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Francesca Colavita, Serena Quartu, Eleonora Lalle, Licia Bordi, Daniele Lapa, Silvia Meschi, Antonella Vulcano, Antonietta Toffoletti, Eugenio Bordi, Maria Grazia Paglia, Antonino Di Caro, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Concetta Castilletti
BACKGROUND: The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak occurred in West Africa since December 2013 highlighted the need of appropriate virus inactivation procedures to be set up to allow the necessary processing of specimens outside BSL-4 facilities and to perform laboratory tests without affecting clinical decisions. For this purpose, international guidelines suggest the pre-treatment of the samples with Triton X-100. OBJECTIVES: Due to the limited scientific evidence about the efficacy of Triton X-100 on enveloped-viruses, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Triton X-100 on the virus infectivity and to establish the optimal conditions for its use...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Emanuele Coco
In 1975, the English evolutionist William Donald Hamilton (1936-2000) held in Brazil a series of lectures entitled "Population genetics and social behaviour". The unpublished notes of these conferences-written by Hamilton and recently discovered at the British Library-offer an opportunity to reflect on some of the author's ideas about evolution. The year of the conference is particularly significant, as it took place shortly after the applications of the Price equation with which Hamilton was able to build a model that included several levels of selection...
December 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Kelly L Warfield, Travis K Warren, Xiangguo Qiu, Jay Wells, Chad E Mire, Joan B Geisbert, Kelly S Stuthman, Nicole L Garza, Sean A Van Tongeren, Amy C Shurtleff, Krystle N Agans, Gary Wong, Michael V Callahan, Thomas W Geisbert, Brennan Klose, Urban Ramstedt, Anthony M Treston
Iminosugars are host-directed antivirals with broad-spectrum activity. The iminosugar, N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ or Miglustat(®)), is used in humans for treatment of Gaucher's disease and has mild antiviral properties. More potent analogs of NB-DNJ have been generated and have demonstrated activity against a variety of viruses including flaviviruses, influenza, herpesviruses and filoviruses. In the current study, a panel of analogs based on NB-DNJ was analyzed for activity against Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg viruses (MARV)...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
Maykon Tavares de Oliveira, Renata Tupinambá Branquinho, Gláucia Diniz Aléssio, Carlos Geraldo Campos Mello, Nívia Carolina Nogueira de Paiva, Cláudia Martins Carneiro, Max Jean de Ornelas Toledo, Alexandre Barbosa Reis, Olindo Assis Martins Filho, Marta de Lana
The clonal evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi sustains scientifically the hypothesis of association between parasite's genetic, biological behavior and possibly the clinical aspects of Chagas disease in patients from whom they were isolated. This study intended to characterize a range of biological properties of TcI, TcII and TcVI T. cruzi samples in order to verify the existence of these associations. Several biological features were evaluated, including in vitro epimastigote-growth, "Vero"cells infectivity and growth, along with in vivo studies of parasitemia, polymorphism of trypomastigotes, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and response to treatment by nifurtimox during the acute and chronic murine infection...
November 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
Yu Cong, Julie Dyall, Brit J Hart, Lisa Evans DeWald, Joshua C Johnson, Elena Postnikova, Huanying Zhou, Robin Gross, Oscar Rojas, Isis Alexander, Nicole Josleyn, Tengfei Zhang, Julia Michelotti, Krisztina Janosko, Pamela J Glass, Mike Flint, Laura K McMullan, Christina F Spiropoulou, Tim Mierzwa, Rajarshi Guha, Paul Shinn, Sam Michael, Carleen Klumpp-Thomas, Crystal McKnight, Craig Thomas, Ann E Eakin, Kathleen G O'Loughlin, Carol E Green, Paul Catz, Jon C Mirsalis, Anna N Honko, Gene G Olinger, Richard S Bennett, Michael R Holbrook, Lisa E Hensley, Peter B Jahrling
In the fall of 2014, an international news agency reported that patients suffering from Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Liberia were treated successfully with lamivudine, an antiviral drug used to treat human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis B virus infections. According to the report, 13 out of 15 patients treated with lamivudine survived and were declared free from Ebola virus disease. In this study, the anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) activity of lamivudine and another antiretroviral, zidovudine, were evaluated in a diverse set of cell lines against two variants of wild-type EBOV...
2016: PloS One
Myung Jin Lee, Kye-Hyung Kim, Jongyoun Yi, Su Jin Choi, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Nam Joong Kim, Myoung-Don Oh
Background/Aims: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a novel bunyavirus. As yet, there is no effective antiviral therapy for SFTS. Ribavirin is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent, which has been tried for treatment of SFTS. In this study, antiviral activity of ribavirin against SFTSV has been investigated. Methods: Vero cell-grown SFTSV strain Gangwon/Korea/2012 was treated with ribavirin at various concentrations...
