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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430748/immunogenicity-of-the-inactivated-japanese-encephalitis-virus-vaccine-ixiaro%C3%A2-n-children-from-a-japanese-encephalitis-virus-endemic-region
#1
Katrin L Dubischar, Vera Kadlecek, Benjamin Sablan, Charissa Fay Borja-Tabora, Salvacion Gatchalian, Susanne Eder-Lingelbach, Sigrid Kiermayr, Martin Spruth, Kerstin Westritschnig
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major public health concern in Asia and poses a small, but potentially fatal threat to travelers from non-endemic countries, including children. No JE vaccine for pediatric use has been available in Europe and the USA. METHODS: Age-stratified cohorts of children between 2 months and 17 years received 2 doses of Vero cell-derived inactivated JE virus vaccine (IXIARO) administered 28 days apart (<3 years 0.25 mL [half adult dose], ≥3 years 0...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425219/resistance-modifying-activity-in-vinblastine-resistant-human-breast-cancer-cells-by-oligosaccharides-obtained-from-mucilage-of-chia-seeds-salvia-hispanica
#2
Daniel G Rosas-Ramírez, Mabel Fragoso-Serrano, Sonia Escandón-Rivera, Alba L Vargas-Ramírez, Juan P Reyes-Grajeda, Manuel Soriano-García
The multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype is considered as a major cause of the failure in cancer chemotherapy. The acquisition of MDR is usually mediated by the overexpression of drug efflux pumps of a P-glycoprotein. The development of compounds that mitigate the MDR phenotype by modulating the activity of these transport proteins is an important yet elusive target. Here, we screened the saponification and enzymatic degradation products from Salvia hispanica seed's mucilage to discover modulating compounds of the acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic in breast cancer cells...
April 20, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420742/synergistic-internal-ribosome-entry-site-microrna-based-approach-for-flavivirus-attenuation-and-live-vaccine-development
#3
Konstantin A Tsetsarkin, Guangping Liu, Evgeniya Volkova, Alexander G Pletnev
The recent emergence of Zika virus underscores the need for new strategies for a rapid development of safe flavivirus vaccines. Using another flavivirus (Langat virus [LGTV]) that belongs to the group of tick-borne flaviviruses as a model, we describe a dual strategy for virus attenuation which synergistically accesses the specificity of microRNA (miRNA) genome targeting and the effectiveness of internal ribosome entry site (IRES) insertion. To increase the stability and immunogenicity of bicistronic LGTVs, we developed a novel approach in which the capsid (C) protein gene was relocated into the 3' noncoding region (NCR) and expressed under translational control from an IRES...
April 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415409/in-vitro-antiherpes-effect-of-c-glycosyl-flavonoid-enriched-fraction-of-cecropia-glaziovii-encapsulated-in-plga-nanoparticles
#4
Talitha Caldas Dos Santos, Nicoletta Rescignano, Laurita Boff, Flávio Henrique Reginatto, Cláudia Maria Oliveira Simões, Angela Machado de Campos, Carmen Mijangos
In this work is reported a novel and promising approach for the preparation of C-glycosylflavonoid enriched fraction of Cecropia glaziovii (EFF-Cg) loaded PLGA nanoparticles (NP) with antiherpes properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and to compare the effect of two nonionic surfactants (poloxamer 188 (PLU) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)), and also an emulsion stabilized by solid particles of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) in place of surfactants. The characterization of these nanoparticles was in terms of size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), loading capacity and percent yield...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403145/the-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-5-kinase-inhibitor-apilimod-blocks-filoviral-entry-and-infection
#5
Elizabeth A Nelson, Julie Dyall, Thomas Hoenen, Alyson B Barnes, Huanying Zhou, Janie Y Liang, Julia Michelotti, William H Dewey, Lisa Evans DeWald, Richard S Bennett, Patrick J Morris, Rajarshi Guha, Carleen Klumpp-Thomas, Crystal McKnight, Yu-Chi Chen, Xin Xu, Amy Wang, Emma Hughes, Scott Martin, Craig Thomas, Peter B Jahrling, Lisa E Hensley, Gene G Olinger, Judith M White
Phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve) is a lipid kinase involved in endosome maturation that emerged from a haploid genetic screen as being required for Ebola virus (EBOV) infection. Here we analyzed the effects of apilimod, a PIKfyve inhibitor that was reported to be well tolerated in humans in phase 2 clinical trials, for its effects on entry and infection of EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV). We first found that apilimod blocks infections by EBOV and MARV in Huh 7, Vero E6 and primary human macrophage cells, with notable potency in the macrophages (IC50, 10 nM)...
