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Farha Naaz, Ritika Srivastava, Anuradha Singh, Nidhi Singh, Rajesh Verma, Vishal K Singh, Ramendra K Singh
A new series of heterocyclic molecules bearing sulfonamide linkage has been synthesized and screened for antibacterial activity. During antibacterial screening using broath dilution method, molecules were found to be highly active (MIC value 50-3.1 µg/mL) against different human pathogens, namely B. cerus, S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and most effective against E. coli. A great synergistic effect was observed during determination of FIC where molecules were used in combination with reference drugs chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole...
May 11, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
I D Kalmar, A B Cay, M Tignon
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly resistant viraemic virus with devastating socio-economic impact. Its present epidemiology in Eastern Europe and Russia warrants increased biosecurity measures in Western Europe. This includes proactive precautions on traffic of pork products within and between areas that are officially free from ASF. Namely, delayed notification of clinical signs or introduction of a low-virulent strain in ASF-free areas could result in presence of ASFV in veterinary inspected pork and pork by-products...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Amit Chanda, Jaideep Adhikari, Aritri Ghosh, Sougata Roy Chowdhury, Sabu Thomas, Pallab Datta, Prosenjit Saha
Fabrication of mechanically stable, biocompatible bilayered polymeric scaffold consisting of chitosan(CS)/polycaprolactone(PCL) and hyaluronic acid(HA) using less toxic solvent system is presented in this study. Electrospinning technique to make the scaffold was used followed by morphological, physiochemical and mechanical characterizations. Average fiber diameter of CS/PCL-HA bilayered scaffold was found 362.2 ± 236 nm which is in the range of collagen fiber found in the extracellular matrices. Enhanced swelling, degradation, hydrophilicity and water vapour transmission rate were found for the bilayered scaffold compared to that of the PCL and CS-PCL scaffolds...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sunhee Lee, Changhee Lee
Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is a globally emerging and re-emerging enteric coronavirus in pigs causing serious economic threats to the world swine industry. Since the re-emergence of massive PEDV outbreaks in South Korea in 2013-2014, domestic pig farms have continued to experience PED epidemics or endemics. This study represents the molecular characterization of PEDV isolates identified in diarrhoeic animals collected across the country in 2017. Initial sequencing analysis of the full-length S genes revealed that 70% of the 2017 isolates (7/10) belong to the G2b subgroup, while the remaining isolates were classified as G1b...
May 16, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Can Chen, Wenhui Fan, Jing Li, Weinan Zheng, Shuang Zhang, Limin Yang, Di Liu, Wenjun Liu, Lei Sun
Interferon (IFN)-sensitive and replication-incompetent influenza viruses are likely to be the alternatives to inactivated and attenuated virus vaccines. Some IFN-sensitive influenza vaccine candidates with modified non-structural protein 1 (NS1) are highly attenuated in IFN-competent hosts but induce robust antiviral immune responses. However, little research has been done on the manufacturability of these IFN-sensitive vaccine viruses. Here, RIG-I-knockout 293T cells were used to package the IFN-sensitive influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus expressing the mutant NS1 R38A/K41A...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Kavita Devi, Vinoth Rajendran, T M Rangarajan, Rishi Pal Singh, Prahlad C Ghosh, Manjula Singh
A new class of compounds comprising two series of chalcones with 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy group and 2-fluoroethoxy groups were synthesized and screened for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) using the [³H] hypoxanthine incorporation inhibition assay. Chalcones with 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy groups substituted on the p - and m -positions of the 1-phenyl ring showed weak antiplasmodial activity, while compounds substituted on the o -position of the 1-phenyl ring displayed enhanced antiplasmodial activity, thus indicating that 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy groups on the 1-phenyl ring of chalcones show position-dependent antiplasmodial activity...