November 30, 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
P Singh, T Saha, P Mishra, M K Parai, S Ireddy, S Lavanya Kumar M, S Krishna, S K Kumar, V Chaturvedi, S Sinha, M I Siddiqi, G Panda
We earlier reported thiophene-containing trisubstituted methanes (TRSMs) as novel cores carrying anti-tubercular activity, and identified S006-830 as the phenotypic lead with potent bactericidal activity against single- and multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). In this work, we carried out additional synthesis of several TRSMs. The reaction scheme essentially followed the Grignard reaction and Friedel-Crafts alkylation, followed by insertion of a dialkylaminoethyl chain...
November 2016: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
A Setasimy, M Namavari
The objective of the present study was to examine the virulence of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain tachyzoites in embryonated eggs after continuous passage in Vero cell line. The first T. gondii tachyzoites was considered low passage (no passage) and then passaged for 80 times on Vero as high passage. Groups of 9-day-old embryonated eggs with ten eggs in each group were inoculated with 10(2),10(3) and 10(4) of low or high-passage T. gondii tachyzoites, and any mortality was recorded. Suitable samples from different tissues (liver, heart, and brain) of the dead embryos were collected for histopathological study...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Gwendolyn E Wood, Dorothy L Patton, Peter K Cummings, Stefanie L Iverson-Cabral, Patricia A Totten
Mycoplasma genitalium is an underappreciated cause of human reproductive tract disease, characterized by persistent, often asymptomatic, infection. Building on our previous experiments using a single female pig-tailed macaque as a model for M. genitalium infection (G. E. Wood, S. L. Iverson-Cabral, D. L. Patton, P. K. Cummings, Y. T. Cosgrove Sweeney, and P. A. Totten, Infect Immun 81:2938-2951, 2013, doi: 10.1128/IAI.01322-12), we cervically inoculated eight additional animals, two of which were simultaneously inoculated in salpingeal tissue autotransplanted into abdominal pockets...
November 21, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Sirirath McCloskey, Somchai Noppawan, Wiyada Mongkolthanaruk, Nuttika Suwannasai, Thanaset Senawong, Uma Prawat
A new cerebroside, namely allantoside (1), and 10 known compounds (2-11) were isolated from Xylaria allantoidea SWUF76. The structure of compound 1 was determined by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as well as high-resolution electron ionisation mass spectrometry (HREIMS) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESIMS). Compounds 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 11 were evaluated for cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines (Hela, HT29, HCT116 and MCF-7) and normal Vero cell lines by MTT assay...
November 20, 2016: Natural Product Research
Viswanathan Maharani, Arumugam Sundaramanickam, Thangavel Balasubramanian
In the present investigation, the bacterium Escherichia coli (VM1) was isolated from a marine sediments of Ennore coastal water along southeast coast of India was exploited for its capability of Ag NPs synthesis. The derived nanoparticles were characterized employing ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) studies. The Ag NPs were further subjected to MTT assay to evaluate their anticancer activity against human lung cancer cell line (A549), human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and normal (Vero) cell line...
December 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Maria Scuotto, Rana Abdelnabi, Selene Collarile, Chiara Schiraldi, Leen Delang, Antonio Massa, Salvatore Ferla, Andrea Brancale, Pieter Leyssen, Johan Neyts, Rosanna Filosa
We recently identified indole derivatives (IIIe and IIIf) with anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) activities at lower micro molar concentrations and a selective index of inhibition higher than the lead compound Arbidol. Here we highlight new structural information for the optimization of the previously identified lead compounds that contain the indole chemical core. Based on the structural data, a series of indole derivatives was synthesized and tested for their antiviral activity against chikungunya virus in Vero cell culture by a CPE reduction assay...
October 31, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Pannerselvam Balashanmugam, Prabhu Durai, Manickam Dakshinamoorthi Balakumaran, Pudupalayam Thangavelu Kalaichelvan
Gold nanoparticles are considered of great importance compared to other noble metal nanoparticles and its wide range of applications like pharmaceutics, therapeutics and diagnostics etc. During the past decade, phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are more focused in in vitro and in vivo study. The present study was focused on the gold chloride and phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles from aqueous leaf extract of Cassia roxburghii and their toxic effects on African green monkey normal kidney Vero cell line and three different cancer cell lines such as HepG2, MCF7 and HeLa...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Esmail M El-Fakharany, Vladimir N Uversky, Elrashdy M Redwan
Lactoperoxidase is a milk hemoprotein that acts as a non-immunoglobulin protective protein and shows strong antimicrobial activity. Bovine milk contains about 15 and 7 times higher levels of lactoperoxidase than human colustrum and camel milk, respectively. Human, bovine, and camel lactoperoxidases (hLPO, bLPO, and cLPO, respectively) were purified as homogeneous samples with specific activities of 4.2, 61.3, and 8.7 u/mg, respectively. The optimal working pH was 7.5 (hLPO and bLPO) and 6.5 (cLPO), whereas the optimal working temperature for these proteins was 40 °C...