April 12, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402498/oviposition-strategies-of-florida-culex-melanoconion-mosquitoes
#6
Erik M Blosser, Nathan D Burkett-Cadena
In the genus Culex, oviposition is often generalized as laying floating egg rafts directly on the surface of the water, as reported for arbovirus vectors Culex pipiens L. and Culex tarsalis Coquillett, both members of subgenus Culex. The current work reports on investigations of exceptions to this strategy by species of Melanoconion, a diverse and mostly tropical subgenus of Culex, with many arbovirus vectors. Wild gravid females from Vero Beach, FL, were introduced into outdoor cages with open water, partially covered water, and emergent solid structures for oviposition...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400226/in-vitro-effect-of-human-cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-on-dengue-virus-type-2
#7
K Alagarasu, P S Patil, P Shil, M Seervi, M B Kakade, H Tillu, A Salunke
Human Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is known to have antiviral activity against many viruses. In the present study, we investigated the in-vitro effect of LL-37 on dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) infection and replication in Vero E6 cells. To study the effect of pretreatment of virus or cells with LL-37, the virus was pretreated with different concentrations of LL-37 (2.5μM-15μM) or scrambled (Scr) LL-37(5μM-15μM) and used for infection or the cells were first treated with LL-37 and infected. To study the effect of LL-37 post infection (PI), the cells were infected first followed by addition of LL-37 to the culture medium 24h after infection...
April 9, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389278/prenylated-flavonoids-from-the-stems-and-roots-of-tripterygium-wilfordii
#8
Yang Chen, Jianping Zhao, Yixing Qiu, Hanwen Yuan, Shabana I Khan, Nusrat Hussain, M Iqbal Choudhary, Feng Zeng, De-An Guo, Ikhlas A Khan, Wei Wang
Phytochemical investigation on the stems and roots of Tripterygium wilfordii led to the isolation and characterization of three new prenylated flavanones, tripteryols A-C (1-3), along with (±)-5,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxy-6',6″-dimethypyraro-(2″,3″:7,8)-6-methyflavanone (4), and ((2S)-5,7,4'-trihydroxy-2'-methoxy-8,5'-di(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-6-methylflavanone (5). Structures of the compounds 1-5 were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques, such as UV, IR, NMR (1D and 2D), and HRESI-MS. Tripteryols B (2) was found active in the antimicrobial assay against Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with IC50 values in the range of 2...
April 5, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386771/potential-neoplastic-evolution-of-vero-cells-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-characterization
#9
N A Andreani, S Renzi, G Piovani, P Ajmone Marsan, L Bomba, R Villa, M Ferrari, S Dotti
Vero cell lines are extensively employed in viral vaccine manufacturing. Similarly to all established cells, mutations can occur during Vero cells in vitro amplification which can result in adverse features compromising their biological safety. To evaluate the potential neoplastic evolution of these cells, in vitro transformation test, gene expression analysis and karyotyping were compared among low- (127 and 139 passages) and high-passage (passage 194) cell lines, as well as transformed colonies (TCs). In vivo tumorigenicity was also tested to confirm preliminary in vitro data obtained for low passage lines and TCs...
April 6, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384525/terphenyl-derivatives-and-drimane-phathalide-isoindolinones-from-hypoxylon-fendleri-bcc32408
#10
Chakapong Intaraudom, Nantiya Bunbamrung, Aibrohim Dramae, Nattawut Boonyuen, Palangpon Kongsaeree, Kitlada Srichomthong, Sumalee Supothina, Pattama Pittayakhajonwut
The genus Hypoxylon, a member of the family Xylariaceae, has been known to produce significant secondary metabolites in terms of chemical diversity. Moreover, the compounds isolated can also be used as chemotaxonomic characters for differentiation among the two sections, which are sect. Annulata and sect. Hypoxylon. In our continuing chemical screening programme for novel compounds, the crude extracts of H. fendleri BCC32408 gave significant chemical profiles in HPLC analyses. Thus, the chemical investigation of these crude extracts was then carried out...
