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Reduced abstinence syndrome symptoms

Cheryl Cirillo, Kim Francis
BACKGROUND: The United States is in an opioid crisis with abuse among women on the rise over the past 10 years. Infants of opioid-dependent mothers are at risk for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Neonatal abstinence syndrome can affect multiple systems and disrupt normal growth and development. It is for this reason that strategies to promote health such as breastfeeding need to be explored. This brief evaluates current evidence regarding breast milk and the impact it has on NAS. PURPOSE: The question guiding this brief is: "Does provision of breast milk reduce NAS withdrawal symptoms, decrease length of stay, and decrease the need for pharmacologic therapy for infants whose mothers are maintained on methadone or buprenorphine?" SEARCH STRATEGY: CINHAL/MEDLINE Complete and PubMed databases were searched using key words-NAS and breastfeeding-and the search was limited to 10 years for English studies evaluating the effects of breast milk on severity of NAS, pharmacologic therapy, and length of stay whose mothers received methadone or buprenorphine during pregnancy...
October 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Alison Volpe Holmes, Emily C Atwood, Bonny Whalen, Johanna Beliveau, J Dean Jarvis, John C Matulis, Shawn L Ralston
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The incidence and associated costs of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) have recently risen sharply; newborns with NAS occupy 4% of NICU beds. We implemented a coordinated program for NAS including standardized protocols for scoring, medications and weaning, and a calm rooming-in environment, to improve family-centered care and to decrease both length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs. METHODS: In early 2013, a multidisciplinary quality improvement team began consecutive plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles...
June 2016: Pediatrics
Boris Gourévitch, Jun Cai, Nicholas Mellen
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) occurs in babies chronically exposed to opioids during pregnancy. NAS shares features with opioid withdrawal symptoms seen in adults, including autonomic dysregulation. Here, the effect of low-dose in utero methadone (MTD) exposure on respiration-modulated networks along the ventral respiratory column (VRC) in ventrolateral medulla was investigated in the neonate Sprague-Dawley rat. MTD was administered via drinking water (3mg/kg/day in drinking water of the mother E7-E21)...
March 20, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Llewellyn Mills, Robert A Boakes, Ben Colagiuri
BACKGROUND: Expectancies have been shown to play a role in the withdrawal syndrome of many drugs of addiction; however, no studies have examined the effects of expectancies across a broad range of caffeine withdrawal symptoms, including craving. AIMS: The purpose of the current study was to use caffeine as a model to test the effect of expectancy on withdrawal symptoms, specifically whether the belief that one has ingested caffeine is sufficient to reduce caffeine withdrawal symptoms and cravings in abstinent coffee drinkers...
April 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
F P Busardò, C Kyriakou, S Napoletano, E Marinelli, S Zaami
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a short chain fatty acid endogenously produced within the central nervous system (CNS) and acts as a precursor and metabolite of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Although, it is an illegal recreational drug of abuse, its sodium salt (sodium oxybate) has been utilized as a medication for a number of medical conditions. The first aim of this review was to focus on current applications of sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy, with a particular emphasis on the key symptoms of this disorder: cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS)...
December 2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Mallory E Young, Shanna J Hager, Darrell Spurlock
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine whether oral morphine sulfate contributed to decreased length of stay, both in the hospital and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), when compared to oral methadone for the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Secondary objectives included evaluation of NAS scores, opioid requirements, use of adjuvant therapy, and total cost of hospital stay. METHODS: An equal number of neonates who received oral morphine sulfate and oral methadone as treatment for NAS were identified...
December 1, 2015: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Lindsey Asti, Jacqueline S Magers, Erin Keels, Jonathan Wispe, Richard E McClead
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), a self-limiting condition, is associated with clinical symptoms that may require pharmacological intervention. Optimal treatment of NAS remains undetermined, but the hospital length of stay (LOS) for patients with NAS is partially dependent upon a standard treatment protocol used. Prolonged LOS for patients with NAS can lead to adverse patient harm, impaired maternal-infant attachment, and significant health care costs. Therefore, we conducted a quality improvement study to reduce the LOS for infants with NAS...
June 2015: Pediatrics
Kenneth A Perkins, Joshua L Karelitz
INTRODUCTION: Acute cigarette smoking may relieve withdrawal and negative affect due to tobacco abstinence to a greater extent in women versus men. Yet, the relative contribution of the cigarette's nicotine content to this sex difference is not clear. METHODS: Non-quitting dependent adult smokers (N = 44; 21 males, 23 females) participated in 2 virtually identical sessions, each after abstaining overnight (CO < 10 ppm) and differing only in the nicotine content of the designated cigarette...
April 2015: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Claudia B Padula, Tim McQueeny, Krista M Lisdahl, Jenessa S Price, Susan F Tapert
BACKGROUND: Amygdala volume abnormalities have been reported in relation to craving in substance-dependent adults, but it remains unclear if these effects are seen in adolescent marijuana (MJ) users, particularly following abstinence. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between amygdala volume and craving during 28 days of abstinence in adolescent MJ users. METHODS: MJ-using adolescents (n = 22) aged 16-19 were recruited as part of a larger study on brain function in teen drug users...
March 2015: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Thatsanee Limsanon, Rasmon Kalayasiri
BACKGROUND: Cigarette craving usually occurs in conjunction with unpleasant feelings, including stress, as part of a withdrawal syndrome. Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), a behavioral technique used to reduce stress by concentrating on achieving muscle relaxation, may reduce levels of cigarette craving and other substance-related negative feelings and withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: Demographic and cigarette use data were collected from 32 experienced smokers at the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism...
