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myelodysplastic syndrome review

Nour M Moukalled, Fuad A El Rassi, Sally N Temraz, Ali T Taher
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) encompass a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by a broad clinical spectrum related to ineffective hematopoiesis leading to unilineage or multilineage cytopenias, with a high propensity for transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Iron overload has been recently identified as one of the important conditions complicating the management of these diverse disorders. The accumulation of iron is mainly related to chronic transfusions; however, evidence suggests a possible role for ineffective erythropoiesis and increased intestinal absorption of iron, related to altered hepcidin and growth differentiation factor-15 levels in the development of hemosiderosis in patients with MDS...
June 15, 2018: Cancer
Jamile M Shammo, Rami S Komrokji
Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are at increased risk of iron overload due to ineffective erythropoiesis and chronic transfusion therapy. The clinical consequences of iron overload include cardiac and/or hepatic failure, endocrinopathies, and infection risk. Areas covered: Iron chelation therapy (ICT) can help remove excess iron and ultimately reduce the clinical consequences of iron overload. The authors reviewed recent (last five years) English-language articles from PubMed on the topic of iron overload-related complications and the use of ICT (primarily deferasirox) to improve outcomes in patients with MDS...
June 14, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
Shin Yeu Ong, Shao-Tzu Li, Gee Chuan Wong, Aloysius Yew Leng Ho, Chandramouli Nagarajan, Joanne Ngeow
Inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS) including Shwachman Diamond Syndrome (SDS) can present initially to the hematologist with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Accurate diagnosis affects choice of chemotherapy, donor selection, and transplant conditioning. We report a case of delayed diagnosis of SDS in a family with another child with aplastic anemia, and review reported cases of SDS in Asia. This highlights the gap in identifying inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in adults with hematologic malignancies...
2018: Leukemia Research Reports
Yasuhiko Kamikubo
RUNX1 is a transcription factor belonging to the Core Binding Factor (CBF) family. It is considered to be a master regulator of hematopoiesis and has been regarded as a tumor suppressor because it is essential for definitive hematopoiesis in vertebrates. It is one of the most frequent target genes of chromosomal translocation in leukemia, and germ line mutation of RUNX1 causes familial platelet disorder with associated myeloid malignancies (FPDMM). Somatic cell mutations and chromosomal abnormalities, including those of RUNX1, are observed in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) at a high frequency...
June 8, 2018: Cancer Science
Mahtat El Mehdi, Ahmed Alayoude, Mohamed Amine Hamzi, Wafe Arache, Kawtar Hassani, Selim Jennane, Hicham Eddou, Kamal Doghmi, Mohamed Mikdame
Myelodysplastic syndromes may be associated with autoimmune diseases. Renal involvement is rare but, if occurs, it manifests predominantly as glomerular diseases. Extramembranous glomerulonephritis associated with myelodysplastic syndrome has been reported very rarely. We here report the case of a patient presenting with glomerulonephritis associated with anemia, revealing low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. In the light of this case, we conducted a review of the literature of previously published cases and discussed the pathogenic link between these two entities...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Christian M Schürch
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as antibody-drug conjugates, ligand-receptor antagonists, immune checkpoint inhibitors and bispecific T cell engagers have shown impressive efficacy in the treatment of multiple human cancers. Numerous therapeutic mAbs that have been developed for myeloid neoplasms, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), are currently investigated in clinical trials. Because AML and MDS originate from malignantly transformed hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells-the so-called leukemic stem cells (LSCs) that are highly resistant to most standard drugs-these malignancies frequently relapse and have a high disease-specific mortality...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
D Nieto, E Sendagorta, J M Rueda, P Herranz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Wolfgang Jelkmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sotatercept and luspatercept are recombinant soluble activin type-II receptor-IgG-Fc fusion proteins that are tested in clinical trials for the treatment of various types of anemias, including renal anemia. The mechanism of the action of the novel drugs is incompletely understood, but it seems to be based on the inactivation of soluble proteins of the transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) family. This review considers pros and cons of the clinical use of the drugs in reference to the current therapy with recombinant erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs)...
May 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Zhi-Ping Guo, Yan-Hong Tan, Jian-Lan Li, Zhi-Fang Xu, Xiu-Hua Chen, Lian-Rong Xu
The development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a very rare event. The current report presents a rare case of a 33-year-old man who was diagnosed with MDS with multiple-lineage dysplasia (MDS-MLD) that transformed into pro-B-ALL. A missense mutation (S1231F) of the additional sex combs like 1, transcriptional regulator gene was identified, which may have a substantial role in the progression, however does not act as an unfavorable prognostic marker. The patient died during induction chemotherapy...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Pengfei Liu, Peiwen Li, Ting Lei, Limei Qu, Haiyan Huang, Qingchun Mu
Temozolomide (TMZ) is a second-generation oral alkylating agent that functions against a number of central nervous system neoplasms, and is generally used to treat high-grade gliomas, including anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme. Therapy-related secondary myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia have been reported in patients following prolonged exposure to TMZ. However, TMZ-related acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is extremely rare. The present study describes the case of an 11-year-old boy with a 3-day history of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and a contrast-enhanced lesion in the left temporooccipital region with focal cystic degeneration, as detected by magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Anne Sophie Kubasch, Uwe Platzbecker
Higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) of the elderly exhibit several commonalities, including first line treatment with hypomethylating agents (HMA) like azacitidine (AZA) or decitabine (DAC). Until today, response to treatment occurs in less than 50 percent of patients, and is often short-lived. Moreover, patients failing HMA have a dismal prognosis. Current developments include combinations of HMA with novel drugs targeting epigenetic or immunomodulatory pathways. Other efforts focus on the prevention of resistance to HMA using checkpoint inhibitors to enhance immune attack...