April 3, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377531/further-evidence-for-bats-as-the-evolutionary-source-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#11
S J Anthony, K Gilardi, V D Menachery, T Goldstein, B Ssebide, R Mbabazi, I Navarrete-Macias, E Liang, H Wells, A Hicks, A Petrosov, D K Byarugaba, K Debbink, K H Dinnon, T Scobey, S H Randell, B L Yount, M Cranfield, C K Johnson, R S Baric, W I Lipkin, J A K Mazet
The evolutionary origins of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are unknown. Current evidence suggests that insectivorous bats are likely to be the original source, as several 2c CoVs have been described from various species in the family Vespertilionidae Here, we describe a MERS-like CoV identified from a Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus bat sampled in Uganda (strain PREDICT/PDF-2180), further supporting the hypothesis that bats are the evolutionary source of MERS-CoV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PREDICT/PDF-2180 is closely related to MERS-CoV across much of its genome, consistent with a common ancestry; however, the spike protein was highly divergent (46% amino acid identity), suggesting that the two viruses may have different receptor binding properties...
April 4, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376770/phytochemical-analysis-with-free-radical-scavenging-nitric-oxide-inhibition-and-antiproliferative-activity-of-sarcocephalus-pobeguinii-extracts
#12
Emmanuel Mfotie Njoya, Aristide Mfifen Munvera, Pierre Mkounga, Augustin Ephrem Nkengfack, Lyndy Joy McGaw
BACKGROUND: Free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders including cancer. Therefore, fighting against free radicals has become an important strategy in the prevention or treatment of such diseases, in addition to direct or indirect anticancer chemotherapy. Sarcocephalus pobeguinii has been used traditionally to treat various diseases in which excess production of free radicals is implicated, warranting investigation of its free radical scavenging, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity...
April 4, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373047/sodium-alginate-and-gum-acacia-hydrogels-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-reduce-hemolytic-and-oxidative-stress-inflicted-by-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-on-mammalian-cells
#13
R Raguvaran, Anju Manuja, Balvinder K Manuja, T Riyesh, Sandeep Singh, M Kesavan, U Dimri
Zinc oxide nanoparticles are important nanomaterials currently under research due to their applicability in nanomedicine. Toxicity of ZnO NPs has been extensively studied and has been shown to affect various cell types and animal systems. In this study, we investigated hemolytic potential and oxidative stress inflicted by ZnO NPs and ZnO NPs-loaded-sodium alginate-gum acacia hydrogels on horse erythrocytes and African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells. Our study provides a better understanding of the hemolytic and oxidative effects of interaction of ZnO NPs and ZnO NPs released from polymeric hydrogels with the biological system...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368541/interferon-beta-and-interferon-gamma-are-weak-inhibitors-of-ebola-virus-in-cell-based-assays
#14
Julie Dyall, Brit J Hart, Elena Postnikova, Yu Cong, Huanying Zhou, Dawn M Gerhardt, Denise Freeburger, Julia Michelotti, Anna N Honko, Lisa Evans DeWald, Richard S Bennett, Gene G Olinger, Peter B Jahrling, Lisa E Hensley
Previous studies demonstrated little efficacy of interferons (IFNs) in animal models of Ebola virus disease. However, these studies were limited to a small number of Type I IFNs and, during the most recent outbreak of Ebola virus, questions regarding the suitability of the animal models to evaluate IFNs were raised. To address the potential that anti-Ebola virus activity was overlooked, Type I and Type II IFNs (α-2a, α-2b, -β, -γ, and -universal) were tested in a variety of cell types (Vero E6, Huh 7 cells, and human macrophages)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367781/simple-dialkyl-pyrazole-3-5-dicarboxylates-show-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-against-disease-causing-trypanosomatids
#15
Felipe Reviriego, Francisco Olmo, Pilar Navarro, Clotilde Marín, Inmaculada Ramírez-Macías, Enrique García-España, María Teresa Albelda, Ramón Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Manuel Sánchez-Moreno, Vicente J Arán
The synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of some simple dialkyl pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylates (compounds 2-6) and their sodium salts (pyrazolates) (compounds 7-9) against Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis are reported. In most cases the studied compounds showed, especially against the clinically significant amastigote forms, in vitro activities higher than those of the reference drugs (benznidazole for T. cruzi and glucantime for Leishmania spp.); furthermore, the low non-specific cytotoxicities against Vero cells and macrophages shown by these compounds led to good selectivity indexes, which are 8-72 times higher for T...
