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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931652/red-blood-cell-transfusion-and-its-effect-on-microvascular-dysfunction-in-shock-states
#1
REVIEW
Jordan A Weinberg, Rakesh P Patel
Among critically ill patients, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is often prescribed for anemia in the absence of active or recent bleeding. The failure of RBC transfusion to improve physiological parameters and clinical outcomes in this setting may be explained by current understanding of the relationship between the RBCs and the microcirculation. It is now evident that the circulating RBCs contribute to microcirculatory hypoxic vasodilation by regulated nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation, thereby facilitating delivery of oxygen to oxygen-deprived tissue...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929686/hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-fanconi-anemia-current-evidence-challenges-and-recommendations
#2
Christen L Ebens, Margaret L MacMillan, John E Wagner
Hematopoietic cell transplantation for Fanconi Anemia (FA) has improved dramatically over the past 40 years. With an enhanced understanding of the intrinsic DNA-repair defect and pathophysiology of hematopoietic failure and leukemogenesis, sequential changes to conditioning and graft engineering have significantly improved the expectation of survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) with incidence of graft failure decreased from 35% to <10% and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) from >40% to <10%...
December 8, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926498/prognostic-value-of-rdw-in-cancers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Linhui Hu, Manman Li, Yangyang Ding, Lianfang Pu, Jun Liu, Jingxin Xie, Michael Cabanero, Jingrong Li, Ru Xiang, Shudao Xiong
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW), a parameter that used to differentiate the type of anemia for several decades, recent studies suggest it was a prognostic factor in various types of cancer patients. However, the prognostic value of RDW in cancer patients remains controversial. Here, we performed a meta-analysis and systematic review to evaluate the prognostic value of RDW in cancer patients. Relevant studies were picked out from the databases of Web of Science, Embase, Pubmed and Cochrane Library. A total of 16 papers with 4267 patients were included in this meta-analysis, and the combined results indicated that elevated RDW was associated with poor over survival (OS) (HR = 1...
December 2, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922585/are-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-beneficial-for-anemia-in-chronic-heart-failure-patients
#4
Diego Araneda, Gabriel Rada
Anemia is a common comorbidity among patients with chronic health failure and appears to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity. However, it is unclear whether correcting it with erythropoiesis stimulating agents improves clinical outcomes. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified 11 systematic reviews including 17 trials overall addressing the question of this article. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach...
November 23, 2016: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920990/angiosarcoma-of-the-adrenal-gland-treated-using-a-multimodal-approach
#5
Jay G Fuletra, Benjamin T Ristau, Barton Milestone, Harry S Cooper, Alysia Browne, Sujana Movva, Thomas J Galloway, Randall Lee, Nikhil Waingankar, Alexander Kutikov
Angiosarcoma of the adrenal gland is an extremely rare malignancy. We report a case of a 59-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain and profound anemia. A 7 cm enhancing, lipid-poor adrenal mass with calcifications that extended posterior to the vena cava was identified on imaging. Patient underwent right adrenalectomy with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Pathology demonstrated angiosarcoma of the adrenal gland. Consolidative treatment included adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Patient remains disease free 1...
January 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917619/practical-guidance-on-the-use-of-olaparib-capsules-as-maintenance-therapy-for-women-with-brca-mutations-and-platinum-sensitive-recurrent-ovarian-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Michael Friedlander, Susana Banerjee, Linda Mileshkin, Clare Scott, Catherine Shannon, Jeffrey Goh
Olaparib is the first oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor to be approved as maintenance monotherapy for treatment of patients with platinum-sensitive relapsed BRCA-mutated (BRCAm) serous ovarian cancer. This review provides practical guidance on the use of olaparib (capsule formulation) in the maintenance setting. The article focuses on the key toxicities that can arise with olaparib therapy and recommendations for their management. Nausea, vomiting, fatigue and anemia are the most commonly reported adverse events in olaparib clinical trials and are generally mild to moderate and transient in nature in most patients...