March 2015: Behavior Therapy
Katrin Janhsen, Patrik Roser, Knut Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepine abuse and dependence have been recognized and widely discussed for more than 40 years. With more than 230 million daily doses prescribed in Germany per year, the burden of reimbursement on the statutory health insurance carriers is high, albeit with a slight decline from year to year. At present, about 50% of all prescriptions in Germany are issued privately, even for patients who have statutory health insurance. METHODS: We selectively review the literature on the epidemiology and treatment of benzodiazepine dependence and abuse in Germany...
January 5, 2015: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
John J McCarthy, Martin H Leamon, Neil H Willits, Ruth Salo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of a multiple daily dose methadone regimen in pregnancy on neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Although methadone maintenance has been the standard for the treatment of opioid dependence in pregnancy, there is no consensus on proper dosing. Single daily dosing is the most common strategy. Because of accelerated metabolism of methadone in pregnancy, this regimen may expose mother and fetus to daily episodes of withdrawal and possibly contribute to more severe Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS)...
March 2015: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Gabrielle Katrine Welle-Strand, Odd Kvamme, Andreas Andreassen, Edle Ravndal
Although opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is the treatment of choice for pregnant opioid-dependent patients, some professionals argue that tapering the medication dose will reduce the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This case description is based on the patient's detailed blog, and medical records from her general practitioner and the hospital. The patient is an employed, 32-year-old drug-abstinent woman in OMT. Her taper from 24 mg of buprenorphine started at 14 weeks' gestation and is slow, with withdrawal symptoms increasing gradually...
December 24, 2014: BMJ Case Reports
James Loughead, E Paul Wileyto, Kosha Ruparel, Mary Falcone, Ryan Hopson, Ruben Gur, Caryn Lerman
Brief abstinence from smoking impairs cognition, particularly executive function, and this has a role in relapse to smoking. This study examined whether working memory-related brain activity predicts subsequent smoking relapse above and beyond standard clinical and behavioral measures. Eighty treatment-seeking smokers completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions (smoking satiety vs 24 h abstinence challenge) during performance of a visual N-back task. Brief counseling and a short-term quit attempt followed...
May 2015: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Suzette Glasner-Edwards, Larissa J Mooney
Psychotic symptoms and syndromes are frequently experienced among individuals who use methamphetamine, with recent estimates of up to approximately 40 % of users affected. Although transient in a large proportion of users, acute symptoms can include agitation, violence, and delusions, and may require management in an inpatient psychiatric or other crisis intervention setting. In a subset of individuals, psychosis can recur and persist and may be difficult to distinguish from a primary psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia...
December 2014: CNS Drugs
Prescott T Leach, Erica Holliday, Munir G Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking alters a variety of endocrine systems including thyroid hormones. Altered thyroid hormone signaling may lead to a subclinical or overt hypothyroid condition that could contribute to nicotine withdrawal-related symptoms, such as cognitive deficits. Thus, normalizing thyroid hormone levels may represent a novel therapeutic target for ameliorating nicotine withdrawal-associated cognitive deficits. METHODS: The current studies conducted an analysis of serum thyroid hormone levels after chronic and withdrawal from chronic nicotine treatment in C57BL/6J mice using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
June 2015: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Karolien Adriaens, Dinska Van Gucht, Paul Declerck, Frank Baeyens
BACKGROUND: Smoking reduction remains a pivotal issue in public health policy, but quit rates obtained with traditional quit-smoking therapies remain disappointingly low. Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR), aiming at less harmful ways of consuming nicotine, may provide a more effective alternative. One promising candidate for THR are electronic cigarettes (e-cigs). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of second-generation e-cigs both in terms of acute craving-reduction in the lab and in terms of smoking reduction and experienced benefits/complaints in an eight-month Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)...
November 2014: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Aline Zaparte, Thiago W Viola, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Maurilio da Silva Morrone, José C Moreira, Moisés E Bauer
RATIONALE: Preclinical studies have shown that cocaine exposure and withdrawal are associated with cellular oxidative stress damage. However, the impact of crack-cocaine dependence on oxidative stress biomarkers remains unclear. Here, we assessed peripheral oxidative stress and antioxidant defences during two periods of crack-cocaine detoxification treatment and associated these changes with psychological morbidity. METHODS: Thirty female inpatients were recruited, and plasma samples were collected at the 4th and 18th days of abstinence; 30 healthy controls were also recruited...
April 2015: Psychopharmacology
Meredith A Kelly, Martina Pavlicova, Andrew Glass, John J Mariani, Adam Bisaga, Maria A Sullivan, Edward V Nunes, Frances R Levin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabis-dependent participants with depressive disorder are less likely to achieve abstinence with venlafaxine-XR (VEN-XR) treatment. Individuals on VEN-XR reported more severe withdrawal, despite not reducing their smoking behavior. We hypothesized that withdrawal-like symptoms, likely medication side effects, led to continued marijuana smoking in this group. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis using Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (MWC) scores and urine THC to test whether severity of withdrawal-like symptoms mediates the relationship between VEN-XR treatment and continued marijuana smoking...
November 1, 2014: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kasey G Creswell, Yu Cheng, Michele D Levine
INTRODUCTION: Social support has been linked to quitting smoking, but the mechanisms by which social support affects cessation are poorly understood. The current study tested a stress-buffering model of social support, which posits that social support protects or "buffers" individuals from stress related to quitting smoking. We hypothesized that social support would be negatively associated with risk of relapse, and that this effect would be mediated by reduced withdrawal and depressive symptoms (i...
May 2015: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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