April 3, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365449/multicenter-evaluation-of-an-enzymatic-method-for-glycated-albumin
#16
Renata Paleari, Graziella Bonetti, Cinzia Callà, Mariarosa Carta, Ferruccio Ceriotti, Nicola Di Gaetano, Marilisa Ferri, Elena Guerra, Gabriella Lavalle, Claudia Lo Cascio, Francesca Gabriela Martino, Martina Montagnana, Marco Moretti, Gabriele Santini, Donata Scribano, Roberto Testa, Anna Vero, Andrea Mosca
BACKGROUND: The use of glycated albumin (GA) has been proposed as an additional glycemic control marker particularly useful in intermediate-term monitoring and in situation when HbA1c test is not reliable. METHODS: We have performed the first multicenter evaluation of the analytical performance of the enzymatic method quantILab Glycated Albumin assay implemented on the most widely used clinical chemistry analyzers (i.e. Abbott Architect C8000, Beckman Coulter AU 480 and 680, Roche Cobas C6000, Siemens ADVIA 2400 and 2400 XPT)...
March 29, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362301/assessing-the-population-dynamics-of-escherichia-coli-in-a-metropolitan-river-after-an-extreme-flood-event
#17
Nicole M Masters, Aaron Wiegand, Jasmin M Thompson, Tara L Vollmerhausen, Eva Hatje, Mohammad Katouli
We investigated Escherichia coli populations in a metropolitan river after an extreme flood event. Between nine and 15 of the 23 selected sites along the river were sampled fortnightly over three rounds. In all, 307 E. coli were typed using the PhP typing method and were grouped into common (C) or single (S) biochemical phenotypes (BPTs). A representative from each of the 31 identified C-BPTs was tested for 58 virulence genes (VGs) associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal E. coli, resistance to 22 antibiotics, production of biofilm and cytotoxicity to Vero cells...
April 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359970/aryl-or-heteroaryl-based-hydrazinylphthalazine-derivatives-as-new-potential-antitrypanosomal-agents
#18
Angel H Romero, Jonathan Rodríguez, Yael García-Marchan, Jacques Leañez, Xenón Serrano-Martín, Simón E López
A series of twenty phthalazinyl-hydrazones were synthesized and tested as potential anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents. The phthalazines containing 5-nitroheteroaryl moiety 3l and 3m displayed an excellent in vitro antitrypanosomal profile, exhibiting low micromolar EC50 values against proliferative epimastigote of T. cruzi and minimal toxicity toward Vero cells. These derivatives were more potent than the reference drug benznidazole against the epimastigote stage of the parasite. Structure-property analysis indicates that the highly conjugated 5-nitroheteroaryl moiety connected to the phthalazin scaffold play an important role in the antichagasic activity of these phthalazines...
March 21, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359770/evaluation-of-cell-viability-dyes-in-antiviral-assays-with-rna-viruses-that-exhibit-different-cytopathogenic-properties
#19
Donald F Smee, Brett L Hurst, W Joseph Evans, Nathan Clyde, Sean Wright, Christopher Peterson, Kie-Hoon Jung, Craig W Day
Studies were conducted to determine the performance of four dyes in assessing antiviral activities of compounds against three RNA viruses with differing cytopathogenic properties. Dyes included alamarBlue(®) measured by absorbance (ALB-A) and fluorescence (ALB-F), neutral red (NR), Viral ToxGlo™ (VTG), and WST-1. Viruses were chikungunya, dengue type 2, and Junin, which generally cause 100, 80-90, and 50% maximal cytopathic effect (CPE), respectively, in Vero 76. Compounds evaluated were 6-azauridine, BCX-4430, 3-deazaguanine, EICAR, favipiravir, infergen, mycophenolic acid (MPA), ribavirin, and tiazofurin...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357686/evaluation-of-cell-interaction-with-polymeric-biomaterials-based-on-hyaluronic-acid-and-chitosan
#20
Mônica Helena Monteiro do Nascimento, Mariselma Ferreira, Sônia Maria Malmonge, Christiane Bertachini Lombello
Tissue engineering involves the development of new materials or devices capable of specific interactions with biological tissues, searching the use of biocompatible materials as scaffolds for in vitro cell growth, and functional tissue development, that is subsequently implanted into patient. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the initial aspects of cell interaction with the polymeric biomaterials blends based on hyaluronic acid with chitosan. The hypothesis approach involves synthesis and analysis of swelling and thermal degradation (thermal gravimetric analysis) of the polymer blend; and Vero cell interaction with the biomaterial, through analysis of cytotoxicity, adhesion and cell morphology...
May 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
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