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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913792/genetic-engineering-approach-to-develop-next-generation-reagents-for-endotoxin-quantification
#1
Hikaru Mizumura, Norihiko Ogura, Jun Aketagawa, Maki Aizawa, Yuki Kobayashi, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata, Toshio Oda
The bacterial endotoxin test, which uses amebocyte lysate reagents of horseshoe crab origin, is a sensitive, reproducible and simple assay to measure endotoxin concentration. To develop sustainable raw materials for lysate reagents that do not require horseshoe crabs, three recombinant protease zymogens (factor C, derived from mammalian cells; factor B; and the proclotting enzyme derived from insect cells) were prepared using a genetic engineering technique. Recombinant cascade reagents (RCRs) were then prepared to reconstruct the reaction cascade in the amebocyte lysate reagent...
December 1, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893995/combined-effects-of-cadmium-temperature-and-hypoxia-reoxygenation-on-mitochondrial-function-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#2
John O Onukwufor, Don Stevens, Collins Kamunde
Although aquatic organisms face multiple environmental stressors that may interact to alter adverse outcomes, our knowledge of stressor-stressor interaction on cellular function is limited. We investigated the combined effects of cadmium (Cd), hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R) and temperature on mitochondrial function. Liver mitochondria from juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to Cd (0-20μM) and H-R (0 and 5min) at 5, 13 and 25°C followed by measurements of mitochondrial Cd load, volume, complex І active (A)↔deactive (D) transition, membrane potential, ROS release and ultrastructural changes...
November 18, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877138/a-ketogenic-diet-in-rodents-elicits-improved-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-response-to-resistance-exercise-training-compared-to-an-isocaloric-western-diet
#3
Hayden W Hyatt, Wesley C Kephart, A Maleah Holland, Petey Mumford, C Brooks Mobley, Ryan P Lowery, Michael D Roberts, Jacob M Wilson, Andreas N Kavazis
Purpose: Ketogenic diets (KD) can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 weeks of age, 300-325 g) were fed isocaloric amounts of either a KD (17 g/day, 5.2 kcal/g, 20.2% protein, 10.3% CHO, 69.5% fat, n = 16) or a Western diet (WD) (20 g/day, 4...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874067/5-htr3-and-5-htr4-located-on-the-mitochondrial-membrane-and-functionally-regulated-mitochondrial-functions
#4
Qingyi Wang, Huiyuan Zhang, Hao Xu, Dongqing Guo, Hui Shi, Yuan Li, Weiwei Zhang, Yuchun Gu
5-HT has been reported to possess significant effects on cardiac activities, but activation of 5-HTR on the cell membrane failed to illustrate the controversial cardiac reaction. Because 5-HT constantly comes across the cell membrane via 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) into the cytoplasm, whether 5-HTR is functional present on the cellular organelles is unknown. Here we show 5-HTR3 and 5-HTR4 were located in cardiac mitochondria, and regulated mitochondrial activities and cellular functions. Knock down 5-HTR3 and 5-HTR4 in neonatal cardiomyocytes resulted in significant increase of cell damage in response to hypoxia, and also led to alternation in heart beating...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867097/mitochondrial-remodeling-in-the-liver-following-chronic-alcohol-feeding-to-rats
#5
Derick Han, Heather S Johnson, Madhuri P Rao, Gary Martin, Harsh Sancheti, Kai H Silkwood, Carl W Decker, Kim Tho Nguyen, Joseph G Casian, Enrique Cadenas, Neil Kaplowitz
The feeding of alcohol orally (Lieber-DeCarli diet) to rats has been shown to cause declines in mitochondrial respiration (state III), decreased expression of respiratory complexes, and decreased respiratory control ratios (RCR) in liver mitochondria. These declines and other mitochondrial alterations have led to the hypothesis that alcohol feeding causes "mitochondrial dysfunction" in the liver. If oral alcohol feeding leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, one would predict that increasing alcohol delivery by intragastric (IG) alcohol feeding to rats would cause greater declines in mitochondrial bioenergetics in the liver...
November 17, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862974/phenotypic-variation-in-food-utilization-in-an-outbreak-insect-herbivore
#6
Roberto Quezada-García, Álvaro Fuentealba, Éric Bauce
The effects of nutrition may have subtantial impact on insect evolution by shaping different components of phenotypes. The key to undestanding this evolutionary process is to know how nutritional condition affects additive and non-additive components of the phenotype. However, this is poorly understood in outbreaking insects. We investigated the additive and non-additive variation present in food utilization traits in spruce budworm individuals subjected to chronic nutritional stress. 160 full-sib families of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem...
