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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219965/a-public-health-response-to-opioid-use-in-pregnancy
#1
Stephen W Patrick, Davida M Schiff
The use of opioids during pregnancy has grown rapidly in the past decade. As opioid use during pregnancy increased, so did complications from their use, including neonatal abstinence syndrome. Several state governments responded to this increase by prosecuting and incarcerating pregnant women with substance use disorders; however, this approach has no proven benefits for maternal or infant health and may lead to avoidance of prenatal care and a decreased willingness to engage in substance use disorder treatment programs...
February 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203387/an-overview-of-available-drugs-for-management-of-opioid-abuse-during-pregnancy
#2
REVIEW
Jillian Laslo, Jon-Michael Brunner, Daniel Burns, Emily Butler, Autumn Cunningham, Ryan Killpack, Courtney Pyeritz, Kimberly Rinard, Jennifer Childers, Joseph Horzempa
The prevalence of opioid abuse in the United States has been steadily increasing over the last several years among many major demographics, including pregnant women. Rise in prenatal opioid abuse has resulted in subsequent escalation of neonatal abstinence syndrome incidence, prompting the US Congress to pass the Protecting Our Infants Act of 2015. This act specifically calls for a critical review of current treatment options for prenatal opioid abuse which may ultimately lead to the development of better therapies and a decreased incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199203/neurogenetics-of-acute-and-chronic-opiate-opioid-abstinence-treating-symptoms-and-the-cause
#3
Kenneth Blum, Mark S Gold, William Jacobs, William Vaughn McCall, Marcelo Febo, David Baron, Kristina Dushaj, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
This review begins with a comprehensive history of opioid dependence and treatment in the United States. The focus is an evidence-based treatment model for opioid/opiate dependent individuals. The role of reward genetic polymorphisms and the epigenetic modifications that lead to vulnerability to use and misuse of opiates/opioid to treat pain are reviewed. The neurochemical mechanisms of acute opiate withdrawal and opiate/opioid reward mechanisms are explored with a goal of identifying specific treatment targets...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181969/a-population-health-driver-diagram-to-address-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#4
Paul Campbell Erwin, Laurie L Meschke, Samantha F Ehrlich, John W Moran
This article describes the process for developing a population health driver diagram to address a priority health issue in East Tennessee: neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Population health driver diagrams are used in quality improvement processes for determining and aligning actions that a community can take to achieve a specified outcome. The Tennessee Department of Health contracted with the University of Tennessee's Department of Public Health to conduct a community participatory process to contribute to a statewide health improvement plan...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178739/methamphetamine-consumption-during-pregnancy-effects-on-child-health
#5
Jürgen Dinger, Patricia Hinner, Jörg Reichert, Mario Rüdiger
Methamphetamine abuse during pregnancy represents an emerging health care problem. The consequences are not only of relevance to the pregnant women, but also their unborn child. It is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia and hypertension, fetal demise, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth restriction. The deleterious effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on the developing fetal brain may lead to long-term neuro-developmental and behavioral problems.Given the current evidence, abuse of methamphetamine during pregnancy must be of utmost concern to health care professionals and to policy-makers...
February 8, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173830/large-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-non-cirrhotic-liver-with-peritoneal-and-omental-metastasis-in-a-healthy-man-a-case-report
#6
H M M T B Herath, Aruna Kulatunga
BACKGROUND: Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma usually develops in the setting of cirrhosis or chronic inflammation. Major risk factors for developing hepatocellular carcinoma are chronic hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcoholic cirrhosis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The most frequent locations for hepatocellular carcinoma to metastasize are the lungs, portal vein, bones, and regional lymph nodes. CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old Sri Lankan man presented with progressive abdominal distension and on examination was found to have a palpable irregular mass in the left lobe of his liver with moderate ascites...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168591/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-trend-and-expenditure-in-louisiana-medicaid-2003-2013
#7
Ekwutosi M Okoroh, Rebekah E Gee, Baogong Jiang, Melissa B McNeil, Beverly A Hardy-Decuir, Amy L Zapata
Objectives Determine trends in incidence and expenditure for perinatal drug exposure and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) among Louisiana's Medicaid population. We also describe the maternal characteristics of NAS affected infants. Methods Retrospective cohort analysis using linked Medicaid and vital records data from 2003 to 2013. Conducted incidence and cost trends for drug exposed infants with and without NAS. Also performed comparison statistics among drug exposed infants with and without NAS and those not drug exposed...