May 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Asim Halder, Suvadra Das, Durbadal Ojha, Debprasad Chattopadhyay, Arup Mukherjee
This work relates to quasi spherical gold nanoparticles synthesis and successful antiviral efficacy evaluations against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. Ultrasound induced rapid reduction in gallic acid (GA) leads to highly monodispersed gold nanoparticles (GAunps). GAunps plasmonic peak was recorded at 531 nm with TEM size of 7.86 nm. X-ray diffraction and SAED pattern proved fcc crystalline structure. FTIR studies confirmed nanoparticles surface conjugation with gallic acid. The antiviral efficacy of GAunps was studied against HSV infections in Vero cells...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Chun Xu, Annika Verena Goß, Carmen Dorneburg, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Jiwu Wei, Christian Beltinger
Background: Attenuated oncolytic measles virus (OMV) is a promising antitumor agent in early-phase clinical trials. However, pre-existing immunity against measles might be a hurdle for OMV therapy. Methods: OMV was inactivated with short-wavelength ultraviolet light (UV-C). Loss of replication and oncolytic activity of UV-inactivated OMV were confirmed by tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50 ) assay using Vero cells and by flow cytometry using Jurkat cells. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to verify that UV-inactivated OMV remained antigenic...
2018: Oncolytic Virotherapy
P Raia, M Boggioni, F Carotenuto, S Castiglione, M Di Febbraro, F Di Vincenzo, M Melchionna, A Mondanaro, A Papini, A Profico, C Serio, A Veneziano, V A Vero, L Rook, C Meloro, G Manzi
Members of the hominins - namely the so-called 'australopiths' and the species of the genus Homo - are known to possess short and deep mandibles and relatively small incisors and canines. It is commonly assumed that this suite of traits evolved in early members of the clade in response to changing environmental conditions and increased consumption of though food items. With the emergence of Homo, the functional meaning of mandible shape variation is thought to have been weakened by technological advancements and (later) by the control over fire...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amonrat Koraneekit, Temduang Limpaiboon, Arunnee Sangka, Patcharee Boonsiri, Sakda Daduang, Jureerut Daduang
Cervical cancer (CxCa) is a major health problem globally and is associated with the presence of human papillomavirus infection. Cisplatin (CDDP) is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent. Owing to its side effects and drug-resistance, novel anticancer agents with lower toxicity, including caffeic acid (CFC), are of interest. However, the effects of CDDP and CFC in combination are, to the best of our knowledge, uninvestigated. The present study investigated the effectiveness of CDDP and CFC in combination and its mechanism of action on four human cervical cancer cell lines, which were compared with the Chlorocebus sabaeus normal kidney Vero cell line...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Laura Giovati, Claudia Santinoli, Carlo Mangia, Alice Vismarra, Silvana Belletti, Tiziana D'Adda, Claudia Fumarola, Tecla Ciociola, Cristina Bacci, Walter Magliani, Luciano Polonelli, Stefania Conti, Laura H Kramer
The killer peptide KP is a synthetic decapeptide derived from the sequence of the variable region of a recombinant yeast killer toxin-like microbicidal single-chain antibody. KP proved to exert significant activities against diverse microbial and viral pathogens through different mechanisms of action, but little is known of its effect on apicomplexan protozoa. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of KP against Toxoplasma gondii , a globally widespread protozoan parasite of great medical interest...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mathilde L Schade-Weskott, Antoinette van Schalkwyk, J J O Koekemoer
The attenuated live virus vaccine that is used in South Africa to protect against African horse sickness infection was developed more than 50 years ago. With the selection of the vaccine strains by cell culture passage, a correlation between the size of plaques formed in monolayer Vero cultures and attenuation of virus virulence in horses was found. The large plaque phenotype was used as an indication of cell culture adaptation and strongly correlated with attenuation of virulence in horses. There was never any investigation into the genetic causes of either the variation in plaque size, or the loss of virulence...
May 5, 2018: Virus Genes
Soma Shiva Nageswara Rao Singireesu, Sujan Kumar Mondal, Suresh Yerramsetty, Sunil Misra
AIMS: Zoledronic acid (ZA), a FDA approved drug has used widely in the treatment of bone metastasis complications, has been linked to renal toxicity with unclear mechanism. The present study is aimed at investigating genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of ZA in renal epithelial cells. MAIN METHODS: The genotoxic effect of ZA in Vero and MDCK cells determined by cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The cytotoxic effect assessed by analysing cell cycle profile, cell death and mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry using propidium iodide, AnnexinV-FITC/PI and JC1 dye staining, respectively, BAX and Bcl-2 expression by Western blotting and caspase activity by spectrofluorimetry...
