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Bok Soon Go, Sarah M Barry, Jacqueline F McGinty
Cocaine self-administration induces dysfunctional neuroadaptations in the prefrontal cortex that underlie relapse to cocaine-seeking. Cocaine self-administration disturbs glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens that is prevented by infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) into the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex. Intra-prelimbic infusion of BDNF decreases cocaine-seeking in a TrkB-ERK MAP kinase-dependent manner. Neuronal activity triggers an interaction between TrkB receptors and NMDA receptors, leading to ERK activation...
October 17, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
A Vora, Amit Bhargava
INTRODUCTION: Cough is significant health problem with greater implication for impaired quality of life. Acute and chronic cough due to infective (viral/bacterial), allergic conditions or bronchial asthma including cough variant asthma are often treated with combination of mucolytics, expectorants and bronchodilators. Bronchodilators reduces cough sensitivity, promotes clearance of cough secretions while reducing protrusive inflammatory mediator release. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To further understand the clinical utility and safety of Bronchodilatory cough formulations (BCF) containing Levosalbutamol in real world settings...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Xiao-Qian Li, Zai-Li Zhang, Wen-Fei Tan, Xi-Jia Sun, Hong Ma
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is important for the pathogenesis of inflammatory reactions and the promotion of pain processing after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in spinal cord. Recently, C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), were demonstrated to be simultaneously critical for inflammatory reactions, thereby facilitating glial activation. However, whether CXCL12/CXCR4 expression can contribute to IR-induced inflammatory pain via spinal TLR4 remained unclear. A rat model was established by 8 min of aortic arch occlusion...
2016: PloS One
Ronaldo Sousa Oliveira Filho, Lia Mara Kauchi Ribeiro, Lucia Caruso, Patricia Azevedo Lima, Náglia Raquel Teixeira Damasceno, Francisco García Soriano
INTRODUCTION: Quality Indicators for Nutritional Therapy (QINT) allow a practical assessment of nutritional therapy (NT) quality. OBJECTIVE: To apply and monitor QINT for critically ill patients at nutritional risk. METHODS: Cross sectional study including critically ill patients > 18 years old, at nutritional risk, on exclusive enteral (ENT) or parenteral nutritional therapy (PNT) for > 72 hours. After three consecutive years, 9 QINT were applied and monitored...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Matthew Weir, George L Bakris, Coleman Gross, Martha R Mayo, Dahlia Garza, Jinwei Yuan, Lance Berman, Gordon H Williams
OBJECTIVE: Elevated serum aldosterone can be vasculotoxic and facilitates cardiorenal damage. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors (RAASi) reduce serum aldosterone levels and/or block its effects but can cause hyperkalemia (HK). Patiromer, a nonabsorbed potassium binder, decreases serum potassium (K) in CKD patients on RAASi. We examined the effect of patiromer on serum aldosterone levels, plasma renin activity (PRA), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in CKD patients on RAASi with HK (serum K 5...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
David John Webb
Treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) is defined as the failure to achieve an office BP target of <140/90 mmHg (<130/80 mmHg in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or diabetes) in patients with hypertension (HT), despite adherence to at least 3 antihypertensive medications at optimal tolerated doses, ideally including a diuretic (Calhoun et al., Circulation 2008). TRH identifies patients with hard-to-treat HT, who might benefit from specialist investigation and treatment. Although some studies put the prevalence of TRH as >10%, these levels may be inflated by white-coat hypertension and poor adherence...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Michael P Saddoris
Repeated self-administration of cocaine is associated with impairments in motivated behaviors as well as alterations in both dopamine (DA) release and neural signaling within the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These impairments are present even after several weeks of abstinence from drug taking, suggesting that the self-administration experience induces long-lasting neuroplastic alterations in the mesolimbic DA circuit. To understand these changes at the terminal level, rats were allowed to self-administer either cocaine intravenously (∼1 mg/kg per infusion) or water to a receptacle (control) in 2-h sessions over 14 days, followed by 30 days of enforced abstinence...