February 6, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137921/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-time-for-a-reappraisal
#8
Matthew R Grossman, Rachel R Osborn, Adam K Berkwitt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137920/impact-of-parental-presence-at-infants-bedside-on-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#9
Mary Beth Howard, Davida M Schiff, Nicole Penwill, Wendy Si, Anjali Rai, Tahlia Wolfgang, James M Moses, Elisha M Wachman
BACKGROUND: Despite increased incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) over the past decade, minimal data exist on benefits of parental presence at the bedside on NAS outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between rates of parental presence and NAS outcomes. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center cohort study of infants treated pharmacologically for NAS using a rooming-in model of care. Parental presence was documented every 4 hours with nursing cares...
February 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137347/compassion-fatigue-burnout-and-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#10
Erin Sweigart
NICU nurses have seen a dramatic increase in cases of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The care needs of infants with NAS are highly demanding and can lead to feelings of frustration and emotional exhaustion among NICU nurses. Although studies have examined the experiences of nurses caring for NAS patients, none have specifically addressed the risk for compassion fatigue and burnout. Nurses need practical strategies to reduce their risk for compassion fatigue and burnout when caring for these patients. Improved education and implementation of self-care measures can help nurses more effectively manage stress and positively impact care of these infants and their families...
January 1, 2017: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125446/inpatient-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-detoxification-a-case-report-describing-day-to-day-therapeutic-management
#11
Louis von Theobald, Morgane Rousselet, Jennyfer Cholet, Hélène Debar, David Boels, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Marie Grall-Bronnec
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a synthetic drug increasingly used by consumers of psychoactive substances. The sought after psychoactive effects of GHB have resulted in an increase in recreational use in Europe. GHB is considered to have a high dependence potential, and abrupt discontinuation after long-term use can result in a severe withdrawal syndrome. Despite a large number of publications related to GHB withdrawal and detoxification, to date, no evidence-based protocol or consensual international therapeutic guidelines are available (over and above the administration of benzodiazepines)...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109052/the-use-of-methadone-to-facilitate-opioid-weaning-in-pediatric-critical-care-patients-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Leslie A Dervan, Beryl Yaghmai, Robert Scott Watson, Fredric M Wolf
BACKGROUND: Continuous opioid infusion therapy is commonly utilized in the pediatric intensive care setting to treat pain and facilitate tolerance of invasive therapies. Transitioning to methadone is one common strategy for weaning from continuous opioid infusions, but in practice this transition can be challenging, and many children still experience iatrogenic withdrawal. AIM: We reviewed the literature to evaluate the best available evidence to guide methadone therapy in this setting, and to summarize associated adverse events...
January 20, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093465/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-and-high-school-performance
#13
Ju Lee Oei, Edward Melhuish, Hannah Uebel, Nadin Azzam, Courtney Breen, Lucinda Burns, Lisa Hilder, Barbara Bajuk, Mohamed E Abdel-Latif, Meredith Ward, John M Feller, Janet Falconer, Sara Clews, John Eastwood, Annie Li, Ian M Wright
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Little is known of the long-term, including school, outcomes of children diagnosed with Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) (International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Problems [10th Edition], Australian Modification, P96.1). METHODS: Linked analysis of health and curriculum-based test data for all children born in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, between 2000 and 2006. Children with NAS (n = 2234) were compared with a control group matched for gestation, socioeconomic status, and gender (n = 4330, control) and with other NSW children (n = 598 265, population) for results on the National Assessment Program: Literacy and Numeracy, in grades 3, 5, and 7...
February 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086944/prenatal-treatment-for-opioid-dependency-observations-from-a-large-inner-city-clinic
#14
Kelley Saia, Sarah M Bagley, Elisha M Wachman, Payal P Patel, Marisa D Nadas, Susan B Brogly
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to review changes in the prevalence of opioid use disorder in pregnancy, and to describe the prenatal care and neonatal outcomes following the implementation of buprenorphine treatment at a large US obstetrical clinic during the on-going opioid epidemic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 310 women (332 pregnancies) with opioid use disorders and their neonates delivered between June 2006 and December 2010 at an obstetrical clinic in the US...