May 24, 2018: Cancers
Horrick Sharma
Isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) are key metabolic enzymes that catalyze the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (αKG). IDH 1 and IDH2 regulate several cellular processes, including oxidative respiration, glutamine metabolism, lipogenesis, and cellular defense against oxidative damage. Mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 have recently been observed in multiple tumor types, including gliomas, acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and chondrosarcoma. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations involve a gain in neomorphic activity that catalyze αKG conversion to (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG)...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Reem Malouf, Asma Ashraf, Andreas V Hadjinicolaou, Carolyn Doree, Sally Hopewell, Lise J Estcourt
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow disorders encompass a group of diseases characterised by reduced production of red cells, white cells, and platelets, or defects in their function, or both. The most common bone marrow disorder is myelodysplastic syndrome. Thrombocytopenia, a low platelet count, commonly occurs in people with bone marrow failure. Platetet transfusions are routinely used in people with thrombocytopenia secondary to bone marrow failure disorders to treat or prevent bleeding. Myelodysplastic syndrome is currently the most common reason for receiving a platelet transfusion in some Western countries...
May 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yuta Inoue, Terukazu Nakamura, Hiroyuki Nakanishi, Masakatsu Oishi, Fumiya Hongo, Koji Okihara, Shinsuke Mizutani, Junya Kuroda, Osamu Ukimura
OBJECTIVES: To analyze cases of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome diagnosed after chemotherapy for refractory testicular and extragonadal germ cell tumor in our experience. METHODS: A total of 171 consecutive patients who were diagnosed and treated as refractory germ cell tumor and had records of detailed chemotherapy doses between April 1998 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Four testicular tumor patients (4/171, 2...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Wenchao Li, A Robert Schnatter
Epidemiologic findings play an important role in benzene risk assessment, which is utilized to guide the selection of recommended benzene exposure levels to prevent adverse health effects. For decades, excess leukemia risk, especially that in the Pliofilm® cohort, has been the focus of benzene risk assessment. While more stringent benzene standards, often ≤1 ppm, have been promulgated to protect workers from developing leukemia, recent epidemiologic studies have reported elevated risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)...
May 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Rory M Shallis, Rami Ahmad, Amer M Zeidan
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a diverse group of clonal and malignant myeloid disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, resultant peripheral cytopenias, and a meaningful increased risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. A wide array of recurring genetic mutations involved in RNA splicing, histone manipulation, DNA methylation, transcription factors, kinase signaling, DNA repair, cohesin proteins, and other signal transduction elements have been identified as important substrates for the development of MDS...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
K Tohyama
The Japanese Society for Laboratory Hematology (JSLH) was launched in 2000 and has been developed by a mutual collaboration of hematologists, medical technologists, and the companies involved in hematological laboratory testing. The aim of JSLH is the progress and development of laboratory hematology by academic conferences, periodic publication of academic journal, training and education (in the meeting, the journal, or the website), promotion of the standardization of laboratory hematology, and certification of the laboratory hematology specialists...
May 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Dongdong Yu, Yikai Cai, Wei Zhou, Jinghao Sheng, Zhengping Xu
Background: Angiogenin (ANG) is a multifunctional angiogenic protein that participates in both normal development and diseases. Abnormal serum ANG levels are commonly reported in various diseases. However, whether ANG can serve as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for different diseases remains a matter of debate. Methods: Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature utilizing PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus search engines to identify all publications comparing plasma or serum ANG levels between patients with different diseases and healthy controls, as were studies evaluating circulating ANG levels in healthy populations, pregnant women, or other demographic populations...
2018: Disease Markers
Abdulsamet Erden, Emre Bilgin, Levent Kılıç, Alper Sarı, Berkan Armağan, Yahya Büyükaşık, Umut Kalyoncu
BACKGROUND: Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune disorder, and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is accompanied by RP at variable rates. Herein, we report a case with RP and MDS who responded dramatically to 5-azacitidine for MDS. CASE PRESENTATION: With conventional immunosuppressive treatment, our patient had several episodes of different side effects, including infections. With the diagnosis of MDS and initiation of azacitidine treatment, all the manifestations of RP disappeared, and remission was achieved for MDS...
May 1, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
Douglas Tremblay, Kelsey Sokol, Sheena Bhalla, Raajit Rampal, John O Mascarenhas
The advent of high-throughput gene sequencing has revolutionized our understanding of the genetic mutations that drive myeloid malignancies. While these mutations are of interest pathobiologically, they are increasingly being recognized as clinically meaningful in providing diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic information to guide patient care. In this first part of our two-part review, we introduce mutation profiling as a relevant clinical tool for hematologists treating patients with myeloid malignancies...
April 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
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