September 2016: ENeuro
Zhangmin Tan, Yuzhu Yin, Jin Zhou, Lingling Wu, Chengfang Xu, Hongying Hou
This prospective study evaluated the viability of telbivudine for blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.Pregnant women positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen began telbivudine treatment before 14 weeks of gestation (i.e., early), between 14 and 28 weeks of gestation (late), or not at all (control). In the late-treatment group, 55 women terminated telbivudine therapy within puerperium. All neonates underwent routine hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus vaccination...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ricardo J S Costa, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Volker Scheer, Andrew Murray
BACKGROUND: Debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and dermatological injuries (DI) are common during and after endurance events and have been linked to performance decrements, event withdrawal, and issues requiring medical attention. The study aimed to determine whether GIS and DI affect food and fluid intake, and nutritional and hydration status, of ultramarathon runners during multi-stage (MSUM) and 24-h continuous (24 h) ultramarathons. METHODS: Ad libitum food and fluid intakes of ultramarathon runners (MSUM n = 54; 24 h n = 22) were recorded throughout both events and analysed by dietary analysis software...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Taddesse Yayeh, Kyunghwa Yun, Soyong Jang, Seikwan Oh
BACKGROUND: Red ginseng and ginsenosides have shown plethoric effects against various ailments. However, little is known regarding the effect of red ginseng on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance. We therefore investigated the effect of red ginseng extract (RGE) and biotransformed ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K on morphine-induced dependence in mice and rats. METHODS: While mice were pretreated with RGE and then morphine was injected intraperitoneally, rats were infused with ginsenosides and morphine intracranially for 7 days...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Joshua Augustine, Donald E Hricik
Although calcineurin inhibitor drugs have been the mostly used therapy in modern immunosuppression in kidney transplantation, their effect on kidney allograft dysfunction has been suboptimal as far as preservation of kidney function is concerned. Additionally, there are metabolic and other nonmetabolic effects including increased risk of malignancy that has necessitated the use of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors to reduce exposure to calcineurin inhibitors. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, both sirolimus and everolimus, have been studied in several trials to facilitate preservation of kidney function with variable effects on kidney allograft function and immunogenicity...
September 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Xiao-Yan Yi, Yao Wang, Qi-Fu Li, Rong Li, Shu-Min Yang, Guo-Qing Zhou, Zhi-Hong Wang
BACKGROUND: Propylthiouracil is the most common drug used to treat hyperthyroidism. However, this drug could cause a severe disease, antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV), which was usually misdiagnosed. METHODS: We reported a 60-year-old woman of propylthiouracil-induced AAV manifested as blood coagulation disorders. The patient was admitted because of hyperthyroidism and leukopenia. At the time of hospitalization, she suffered from dry cough, erythema and knee joints ache, and gradually became febrile...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Maurizio Sabbatini, Michela Bosetti, Alessia Borrone, Liah Moalem, Antonio Taveggia, Giovanni Verna, Mario Cannas
Apoptosis and inflammatory processes may be at the basis of reducing graft survival. Erythropoietin is a tissue-protective hormone with pleiotropic potential, and it interferes with the activities of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulates healing following injury, preventing destruction of tissue surrounding the injury site. It may represent a useful tool to increase the autograft integration. Through the use of multipanel kit cytokine analysis we have detected the cytokines secreted by human tissue adipose mass seeded in culture following withdrawal by Coleman's modified technique in three groups: control, after lipopolysaccharides stimulation and after erythropoietin stimulation...
January 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering
Simonnet A, Zamberletti E, Cador M, Rubino T, Caillé S
The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. Acute inhibition of anandamide (AEA) degradation efficiently reduces nicotine withdrawal-induced affective symptoms in rats and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the degradation enzyme of AEA, has been proposed as a possible treatment against nicotine addiction. However, it is unclear whether chronic inhibition of AEA during nicotine abstinence will have beneficial or deleterious affective side-effects. Using a rat model of nicotine addiction, we found that, during abstinence, rats injected daily with a FAAH inhibitor (URB597) developed a depressive-like phenotype...
