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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327122/midodrine-as-adjunctive-support-for-treatment-of-refractory-hypotension-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-multicenter-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-the-midas-trial
#1
Matthew H Anstey, Bradley Wibrow, Tharusan Thevathasan, Brigit Roberts, Khushi Chhangani, Pauline Yeung Ng, Alexander Levine, Alan DiBiasio, Todd Sarge, Matthias Eikermann
BACKGROUND: Patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) are often treated with intravenous (IV) vasopressors. Persistent hypotension and dependence on IV vasopressors in otherwise resuscitated patients lead to delay in discharge from ICU. Midodrine is an oral alpha-1 adrenergic agonist approved for treatment of symptomatic orthostatic hypotension. This trial aims to evaluate whether oral administration of midodrine is an effective adjunct to standard therapy to reduce the duration of IV vasopressor treatment, and allow earlier discharge from ICU and hospital...
March 21, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326943/analgesia-induced-by-the-epigenetic-drug-l-acetylcarnitine-outlasts-the-end-of-treatment-in-mouse-models-of-chronic-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain
#2
Serena Notartomaso, Giada Mascio, Matteo Bernabucci, Cristina Zappulla, Pamela Scarselli, Milena Cannella, Tiziana Imbriglio, Roberto Gradini, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria Bruno, Ferdinando Nicoletti
Background L-acetylcarnitine, a drug marketed for the treatment of chronic pain, causes analgesia by epigenetically up-regulating type-2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2) receptors in the spinal cord. Because the epigenetic mechanisms are typically long-lasting, we hypothesized that analgesia could outlast the duration of L-acetylcarnitine treatment in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Results A seven-day treatment with L-acetylcarnitine (100 mg/kg, once a day, i.p.) produced an antiallodynic effect in the complete Freund adjuvant mouse model of chronic inflammatory pain...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326928/cxcr4-signaling-in-macrophages-contributes-to-periodontal-mechanical-hypersensitivity-in-porphyromonas-gingivalis-induced-periodontitis-in-mice
#3
Hidekazu Nagashima, Masamichi Shinoda, Kuniya Honda, Noriaki Kamio, Masahiro Watanabe, Tatsuro Suzuki, Naoyuki Sugano, Shuichi Sato, Koichi Iwata
Background Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease accompanied by alveolar bone loss and progressive inflammation without pain. However, the potential contributors eliminating pain associated with gingival inflammation are unknown. Results we examined the involvement of CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) on the mechanical sensitivity of inflamed periodontal tissue, using a mouse model of periodontitis established by the ligation of the tooth cervix of a maxillary second molar and inoculation with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324707/chemical-structure-based-predictive-model-for-the-oxidation-of-trace-organic-contaminants-by-sulfate-radical
#4
Tiantian Ye, Zongsu Wei, Richard Spinney, Chong-Jian Tang, Shuang Luo, Ruiyang Xiao, Dionysios D Dionysiou
Second-order rate constants [Formula: see text] for the reaction of sulfate radical anion (SO4(•-)) with trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) are of scientific and practical importance for assessing their environmental fate and removal efficiency in water treatment systems. Here, we developed a chemical structure-based model for predicting [Formula: see text] using 32 molecular fragment descriptors, as this type of model provides a quick estimate at low computational cost. The model was constructed using the multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods...
March 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323919/steroids-regulate-cxcl4-in-the-human-endometrium-during-menstruation-to-enable-efficient-endometrial-repair
#5
J A Maybin, U Thiruchelvam, M Madhra, Ptk Saunders, Hod Critchley
Context: Repair of the endometrial surface at menstruation must be efficient to minimize blood loss and optimize reproductive function. The mechanism and regulation of endometrial repair remain undefined. Objective: To determine the presence/regulation of CXCL4 in the human endometrium, as a putative repair factor at menses. Patients/Setting: Endometrium was collected throughout the menstrual cycle from healthy women attending the gynecology department...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322255/ca-2-permeable-ampa-receptors-in-mouse-olfactory-bulb-astrocytes
#6
Damian Droste, Gerald Seifert, Laura Seddar, Oliver Jädtke, Christian Steinhäuser, Christian Lohr
Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytes is considered to be mainly mediated by metabotropic receptors linked to intracellular Ca(2+) release. However, recent studies demonstrate a significant contribution of Ca(2+) influx to spontaneous and evoked Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytes, suggesting that Ca(2+) influx might account for astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling to a greater extent than previously thought. Here, we investigated AMPA-evoked Ca(2+) influx into olfactory bulb astrocytes in mouse brain slices using Fluo-4 and GCaMP6s, respectively...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320041/prevention-of-iron-overload-and-long-term-maintenance-of-normal-iron-stores-in-thalassaemia-major-patients-using-deferiprone-or-deferiprone-deferoxamine-combination
#7
Annita Kolnagou, Christina N Kontoghiorghe, George J Kontoghiorghes
Decrease in mortality and morbidity is observed in thalassaemia major patients with reduced iron load in comparison to heavy iron loaded patients. Effective and complete treatment of transfusional iron overload can be achieved by chelation protocols that can eliminate excess iron and maintain normal iron stores (NIS). The maintenance of NIS, i. e., serum ferritin (350 μg/L >), MRI T2* cardiac (>20 ms) and liver (>6.3 ms) relaxation time levels was monitored in 16 thalassaemia major patients (32-53 years, 12 splenectomized, 10 male, erythrocyte transfusions 120-323 ml/kg/year) for about 90 patient years...