November 16, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Rohan Narayan, Senthil Raja, Senthil Kumar, Mohana Sambasivam, Raja Jagadeesan, Kavita Arunagiri, Kaveri Krishnasamy, Gunasekaran Palani
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Dengue fever (DF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Since there are no effective antiviral drugs for treatment, clinicians often rely on the accurate diagnosis of dengue fever to begin supportive therapy at early stages of the illness. The objective of this study was to develop an in-house dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) non-structural protein- 5 (NS5) based indirect ELISA. METHODS: DENV-2 was raised in Vero cells and the viral proteins were separated and subsequently the NS5 protein was eluted...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Ayemeh Bagheri Hashkavayi, Jahan Bakhsh Raoof, Reza Ojani, Saeid Kavoosian
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and has no effective treatment. Therefore, development of new methods for early diagnosis is instantly required. Biological recognition probes such as synthetic receptor and aptamer is one of the candidate recognition layers to detect important biomolecules. In this work, an electrochemical aptasensor was developed by fabricating an aptamer-cell-aptamer sandwich architecture on an SBA-15-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SBA-15-pr-NH2) and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified graphite screen printed electrode (GSPE) surface for the selective, label-free detection of CT26 cancer cells...
October 19, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Kamelia M Osman, Ahmed Samir, Usama H Abo-Shama, Essam H Mohamed, Ahmed Orabi, Tara Zolnikov
BACKGROUND: One of the foodborne pathogens is Listeria monocytogenes, which causes serious invasive illness in elderly and immunocompromised patients, pregnant women, newborns and infants ranking second after salmonellosis because of its high case fatality rate. Listerial cow mastitis marked by abnormal milk, increased cell counts and reduced production has not been reported. Therefore, apparently healthy cows can be reservoirs of L. monocytogenes. A number of 203 udder milk samples from apparently healthy animals (buffalo, n = 100; cow, n = 103) were collected and tested for Listeria...
November 8, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Zhao-Jie Chen, Zhen Zhang, Bei-Bei Xie, Hai-Yan Zhang
The study aims at statistical development of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded with topotecan hydrochloride for avoiding the drawbacks of conventional drug therapies used in cervical cancer. Twenty SLN batches were prepared using organic solvent evaporation method to provide response surface curves. Thereafter, optimized SLNs were obtained using numeric method based on desirability functions providing maximum drug loading and appropriate particle size. Physical characterization of optimized TPH loaded SLNs was performed in terms of particle size, zeta potential, transmission and scanning electron microscopic evaluation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Kadarkarai Murugan, Jiang Wei, Mohamad Saleh Alsalhi, Marcello Nicoletti, Manickam Paulpandi, Christina Mary Samidoss, Devakumar Dinesh, Balamurugan Chandramohan, Chellasamy Paneerselvam, Jayapal Subramaniam, Chithravel Vadivalagan, Hui Wei, Pandiyan Amuthavalli, Anitha Jaganathan, Sandhanasamy Devanesan, Akon Higuchi, Suresh Kumar, Al Thabiani Aziz, Devaraj Nataraj, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
A main challenge in parasitology is the development of reliable tools to prevent or treat mosquito-borne diseases. We investigated the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) produced by Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense (strain MSR-1) on chloroquine-resistant (CQ-r) and sensitive (CQ-s) Plasmodium falciparum, dengue virus (DEN-2), and two of their main vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, respectively. MNP were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy...
November 4, 2016: Parasitology Research
Ziqiang Li, Xiaoguang Bai, Qi Deng, Guoning Zhang, Lei Zhou, Yishuang Liu, Juxian Wang, Yucheng Wang
Following up the SAR study of triazolothiadiazoles for their antitubercular activities targeting Mt SD in our previous study, on the principle of scaffold hopping, the C3 and C6 positions of triazolothiadiazine were examined systematically to define a preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) with respect to biological activity. This study herein highlights the potential of two highly potent advanced leads 6c-3, 6g-3 and several other compounds with comparable potencies as promising new candidates for the treatment of TB (6c-3, MIC-H37Rv=0...
October 21, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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