October 10, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Craig Cumming, Lakkhina Troeung, Jesse T Young, Erin Kelty, David B Preen
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine use is associated with a range of poor health, social and justice outcomes. In many parts of the world increased methamphetamine use has been identified as a major public health concern. Methamphetamine treatment programmes have been effective in reducing and ceasing use, however a range of barriers have prevented these programmes being widely adopted by methamphetamine users. This review examines the barriers to accessing meth/amphetamine treatment identified in the literature...
October 6, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
I Jullian-Desayes, B Revol, E Chareyre, P Camus, C Villier, J C Borel, J L Pepin, M Joyeux-Faure
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repeated episodes of apnea and hypopnea during sleep. Little is known about the potential impact of therapy drugs on the underlying respiratory disorder. Any influence should be taken into account and appropriate action taken, including drug withdrawal if necessary. Here, we review drugs in terms of their possible impact on OSA; drugs which 1) may worsen OSA; 2) are unlikely to have an impact on OSA; 3) those for which data are scarce or contradictory, and 4) drugs with a potentially improving effect...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Guo-Ming Ho, Ci-Jhang Huang, Elise Yu-Tzu Li, Sheng-Kai Hsu, Ti Wu, Medel Manuel L Zulueta, Kevin Binchia Wu, Shang-Cheng Hung
The Diels-Alder reaction is a useful tool for generating functionalized chiral molecules through the concerted cycloaddition of dienes and dienophiles leading to six-membered rings. Traditionally, the selective predictions of the products rely heavily on consideration of the secondary orbital interactions that stabilize the endo pathway. However, there remain some basic examples defying this notion and produce the exo-isomer as major product. Here we systematically evaluated of the structural features driving exo selectivity in thermal normal-electron-demand Diels-Alder reactions...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Daniel García-Pérez, Szilamer Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés, Cristina Núñez
Drug-withdrawal-associated aversive memories might trigger relapse to drug-seeking behavior. However, changes in structural and synaptic plasticity, as well as epigenetic mechanisms, which may be critical for long-term aversive memory, have yet to be elucidated. We used male Wistar rats and performed conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm to uncover the role of glucocorticoids (GCs) on plasticity-related processes that occur within the dentate gyrus (DG) during opiate-withdrawal conditioning (memory formation-consolidation) and after reactivation by re-exposure to the conditioned environment (memory retrieval)...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Theodore L Wagener, Evan L Floyd, Irina Stepanov, Leslie M Driskill, Summer G Frank, Ellen Meier, Eleanor L Leavens, Alayna P Tackett, Neil Molina, Lurdes Queimado
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes' (e-cigarettes) viability as a public health strategy to end smoking will likely be determined by their ability to mimic the pharmacokinetic profile of a cigarette while also exposing users to significantly lower levels of harmful/potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). The present study examined the nicotine delivery profile of third- (G3) versus second-generation (G2) e-cigarette devices and their users' exposure to nicotine and select HPHCs compared with cigarette smokers...
October 11, 2016: Tobacco Control
Bing-Cheng Zhao, Tong-Yi Huang, Qi-Wen Deng, Wei-Feng Liu, Jian Liu, Wen-Tao Deng, Ke-Xuan Liu, Cai Li
BACKGROUND: Postoperative atrial fibrillation/flutter (POAF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality after general thoracic surgery, but the need and the best agent for prophylaxis remains obscure. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials that compared regimens for POAF prophylaxis after general thoracic surgery. Random-effects meta-analyses with trial sequential analyses were performed to compare the effects of medical prophylaxis versus placebo/usual care...
October 8, 2016: Chest
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