December 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917465/warm-reactive-immunoglobulin-g-autoantibodies-and-laboratory-testing-best-practices-review-of-the-literature-and-survey-of-current-practice
#7
REVIEW
Alyssa Ziman, Claudia Cohn, Patricia M Carey, Nancy M Dunbar, Mark K Fung, Andreas Greinacher, Simon Stanworth, Nancy M Heddle, Meghan Delaney
BACKGROUND: Warm-reactive autoantibodies (WAAs) are the most common cause of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and can also be present without clinically significant hemolysis. WAAs complicate immunohematological testing, yet there is no commonly accepted approach to laboratory evaluation and red blood cell (RBC) selection. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We searched PubMed/Cochrane Central for articles that described testing methodology and blood selection for patients with WAAs...
December 4, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916873/the-effect-of-low-dose-iron-and-zinc-intake-on-child-micronutrient-status-and-development-during-the-first-1000-days-of-life-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Nicolai Petry, Ibironke Olofin, Erick Boy, Moira Donahue Angel, Fabian Rohner
Adequate supply of micronutrients during the first 1000 days is essential for normal development and healthy life. We aimed to investigate if interventions administering dietary doses up to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of iron and zinc within the window from conception to age 2 years have the potential to influence nutritional status and development of children. To address this objective, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and quasi-randomized fortification, biofortification, and supplementation trials in women (pregnant and lactating) and children (6-23 months) delivering iron or zinc in doses up to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) levels was conducted...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913548/warm-antibody-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia
#9
Theodosia A Kalfa
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare and heterogeneous disease that affects 1 to 3/100 000 patients per year. AIHA caused by warm autoantibodies (w-AIHA), ie, antibodies that react with their antigens on the red blood cell optimally at 37°C, is the most common type, comprising ∼70% to 80% of all adult cases and ∼50% of pediatric cases. About half of the w-AIHA cases are called primary because no specific etiology can be found, whereas the rest are secondary to other recognizable underlying disorders...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913539/prevention-of-central-nervous-system-sequelae-in-sickle-cell-disease-without-evidence-from-randomized-controlled-trials-the-case-for-a-team-based-learning-collaborative
#10
Michael R DeBaun, Allison A King
Since 1998, the National Institutes of Health has funded 5 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for primary and secondary prevention of strokes in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). In a systematic fashion, these trials have significantly advanced the care of children with SCA. In the absence of an RCT, clinicians are often compelled to make decisions at the bedside, based on experience, observational studies, and principles of hematology. We will provide an initial example that describes how a team-based, learning collaborative developed a multisite standard care protocol with a low budget (<$10 000 per year) to overcome the intrinsic limitations of advancing the care of neurologic complications in sickle cell disease (SCD)...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913465/aplastic-anemia-and-clonal-evolution-germ-line-and-somatic-genetics
#11
Akiko Shimamura
Clonal progression to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a dreaded complication for a subset of patients with bone marrow failure (BMF). Recognizing risk factors for the development of MDS or AML would inform individualized treatment decisions and identify patients who may benefit from early or upfront hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Now that next-generation DNA sequencing is available in the clinical laboratory, research has focused on the implications of germ line and somatic mutations for diagnosing and monitoring patients with BMF...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913463/single-dose-intravenous-iron-for-iron-deficiency-a-new-paradigm
#12
Michael Auerbach, Thomas Deloughery
Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common hematologic problem in the world. Although oral iron is often viewed as front-line therapy, extensive published evidence has accumulated that IV iron is superior, in both efficacy and safety, to oral iron in many clinical situations and should be introduced much sooner in the treatment paradigm of iron-deficient patients. In this chapter, we will review the formulations of IV iron that allow total complete replacement doses in 1 or 2 sessions including practical tips for administration...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908520/diagnosis-and-updates-in-celiac-disease
#13
REVIEW
Sarah Shannahan, Daniel A Leffler
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder induced by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. It can result in intraintestinal and extraintestinal manifestations of disease including diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, osteoporosis, or lymphoma. Diagnosis of celiac disease is made through initial serologic testing and then confirmed by histopathologic examination of duodenal biopsies. Generally celiac disease is a benign disorder with a good prognosis in those who adhere to a gluten-free diet. However, in refractory disease, complications may develop that warrant additional testing with more advanced radiologic and endoscopic methods...