May 2, 2018: Life Sciences
Tatiane Brugnari, Pedro Henrique Alves da Silva, Alex Graça Contato, Fabíola Dorneles Inácio, Mariene Marques Nolli, Camila Gabriel Kato, Rosane Marina Peralta, Cristina Giatti Marques de Souza
In this study we evaluated the antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity, and cytotoxicity of an aqueous extract of the Pleurotus ostreatoroseus mushroom, which was cooked. Fresh basidiocarps were heated and steamed at 100°C and the resulting aqueous extract was assessed before and after in vitro digestion. Cooking reduced the amounts of phenolic compounds in the extract. The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated through the use of 4 methods. The lowest half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) against ABTS radicals was 0...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Hasan Hüseyin Doğan, Sami Karagöz, Rüstem Duman
Despite considerable recent work to reveal different features of mushrooms species, the few studies of antiviral activities are inadequate and therefore further studies are required. Morchella conica, M. esculenta, Terfezia boudieri, Pleurotus ostreatus, Tricholoma anatolicum, Fomes fomentarius, Laetiporus sulphureus, Phellinus igniarius, Porodaedalea pini, and Pyrofomes demidoffii from Turkey were investigated to reveal their in vitro cytotoxic and anti-herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) activities. The crude methanol extracts (MEs) and aqueous extracts (AEs) of fungal species and acyclovir (ACV) were used...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Xiangning Bai, Shanshan Fu, Ji Zhang, Ruyue Fan, Yanmei Xu, Hui Sun, Xiaohua He, Jianguo Xu, Yanwen Xiong
Shiga toxin (Stx) is the key virulent factor in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). To date, three Stx1 subtypes and seven Stx2 subtypes have been described in E. coli, which differed in receptor preference and toxin potency. Here, we identified a novel Stx2 subtype designated Stx2h in E. coli strains isolated from wild marmots in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China. Stx2h shares 91.9% nucleic acid sequence identity and 92.9% amino acid identity to the nearest Stx2 subtype. The expression of Stx2h in type strain STEC299 was inducible by mitomycin C, and culture supernatant from STEC299 was cytotoxic to Vero cells...
April 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ching-Kun Chang, Shang-Rung Wu, Ying-Chin Chen, Kuen-Jin Lee, Nai-Hsiang Chung, Yi-Ju Lu, Shu-Ling Yu, Chia-Chyi Liu, Yen-Hung Chow
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The current EV71 propagating in Vero (EV-V) or sub-passaged in RD (EV-R) cells was used as a pathogen. Interestingly, EV-R exhibited differential virulence; challenging human scavenger receptor class B2-expressing (hSCARB2-Tg) mice with EV71 revealed that EV-V was more virulent than EV-R: 100% of mice that received lethal amounts of EV-V died, while all the mice that received EV-R survived. Severe pathogenesis correlated with viral burdens and proinflammatory cytokine levels were observed in EV-V-challenged mice, but controversy in EV-R-challenged mice...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
R A Dendy, M J Trenouth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2018: British Dental Journal
Diego B Borin, Nathana J Mezzomo, Rodrigo A Vaucher, Guilherme DO Carmo, Luiz C Rodrigues Junior, Fernando B Sulczewski, Claiton I Schwertz, Ricardo E Mendes, Adriani P Damiani, Vanessa M DE Andrade, Virgínia C Rech, Carina R Boeck
Creatine acts intracellularly as energy buffer and storage, demonstrating protective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, its permeability throught blood-brain barrier (BBB) is reduced. The aim of the present study was developing a carrier to facilitate the delivery of creatine to the central nervous system. Creatine nanoliposomes were produced, characterized and assayed in models of toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Particles showed negative zeta potential (-12,5 mV), polydispersity index 0...
April 23, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Jun Liu, Brandon A Kline, Tara A Kenny, Darci R Smith, Veronica Soloveva, Brett Beitzel, Song Pang, Stephen Lockett, Harald F Hess, Gustavo Palacios, Jens H Kuhn, Mei G Sun, Xiankun Zeng
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus that caused thousands of human infections in recent years. Compared to other human flaviviruses, ZIKV replication is not well understood. Using fluorescent, transmission electron, and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy, we examined ZIKV replication dynamics in Vero 76 cells and in the brains of infected laboratory mice. We observed the progressive development of a perinuclear flaviviral replication factory both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, we illustrated the ZIKV lifecycle from particle cell entry to egress...
April 25, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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