November 8, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830025/sevoflurane-postconditioning-improves-myocardial-mitochondrial-respiratory-function-and-reduces-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-up-regulating-hif-1
#7
Long Yang, Peng Xie, Jianjiang Wu, Jin Yu, Tian Yu, Haiying Wang, Jiang Wang, Zhengyuan Xia, Hong Zheng
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane postconditioning (SPostC) can exert myocardial protective effects similar to ischemic preconditioning. However, the exact myocardial protection mechanism by SPostC is unclear. Studies indicate that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) maintains cellular respiration homeostasis by regulating mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity under hypoxic conditions. This study investigated whether SPostC could regulate the expression of myocardial HIF-1α and to improve mitochondrial respiratory function, thereby relieving myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774938/-mir-338-5p-modulates-b-cell-biological-functions-by-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb1
#8
Xuyi Ma, Xiaozhou He, Panpan Dong, Dong Xue, Dan Song, Haiyan Xu, Xueguang Zhang
Objective To explore the effects of miR-338-5p on the nuclear factor κB1 (NF-κB1) expression and the IgG-producing ability of B cells. Methods Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to test the target gene of miR-338-5p. The purified CD20(+) B cells were transfected with miR-338-5p agomiR, miR-338-5p antagomiR, NF-κB1 siRNA (siNF-κB1) and their corresponding negative control reagents, and then cultured with anti-IgM antibody and/or recombinant human B cell activating factor (rhBAFF). Real-time RCR and Western boltting were applied to determine the mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB1...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770435/a-scoping-review-of-root-canal-revascularization-relevant-aspects-for-clinical-success-and-tissue-formation
#9
REVIEW
M C M Conde, L A Chisini, R Sarkis-Onofre, H S Schuch, J E Nör, F F Demarco
The aim of this scoping study was to evaluate the survival rate and nature of tissue formed inside root canals of human immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps (NIPT) under root canal revascularization (RCR). The search was performed in SciVerse Scopus®, PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science®, BIREME and in the grey literature up to November 2015. The keywords were selected using MeSH terms and DECs. Two independent reviewers scrutinized the records obtained considering specific inclusion criteria. The included studies were evaluated in accordance with a modified Arksey and O' Malley's framework...
October 22, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764832/attenuation-of-renal-functional-decline-following-angioplasty-and-stenting-in-atherosclerotic-renovascular-disease
#10
Rodrigo Hagemann, Vanessa Dos Santos Silva, Fábio Cardoso Carvalho, Pasqual Barretti, Luis Cuadrado Martin, Diana Vassallo, Philip A Kalra, Roberto Jorge da Silva Franco
BACKGROUND: To date, renal revascularization has not been shown to be advantageous when compared to optimized medical treatment in patients with atheromatous renovascular disease (ARVD). This study aims to investigate the effect of revascularization in patients with pre-intervention worsening renal function and in those with stable renal function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this single-centre observational study, patients who were diagnosed with at least 60% angiographic stenosis unilaterally or bilaterally between January 1996 and October 2008 and who were followed-up until February 2011 were retrospectively analysed...
October 21, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709114/metal-induced-stabilization-and-activation-of-plasmid-replication-initiator-repb
#11
José A Ruiz-Masó, Lorena Bordanaba-Ruiseco, Marta Sanz, Margarita Menéndez, Gloria Del Solar
Initiation of plasmid rolling circle replication (RCR) is catalyzed by a plasmid-encoded Rep protein that performs a Tyr- and metal-dependent site-specific cleavage of one DNA strand within the double-strand origin (dso) of replication. The crystal structure of RepB, the initiator protein of the streptococcal plasmid pMV158, constitutes the first example of a Rep protein structure from RCR plasmids. It forms a toroidal homohexameric ring where each RepB protomer consists of two domains: the C-terminal domain involved in oligomerization and the N-terminal domain containing the DNA-binding and endonuclease activities...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708735/summary-of-meta-analyses-dealing-with-single-row-versus-double-row-repair-techniques-for-rotator-cuff-tears
#12
U J Spiegl, S A Euler, P J Millett, P Hepp
BACKGROUND: Several meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials have been performed to analyze whether double-row (DR) rotator cuff repair (RCR) provides superior clinical outcomes and structural healing compared to single-row (SR) repair. The purpose of this study was to sum up the results of meta-analysis comparing SR and DR repair with respect on clinical outcomes and re-tear rates. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken to identify all meta-analyses dealing with randomized controlled trials comparing clinical und structural outcomes after SR versus DR RCR...
2016: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693859/blood-cell-respirometry-is-associated-with-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle-bioenergetics-implications-for-a-minimally-invasive-biomarker-of-mitochondrial-health
#13
Daniel J Tyrrell, Manish S Bharadwaj, Matthew J Jorgensen, Thomas C Register, Anthony J A Molina
Blood based bioenergetic profiling strategies are emerging as potential reporters of systemic mitochondrial function; however, the extent to which these measures reflect the bioenergetic capacity of other tissues is not known. The premise of this work is that highly metabolically active tissues, such as skeletal and cardiac muscle, are susceptible to differences in systemic bioenergetic capacity. Therefore, we tested whether the respiratory capacity of blood cells, monocytes and platelets, are related to contemporaneous respirometric assessments of skeletal and cardiac muscle mitochondria...