March 20, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319517/effects-of-a-lidocaine-loaded-poloxamer-alginate-cacl2-mixture-on-postoperative-pain-and-adhesion-in-a-rat-model-of-incisional-pain
#8
Geun Joo Choi, Hyun Kang, Min Eui Hong, Hwa Yong Shin, Chong Wha Baek, Yong Hun Jung, Younsuk Lee, Jeong Wook Kim, I L Kyu Park, Wan Jin Cho
BACKGROUND: Pain and adhesion are problematic issues after surgery. Lidocaine has analgesics and anti-inflammatory properties, and poloxamer/alginate/CaCl2 (PACM) is a known antiadhesive agent. We hypothesized that the novel combination of lidocaine as chemical barrier and PACM as physical barrier would be beneficial for both postoperative pain and adhesion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lidocaine-loaded PACM in a rat model of incisional pain. Primary outcome was to evaluate between-group differences for the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) measured by von Frey filament in various concentrations of lidocaine-loaded PACM applied, PACM applied, and sham-operated groups...
March 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319423/silexan-does-not-cause-withdrawal-symptoms-even-when-abruptly-discontinued
#9
M Gastpar, W E Müller, H P Volz, H J Möller, S Schläfke, A Dienel, S Kasper
OBJECTIVE: Subsequent to a randomised, double-blind, double dummy clinical trial assessing the efficacy of silexan compared to placebo and paroxetine in patients suffering from generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), a 1week follow-up phase was added in order to assess possible withdrawal symptoms of silexan after abrupt discontinuation. METHODS: Participants received silexan 80 mg/d, silexan 160 mg/d, paroxetine 20 mg/d, or placebo at a ratio of 1:1:1:1. Study medication was discontinued after the 10 week active treatment phase of the original trial...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316654/predicting-drug-drug-interactions-through-drug-structural-similarities-and-interaction-networks-incorporating-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-knowledge
#10
Takako Takeda, Ming Hao, Tiejun Cheng, Stephen H Bryant, Yanli Wang
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) may lead to adverse effects and potentially result in drug withdrawal from the market. Predicting DDIs during drug development would help reduce development costs and time by rigorous evaluation of drug candidates. The primary mechanisms of DDIs are based on pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). This study examines the effects of 2D structural similarities of drugs on DDI prediction through interaction networks including both PD and PK knowledge. Our assumption was that a query drug (Dq) and a drug to be examined (De) likely have DDI if the drugs in the interaction network of De are structurally similar to Dq...
2017: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314129/crack-cocaine-inhalation-induces-schizophrenia-like-symptoms-and-molecular-alterations-in-mice-prefrontal-cortex
#11
Lorena Bianchine Areal, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Fabrício Souza Pelição, Cristina Martins-Silva, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires
Crack cocaine (crack) addiction represents a major social and health burden, especially seeing as users are more prone to engage in criminal and violent acts. Crack users show a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities - particularly antisocial personality disorders - when compared to powder cocaine users. They also develop cognitive deficits related mainly to executive functions, including working memory. It is noteworthy that stimulant drugs can induce psychotic states, which appear to mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia among users...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306595/update-on-maintenance-therapy-for-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-and-microscopic-polyangiitis
#12
Ora Singer, W Joseph McCune
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are a group of rare systemic diseases. The past several years have seen major therapeutic advances in the treatment of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). The success rate in induction of remission is high, but reducing the high incidence of relapses remains a therapeutic challenge. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown no improvement in relapse rates in GPA and MPA over the past 2 decades...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306133/injection-of-toll-like-receptor-4-sirna-into-the-ventrolateral-periaqueductal-gray-attenuates-withdrawal-syndrome-in-morphine-dependent-rats
#13
Q F Liu, L Li, Y Q Guo, X Li, Z D Mou, X Wang, G Z Du
We assessed the role of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) region of morphine-dependent rats on attenuating withdrawal syndrome, and regulating glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), glutamic acid (Glu), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). After siRNA-mediated downregulation of TLR4, changes were observed in withdrawal behavior and downstream signaling molecules. Rats were injected into the vlPAG with TLR4 siRNA, followed by intraperitoneal injection of morphine for 5 consecutive days, and then naloxone, and the behavioral indices of morphine withdrawal were observed...
