kaspar Hegetschweiler, Björn Riefke, Detlev Suelzle, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVE: Characterization of BAY-576, a new x-ray contrast agent which is not based on iodine, but rather on the heavy metal hafnium. Compared with iodine, hafnium provides better x-ray absorption in the energy range of computed tomography (CT) and allows images of comparable quality to be acquired at a significantly reduced radiation dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A range of standard methods were used to explore the physicochemistry of BAY-576 as well as its tolerability in in vitro assays, its pharmacokinetics and toxicology in rats, and its performance in CT imaging in rabbits...
June 14, 2016: Investigative Radiology
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