September 21, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685649/a-field-deployable-reverse-transcription-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-the-chikungunya-virus
#14
Pranav Patel, Ahmed Abd El Wahed, Oumar Faye, Pauline Prüger, Marco Kaiser, Sasikanya Thaloengsok, Sukathida Ubol, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Frank T Hufert, Amadou A Sall, Manfred Weidmann, Matthias Niedrig
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus currently transmitted in about 60 countries. CHIKV causes acute flu-like symptoms and in many cases prolonged musculoskeletal and joint pain. Detection of the infection is mostly done using RT-RCR or ELISA, which are not suitable for point-of-care diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, a reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of the CHIKV was developed...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660799/comparisons-of-patient-demographics-in-prospective-sports-shoulder-and-national-database-initiatives
#15
Bryan M Saltzman, Gregory L Cvetanovich, Daniel D Bohl, Brian J Cole, Bernard R Bach, Anthony A Romeo
BACKGROUND: There has been increased emphasis in orthopaedics on high-quality prospective research to provide evidence-based treatment guidelines, particularly in sports medicine/shoulder surgery. The external validity of these studies has not been established, and the generalizability of the results to clinical practice in the United States is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: Comparison of patient demographics in major prospective studies of arthroscopic sports and shoulder surgeries to patients undergoing the same procedures in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database will show substantial differences to question the generalizability and external validity of those studies...
September 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648441/diazoxide-attenuates-postresuscitation-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-asphyxial-cardiac-arrest-by-opening-mitochondrial-atp-sensitive-potassium-channels
#16
Haidong Wu, Peng Wang, Yi Li, Manhui Wu, Jiali Lin, Zitong Huang
Objective. We investigated whether and how diazoxide can attenuate brain injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by selective opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channels. Methods. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with induced cerebral ischemia (n = 10 per group) received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (1 mL; vehicle group), diazoxide (10 mg/kg; DZ group), or diazoxide (10 mg/kg) plus 5-hydroxydecanoate (5 mg/kg; DZ + 5-HD group) 30 min after CPR...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623842/applying-mathematical-models-to-predict-resident-physician-performance-and-alertness-on-traditional-and-novel-work-schedules
#17
Elizabeth B Klerman, Scott A Beckett, Christopher P Landrigan
BACKGROUND: In 2011 the U.S. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education began limiting first year resident physicians (interns) to shifts of ≤16 consecutive hours. Controversy persists regarding the effectiveness of this policy for reducing errors and accidents while promoting education and patient care. Using a mathematical model of the effects of circadian rhythms and length of time awake on objective performance and subjective alertness, we quantitatively compared predictions for traditional intern schedules to those that limit work to ≤ 16 consecutive hours...
September 13, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599104/relative-citation-ratio-rcr-a-new-metric-that-uses-citation-rates-to-measure-influence-at-the-article-level
#18
B Ian Hutchins, Xin Yuan, James M Anderson, George M Santangelo
Despite their recognized limitations, bibliometric assessments of scientific productivity have been widely adopted. We describe here an improved method to quantify the influence of a research article by making novel use of its co-citation network to field-normalize the number of citations it has received. Article citation rates are divided by an expected citation rate that is derived from performance of articles in the same field and benchmarked to a peer comparison group. The resulting Relative Citation Ratio is article level and field independent and provides an alternative to the invalid practice of using journal impact factors to identify influential papers...
September 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592105/characterization-of-a-rolling-circle-replication-plasmid-pm411-from-lactobacillus-plantarum-1-3
#19
Xvchuan Ma, Jinhua Li, Yao Xiong, Zhengyuan Zhai, Fazheng Ren, Yanling Hao
A cryptic plasmid pM411 isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum 1-3 consisted of a 2303-bp circular molecule with a G + C content 32.96 %. Sequence analysis of pM411 revealed four putative open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 shared 99 and 94 % similarities, respectively, with the Rep proteins of plasmids pLC2 and pYC2, which belong to the rolling-circle replication pMV158 family. A typical pMV158 family double-strand origin (dso) and a putative single-strand origin (sso) located upstream of the rep gene. Southern hybridization confirmed the presence of single-strand DNA (ssDNA) intermediates, suggesting that pM411 belongs to the RCR pMV158 family...
December 2016: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581814/intramyocellular-ceramides-and-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-respiration-are-partially-regulated-by-toll-like-receptor-4-during-hindlimb-unloading
#20
Oh Sung Kwon, Daniel S Nelson, Katherine M Barrows, Ryan M O'Connell, Micah J Drummond
Physical inactivity and disuse result in skeletal muscle metabolic disruption, including insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. The role of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway in contributing to metabolic decline with muscle disuse is unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine whether TLR4 is an underlying mechanism of insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction, and skeletal muscle ceramide accumulation following muscle disuse in mice. To address this hypothesis, we subjected (n = 6-8/group) male WT and TLR4(-/-) mice to 2 wk of hindlimb unloading (HU), while a second group of mice served as ambulatory wild-type controls (WT CON, TLR4(-/-) CON)...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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