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Aabid Hussain Mir, Zulfiqar Ali, Bashir Ahmad Dar, Imtiaz A Naqash, Samreena Bashir
Congenital heart defects are associated with various physiological disturbances. They pose anesthetic challenges for both cardiac and noncardiac surgeries. Atrioventricular septal defects are due to a developmental failure in the separation of atria and the ventricles into separate chambers and failure in the separation of mitral and tricuspid valves. We present a case of a child (1½ years), weighing 10 kg, diagnosed as congenital hydrocephalus who was planned for ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Child was having an oxygen saturation of 76% on room air...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Radhe Sharan, Brij Mohan, Harkomal Kaur, Anju Bala
BACKGROUND: Fiberoptic intubation is a technique commonly used for difficult airways. Conscious sedation is desirable to make this procedure tolerable, and it is essential that patients are cooperative, relaxed, and comfortable especially when difficult airway anatomy or pathology is encountered. OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of propofol versus midazolam in oral fiberoptic endotracheal intubation in terms of hemodynamic changes, level of sedation, ease of intubation, and patient comfort and complications...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Benjamin Farahnik, Collin M Blattner, Michael B Mortazie, Benjamin M Perry, William Lear, Dirk M Elston
Hailey-Hailey disease or familial benign chronic pemphigus is a rare blistering dermatosis that is characterized by recurrent erythematous plaques with a predilection for the skin folds. For extensive Hailey-Hailey disease that is recalcitrant to conventional therapy, laser ablation, photodynamic therapy, electron beam radiotherapy, botulinum toxin type A, dermabrasion, glycopyrrolate, and afamelanotide have been reported as useful treatments, but comparative trials are lacking. This review discusses the various treatment modalities for Hailey-Hailey disease and a summary of the evidence for the most recommended treatments...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
O H Lee, G J Choi, H Kang, C W Baek, Y H Jung, Y C Woo, J Oh, Y H Park
BACKGROUND: Sugammadex is a new agent that reverses neuromuscular blockade by aminosteroid neuromuscular blocker. This retrospective study compared the effects of sugammadex on post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) with those of a pyridostigmine-glycopyrrolate mixture. METHODS: We reviewed the electronic medical records of 7179 patients who had received fentanyl-based, intravenous, patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) at Chung-Ang University Hospital between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015...
October 2, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Mary Choy
Cabozantinib (Cabometyx) for advanced renal cell carcinoma; glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate (Bevespi Aerosphere) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and ephedrine sulfate (Akovaz) for hypotension during anesthesia.
September 2016: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
Leonardo M Fabbri, Edward M Kerwin, Selwyn Spangenthal, Gary T Ferguson, Roberto Rodriguez-Roisin, James Pearle, Sanjay Sethi, Chad Orevillo, Patrick Darken, Earl St Rose, Tracy Fischer, Michael Golden, Sarvajna Dwivedi, Colin Reisner
BACKGROUND: This study forms part of the first complete characterization of the dose-response curve for glycopyrrolate (GP) delivered using Co-Suspension™ Delivery Technology via a metered dose inhaler (MDI). We examined the lower GP MDI dose range to determine an optimal dose for patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, chronic-dosing, balanced incomplete-block, placebo-controlled, crossover study compared six doses of GP MDI (18, 9, 4...
2016: Respiratory Research
Dejan Radovanovic, Marco Mantero, Giuseppe Francesco Sferrazza Papa, Vincenzo Valenti, Stefano Aliberti, Fabiano Di Marco, Pierachille Santus
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by a high disability and increasing mortality. Bronchodilators are the cornerstone of pharmacological treatment in COPD, while therapeutic optimization with an improvement in symptoms and compliance represent the actual goals. This has led to the development of devices that combine different classes of inhalatory drugs. Recently, a novel combination of the long acting antimuscarinic agent glycopyrronium bromide and the beta2-agonist formoterol fumarate has been developed in a metered dose inhaler delivery system...
October 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Florence T Baralatei, Richard J Ackermann
Management of nonpain symptoms can improve quality of life for patients at the end of life and their family members. Constipation is the most common nonpain symptom. It can be related to opioid therapy and/or medical conditions. After abdominal examination to detect masses or evidence of bowel obstruction and rectal examination to exclude fecal impaction, constipation should be managed with a stimulant laxative (eg, senna) or an osmotic laxative (eg, sorbitol). Dyspnea also is common, and often improves with use of a fan to blow air into the face, as well with breathing and relaxation exercises...
August 2016: FP Essentials
D M Baker
INTRODUCTION: Oral anti-cholinergic medications reduce generalized hyperhidrosis, but the effectiveness of topical anticholinergic solutions on axillary hyperhidrosis is unclear. This study determines the initial effectiveness of 1% and 2% topical glycopyrrolate spray and compares this with Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of axillary hyperhidrosis. METHODS: In a non-randomized, consecutive patient, prospective questionnaire, treatment comparison study, 40 patients with axillary hyperhidrosis were allocated to one of four study groups (10 patients to each group): (a) 1% glycopyrrolate spray, (b) 2% glycopyrrolate spray, (c) subcutaneous Botulinum toxin type A injections, (d) no treatment...