January 13, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079573/medically-assisted-withdrawal-detoxification-considering-the-mother-infant-dyad
#15
Hendrée E Jones, Mishka Terplan, Marjorie Meyer
Recommendations for opioid agonist pharmacotherapy and against medically assisted withdrawal were based upon early reports that associated withdrawal with maternal relapse and fetal demise. Data from recent case series have called these recommendations into question. Although these data do not support an association between medically assisted withdrawal and fetal demise, relapse remains a significant clinical concern with reported rates ranging from 17% to 96% (average 48%). Given the high loss to follow-up in these studies, the actual relapse rate is likely even greater...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078167/a-novel-strategy-for-attenuating-opioid-withdrawal-in-neonates
#16
Giovanni C Santoro, Samarth Shukla, Krishna Patel, Jakub Kaczmarzyk, Stergiani Agorastos, Sandra Scherrer, Yoon Young Choi, Christina Veith, Joseph Carrion, Rebecca Silverman, Danielle Mullin, Mohamed Ahmed, Wynne K Schiffer, Jonathan D Brodie, Stephen L Dewey
The rate of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) has drastically increased over the past decade. The average hospital expense per NAS patient has tripled, while the number of babies born to opioid-dependent mothers has increased to 5 in 1000 births. Current treatment options are limited to opioid replacement and tapering. Consequently, we examined the efficacy of prenatal, low-dose and short-term vigabatrin (γ-vinyl GABA, GVG) exposure for attenuating these symptoms as well as the metabolic changes observed in the brains of these animals upon reaching adolescence...
August 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073819/the-opioid-epidemic-and-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-in-the-usa-a-review-of-the-continuum-of-care
#17
Jason R Pryor, Faouzi I Maalouf, Elizabeth E Krans, Robert E Schumacher, William O Cooper, Stephen W Patrick
As the prescription opioid epidemic grew in the USA, its impact extended to pregnant women and their infants. This review summarises how increasing rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome resulted in a need to improve care to pregnant women and opioid-exposed infants. We discuss the variations in care delivery with particular emphasis on screening at-risk mothers, scoring systems for neonatal drug withdrawal, type and duration of pharmacotherapy, and discharge safety.
January 10, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057531/resting-state-brain-connectivity-patterns-before-eventual-relapse-into-cocaine-abuse
#18
M Berlingeri, D Losasso, A Girolo, E Cozzolino, T Masullo, M Scotto, M Sberna, G Bottini, E Paulesu
According to recent theories, drug addicted patients suffer of an impaired response inhibition and salience attribution (I-RISA) together with a perturbed connectivity between the nuclei accumbens (NAcs) and the orbito-prefrontal (oPFC) and dorsal prefrontal (dPFC) cortices, brain regions associated with motivation and cognitive control. To empirically test these assumptions, we evaluated the (neuro)psychological trait and the functional organization of the resting state brain networks associated with the NAcs in 18 former cocaine abusers (FCAs), while being in drug abstinence since 5 months...
January 2, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052951/is-haloperidol-the-wonder-drug-for-cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome
#19
Faisal Inayat, Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Waqas Ullah, Qulsoom Hussain
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a rare clinical syndrome characterised by nausea, cyclic vomiting and severe abdominal pain in association with chronic cannabis use. It is often under-recognised or misdiagnosed, resulting in the unnecessary workup and frequent hospitalisations. Long-term treatment of CHS is abstinence from cannabis, but acute symptomatic management has been a struggle for many clinicians. The present report highlights the use of haloperidol as an agent that successfully and safely treats the unrelenting symptoms of CHS...
January 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029131/assessment-of-a-culturally-tailored-sexual-health-education-program-for-african-american-youth
#20
Tiffany Zellner Lawrence, Tabia Henry Akintobi, Assia Miller, Elaine Archie-Booker, Tarita Johnson, Donoria Evans
African American youth are affected disproportionately by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and teenage pregnancy when compared to other racial groups. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the To Help Young People Establish (2 HYPE) Abstinence Club, a behavioral intervention designed to promote delayed sexual activity among African American youth ages 12-18 in Atlanta, Georgia. The intervention included 20 h of curriculum and creative arts instruction...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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