December 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301676/deprescribing-versus-continuation-of-chronic-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-in-adults
#14
REVIEW
Taline A Boghossian, Farah Joy Rashid, Wade Thompson, Vivian Welch, Paul Moayyedi, Carlos Rojas-Fernandez, Kevin Pottie, Barbara Farrell
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of medications that reduce acid secretion and are used for treating many conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), dyspepsia, reflux esophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, and hypersecretory conditions (e.g. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), and as part of the eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori bacteria. However, approximately 25% to 70% of people are prescribed a PPI inappropriately. Chronic PPI use without reassessment contributes to polypharmacy and puts people at risk of experiencing drug interactions and adverse events (e...
March 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301217/neuromodulation-with-percutaneous-electrical-nerve-field-stimulation-is-associated-with-reduction-in-signs-and-symptoms-of-opioid-withdrawal-a-multisite-retrospective-assessment
#15
Adrian Miranda, Arturo Taca
BACKGROUND: Finding an effective, non-pharmacological approach to treat opioid withdrawal could remove some of the barriers associated with pharmacotherapy. The BRIDGE® is a noninvasive, percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulator developed to target pain. OBJECTIVES: This pilot study aimed to determine (1) the effects of the BRIDGE on withdrawal scores during the induction phase of opioid withdrawal therapy, (2) the percentage of subjects who successfully transitioned to medication assisted therapy (MAT)...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301050/addition-of-anti-leukotriene-agents-to-inhaled-corticosteroids-for-adults-and-adolescents-with-persistent-asthma
#16
REVIEW
Bhupendrasinh F Chauhan, Maya M Jeyaraman, Amrinder Singh Mann, Justin Lys, Ahmed M Abou-Setta, Ryan Zarychanski, Francine M Ducharme
BACKGROUND: Asthma management guidelines recommend low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) as first-line therapy for adults and adolescents with persistent asthma. The addition of anti-leukotriene agents to ICS offers a therapeutic option in cases of suboptimal control with daily ICS. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of anti-leukotriene agents added to ICS compared with the same dose, an increased dose or a tapering dose of ICS (in both arms) for adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older with persistent asthma...
March 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298247/tissue-specific-inhibition-of-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-expression-in-the-testes-of-mice-by-inducible-lentiviral-rna-interference-causes-male-infertility
#17
Kai Zhao, Yan Liu, Zhe Xiong, Lian Hu, Cheng-Liang Xiong
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is involved in many physiological processes, including male infertility. To explore the effects of uPA in male reproduction, we constructed an inducible uPA short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system expressed by lentiviral vectors. After proving inhibition of uPA expression in the mouse Sertoli cell line TM4 by 1μgmL-1 doxycycline (Dox), two lentivirus (pLenti4-shRNA and pLenti6/TR) were co-microinjected into mouse testes to produce TetR&shuPA mice model. Though oral gavage by 0...
March 16, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297827/-application-of-bedside-ultrasound-in-measuring-gastric-residual-volume-in-neurosurgical-critical-patients-with-enteral-nutrition-support
#18
L Cao, X H Ye, J Li, L N Zhang, L Li, W Y Zhang, L L Deng
Objective: To explore the effect of bedside ultrasound in measuring gastric residual volume in neurosurgical critical patients with enteral nutrition support. Method: From March to August 2016, 70 critically neurological patients with continues enteral nutrition who admitted in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were randomized into two groups. The observation group applied the bedside ultrasound monitoring gastric residual volume every day to guide the implementation of enteral nutrition. The control group used syringes withdrawing every 8 hours to measure the gastric residual volume...
March 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295734/single-junction-binary-blend-nonfullerene-polymer-solar-cells-with-12-1-efficiency
#19
Fuwen Zhao, Shuixing Dai, Yang Wu, Qianqian Zhang, Jiayu Wang, Li Jiang, Qidan Ling, Zhixiang Wei, Wei Ma, Wei You, Chunru Wang, Xiaowei Zhan
A new fluorinated nonfullerene acceptor, ITIC-Th1, has been designed and synthesized by introducing fluorine (F) atoms onto the end-capping group 1,1-dicyanomethylene-3-indanone (IC). On the one hand, incorporation of F would improve intramolecular interaction, enhance the push-pull effect between the donor unit indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene and the acceptor unit IC due to electron-withdrawing effect of F, and finally adjust energy levels and reduce bandgap, which is beneficial to light harvesting and enhancing short-circuit current density (JSC )...
March 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294557/double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-routine-peri-operative-use-of-terlipressin-in-adult-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#20
Mettu Srinivas Reddy, Ilankumaran Kaliamoorthy, Akila Rajakumar, Selvakumar Malleeshwaran, Ellango Appuswamy, Sukanya Lakshmi, Joy Varghese, Mohamed Rela
BACKGROUND: Peri-operative terlipressin (Tp) during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been shown to reduce intra-operative portal pressures and improve renal function. Its role and safety profile has never been evaluated in a double-blinded RCT. AIM: To evaluate the haemodynamic effects, clinical benefits and safety of peri-operative terlipressin infusion in adult LDLT. METHODS: This was a single centre double-blind RCT. Consenting adults with chronic liver disease and low risk of post-transplant renal dysfunction (PTRD) undergoing their first LDLT were randomized...
March 14, 2017: Liver Transplantation
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