July 13, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Craig LaForce, Gregory Feldman, Selwyn Spangenthal, Joerg H Eckert, Michelle Henley, Francesco Patalano, Peter D'Andrea
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to confirm the efficacy and safety of twice-daily glycopyrrolate 15.6 µg, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, in patients with stable, symptomatic, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation. METHODS: The GEM1 study was a 12-week, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study that randomized patients with stable, symptomatic COPD with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation to twice-daily glycopyrrolate 15...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Milap C Nahata
The lack of commercially available liquid dosage forms for pediatric patients prompted this study. The objectives of our study were to determine the stability of zonisamide, amitriptyline, and glycopyrrolate in extemporaneously prepared oral suspensions in plastic prescription bottles. One group of suspensions was prepared in OraPlus:OraSweet (1:1) for each drug and stored either under refrigeration (4°C) or at room temperature (25°C). A second group of suspensions were compounded in 1% methylcellulose:simple syrup at a 1:10 proportion for zonisamide, amitriptyline, and glycopyrrolate; these suspensions were stored at either under refrigeration (4°C) or at room temperature (25°C)...
March 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
Kyo Sang Kim, You Na Oh, Tae Yeon Kim, Song Yee Oh, Yeong Hun Sin
BACKGROUND: The primary outcome of sugammadex reversal for rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) is a train-of-four ratio (TOFR) of 0.9, not first twitch (T1) height. We investigated whether the recovery of TOFR or T1 differs based on the reversal of NMB with neostigmine or sugammadex. METHODS: The acceleromyographic responses from 0.6 mg/kg of rocuronium were monitored supramaximally in 80 patients after induction of anesthesia. The TOFR and T1 height were recorded, and saved in a personal computer using TOF-Watch SX Monitor software in all patients...
June 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Eugene Kim, Jae Hun Ryu, Sung Hye Byun
BACKGROUND: According to several studies investigating the relationship between muscle activity and electroencephalogram results, reversal of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) may affect depth of anesthesia indices. Therefore, we investigated the effect of pyridostigmine on these indices via spectral entropy. METHODS: Fifty-six patients scheduled for thyroidectomy or parotidectomy were included in this study and randomized into two groups. At the start of skin suturing, the desflurane concentration was adjusted to 4...
June 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Kyung Woo Kim, Won Joo Choe, Jun Hyun Kim, Kyung-Tae Kim, Sang-Il Lee, Jang Su Park, Jung Won Kim, Min Hee Heo
OBJECTIVE: A randomized, double-blind, prospective study to evaluate the effect of anticholinergic drugs on thermoregulation in paediatric patients undergoing ambulatory anaesthesia with ketamine. METHODS: Patients were randomized to receive either 0.005 mg/kg glycopyrrolate or the equivalent volume of normal saline (placebo) at 30 min before ketamine anaesthesia. Body temperature was measured tympanically at baseline and at 0, 30, 60 and 90 min postoperatively...
August 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
Donald Banerji, Donald A Mahler, Nicola A Hanania
INTRODUCTION: Long-acting β2-agonists [LABAs] and long-acting muscarinic antagonists [LAMAs]) are primary therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite improvements in lung function and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) with these therapies, there is room to optimize outcomes further. Combined use of LABAs and LAMAs is recommended when symptoms are not improved with a single agent, and LABA/LAMA fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) are at the forefront of drug development in COPD...
July 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Donald A Mahler, Alex H Gifford, Aditi Satti, Nicola Jessop, Joerg H Eckert, Peter D'Andrea, Fernando Mota, Rudrani Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are a class of medications used as maintenance therapy for COPD. The GEM3 (Glycopyrrolate Effect on syMptoms and lung function) study assessed the long-term safety and efficacy of a LAMA, glycopyrrolate (GLY) 15.6 μg twice daily (b.i.d.), compared with an approved long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), indacaterol (IND) 75 μg once daily (q...
June 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Tracey C Vlahovic
Plantar hyperhidrosis, excessive sweating on the soles of feet, can have a significant impact on patients' quality of life and emotional well-being. Hyperhidrosis is divided into primary and secondary categories, depending on the cause of the sweating, with plantar hyperhidrosis typically being primary and idiopathic. There is an overall increased risk of cutaneous infection in the presence of hyperhidrosis, including fungal, bacterial, and viral infections. This article discusses a range of treatment options including topical aluminum chloride, iontophoresis, injectable botulinum toxin A, glycopyrrolate, oxybutynin, laser, and endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy...
July 2016: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
R Venkatasamy, D Spina
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated the effectiveness of RPL554, a dual PDE3 and 4 enzyme inhibitor, on airway smooth muscle relaxation and compared it with that induced by salbutamol, ipratropium bromide, glycopyrrolate or their combination on bronchomotor tone induced by different spasmogenic agents. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Guinea pig tracheal preparations were suspended under 1 g tension in Krebs-Henseleit solution maintained at 37°C and aerated with 95% O2 /5% CO2 and incubated in the presence of indomethacin (5 μM)...
August 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Clinton J Doering, Victoria M Lukasik, Reuben E Merideth
OBJECTIVE To determine effects of glycopyrrolate administered IM on Schirmer tear test I (STT I) measurements in dogs. DESIGN Prospective clinical study. ANIMALS 13 client- and staff-owned dogs. PROCEDURES For both eyes of each dog, STT I measurements were recorded twice 20 minutes apart (at T1 and T2) and 2 to 4 hours later (at T3). Glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg [0.005 mg/lb]) was administered IM to all dogs (3 dogs received an injection of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution on an earlier occasion), and final STT I measurements were recorded 20 minutes later (at T4)...
June 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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