January 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908518/gastrointestinal-angiodysplasia-diagnosis-and-management
#14
REVIEW
Christian S Jackson, Richard Strong
Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia (GIAD) are red flat arborized lesions that are found throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. GIAD can vary in size and have a range of presentation from occult to life-threatening bleeding. The typical presentation is intermittent bleeding in the setting of iron deficiency anemia. Endoscopy is the primary means of diagnosis and endoscopic therapy is noted to be initially effective. However, rebleeding can be as high as 40% to 50% in patients with small bowel GIAD. This review describes the pathophysiology for the development of GIAD and the current roles of endoscopic, medical, and surgical therapy in its treatment...
January 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904656/the-berlin-treatment-algorithm-recommendations-for-tailored-innovative-therapeutic-strategies-for-multiple-sclerosis-related-fatigue
#15
REVIEW
Christian Veauthier, Helge Hasselmann, Stefan M Gold, Friedemann Paul
More than 80% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients suffer from fatigue. Despite this, there are few therapeutic options and evidence-based pharmacological treatments are lacking. The associated societal burden is substantial (MS fatigue is a major reason for part-time employment or early retirement), and at least one out of four MS patients view fatigue as the most burdensome symptom of their disease. The mechanisms underlying MS-related fatigue are poorly understood, and objective criteria for distinguishing and evaluating levels of fatigue and tiredness have not yet been developed...
2016: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903446/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-an-under-recognized-cause-of-abnormal-uterine-bleeding-in-adolescents-admitted-to-a-children-s-hospital
#16
Sofya Maslyanskaya, Hina J Talib, Jennifer L Northridge, Amanda M Jacobs, Chanelle Coble, Susan M Coupey
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether ovulatory dysfunction due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common underlying etiology of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in adolescents requiring hospitalization and to explore etiology, treatment and complications of AUB with severe anemia in adolescents. DESIGN: We identified females aged 8 to 20 years admitted to a children's hospital for treatment of AUB from January 2000 to December 2014. Our hospital protocol advises hormonal testing for PCOS and other disorders prior to treatment for AUB...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901246/chemotherapy-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-the-elderly-population
#17
Fábio Nasser Santos, Tiago Biachi de Castria, Marcelo Rocha Souza Cruz, Rachel Riera
BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are over 70 years of age at diagnosis. Despite this fact, these patients are underrepresented in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). As a consequence, the most appropriate regimens for these patients are controversial, and the role of single-agent or combination therapy is unclear. In this setting, a critical systematic review of RCTs in this group of patients is warranted. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of different cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens for previously untreated elderly patients with advanced (stage IIIB and IV) NSCLC...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900969/proteinuria-graft-outcomes-and-cardiovascular-risk-among-kidney-transplant-recipients-in-a-south-african-public-hospital
#18
Aminu Muhammad Sakajiki, Sagren Naidoo, P Manga, M S Nazir, S Naicker
Proteinuria is a marker of poor long-term graft survival and an independent risk factor for total and cardiovascular mortality in the transplant population. We investigated the prevalence of proteinuria and its relationship with graft function and cardiovascular risk factors in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Adult KTRs at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital were recruited. Patients' records were reviewed for information on their posttransplant follow-up. Echocardiography and carotid Doppler were performed for the assessment of cardiac status and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), respectively...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898452/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-malnutrition-in-developing-countries
#19
Inderpaul S Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Ritesh Agarwal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disorder characterized by progressive, poorly reversible airflow limitation. In addition to its pulmonary manifestations, COPD is also associated with several systemic expressions including anemia, osteoporosis, coronary artery disease, and malnutrition. In COPD, malnutrition is a consequence of reduced nutritional intake and muscle loss, further compounded by systemic inflammation. In the developing world, malnutrition is a significant problem by itself, even without any systemic illness...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898170/peripartum-cardiomyopathy-experience-at-a-tertiary-care-center-in-puerto-rico
#20
Anthony D Osterman-Pla, Ronald López-Cepero, Luis Jiménez, Josefina Romaguera, Juan Aranda
OBJECTIVE: Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare type of heart failure to which only pregnant women are susceptible. In Puerto Rico there is a paucity of information regarding this condition. In this report we describe our experience with peripartum cardiomyopathy. METHODS: This was a descriptive retrospective study. We conducted a chart review of all the patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy managed at our institution from January 2006 through December 2012. A total of 12 patients qualified for our analysis...
December 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
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