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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155034/identification-of-a-novel-porcine-oasl-variant-exhibiting-antiviral-activity
#1
Changjing Zhao, Sheng Zheng, Dan Zhu, Xue Lian, Weiting Liu, Feng Hu, Puyan Chen, Ruibing Cao
2', 5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase-lilke (OASL) protein is an atypical oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) family member, which possesses antiviral activity but lacks 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity. Here, a novel variant of porcine OASL (pOASL2) was identified through RT-PCR amplification. This gene is distinguishable from the previously described wild-type porcine OASL (pOASL1). The gene appears to be derived from a truncation of exon 4 plus 8 nucleotides of exon 5 with a premature termination, measuring only 633 bp in length, although its position corresponds to that of pOASL1...
November 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154868/naphthoquinones-from-the-leaves-of-rhinacanthus-nasutus-having-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-and-cytotoxic-activities
#2
Sirada Boonyaketgoson, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Kongkiat Trisuwan
Four new naphthoquinones (1-4), named rhinacanthins S (1), T (2), U (3) and V (4), together with 13 known naphthoquinones were isolated from the leaf extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, especially 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Rhinacanthin S (1) exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity with a % inhibition value of 48.04±3.25. The known rhinacanthin A (5) showed cytotoxicity against a MCF-7 cell line with an IC50 value of 8...
November 14, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154792/robust-real-time-cell-analysis-method-for-determining-viral-infectious-titers-during-development-of-a-viral-vaccine-production-process
#3
Cédric Charretier, Aure Saulnier, Loïc Benair, Corinne Armanet, Isabelle Bassard, Sandra Daulon, Bertrand Bernigaud, Emanuel Rodrigues de Sousa, Clémence Gonthier, Edouard Zorn, Emmanuelle Vetter, Claire Saintpierre, Patrice Riou, David Gaillac
The classical cell-culture methods, such as cell culture infectious dose 50% (CCID50) assays, are time-consuming, end-point assays currently used during the development of a viral vaccine production process to measure viral infectious titers. However, they are not suitable for handling the large number of tests required for high-throughput and large-scale screening analyses. Impedance-based bio-sensing techniques used in real-time cell analysis (RTCA) to assess cell layer biological status in vitro, provide real-time data...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153860/the-antimicrobial-peptide-hs-1-inhibits-dengue-virus-infection
#4
Juliana M C Monteiro, Michelle D Oliveira, Roberto S Dias, Lorena Nacif-Marçal, Renato N Feio, Sukarno O Ferreira, Leandro L Oliveira, Cynthia C Silva, Sérgio O Paula
Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. Studies reveal that peptides secreted by amphibians have many functions, such as antiviral and antimicrobial activities. As there is no antiviral drug effective against the DENV, the antiviral activity of a synthetic peptide called HS-1, derived from the secretion of the anuran Hypsiboas semilineatus, has been evaluated. The assays of neutralization in the Vero cells show a complete inhibition of infection of the serotypes 2 and 3...
November 16, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152578/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-nonstructural-protein-16-is-necessary-for-interferon-resistance-and-viral-pathogenesis
#5
Vineet D Menachery, Lisa E Gralinski, Hugh D Mitchell, Kenneth H Dinnon, Sarah R Leist, Boyd L Yount, Rachel L Graham, Eileen T McAnarney, Kelly G Stratton, Adam S Cockrell, Kari Debbink, Amy C Sims, Katrina M Waters, Ralph S Baric
Coronaviruses (CoVs) encode a mixture of highly conserved and novel genes, as well as genetic elements necessary for infection and pathogenesis, raising the possibility of common targets for attenuation and therapeutic design. In this study, we focused on highly conserved nonstructural protein 16 (NSP16), a viral 2'O-methyltransferase (2'O-MTase) that encodes critical functions in immune modulation and infection. Using reverse genetics, we disrupted a key motif in the conserved KDKE motif of Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) NSP16 (D130A) and evaluated the effect on viral infection and pathogenesis...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152017/manipulating-mammalian-cell-morphologies-using-chemical-mechanical-polished-integrated-circuit-chips
#6
Hassan I Moussa, Megan Logan, Geoffrey C Siow, Darron L Phann, Zheng Rao, Marc G Aucoin, Ting Y Tsui
Tungsten chemical-mechanical polished integrated circuits were used to study the alignment and immobilization of mammalian (Vero) cells. These devices consist of blanket silicon oxide thin films embedded with micro- and nano-meter scale tungsten metal line structures on the surface. The final surfaces are extremely flat and smooth across the entire substrate, with a roughness in the order of nanometers. Vero cells were deposited on the surface and allowed to adhere. Microscopy examinations revealed that cells have a strong preference to adhere to tungsten over silicon oxide surfaces with up to 99% of cells adhering to the tungsten portion of the surface...
2017: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150913/molecular-epidemiology-of-goat-pox-viruses
#7
P Roy, S Jaisree, S Balakrishnan, K Senthilkumar, R Mahaprabhu, A Mishra, B Maity, T K Ghosh, A P Karmakar
Goat pox disease outbreaks were observed in different places affecting Black Bengal Goats in West Bengal (WB) and Tellicherry, Vembur and non-descriptive breeds in Tamil Nadu (TN) causing severe lesions and mortality up to 30%. Clinical specimens from all the outbreaks were screened by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed the diseases as Goat Pox. Virus isolation in Vero cell line was done with randomly selected ten samples, cytopathic effects (CPE) characterized by syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed after several blind passages...
November 18, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147793/pharmacophoric-characteristics-of-dengue-virus-ns2b-ns3pro-inhibitors-a-systematic-review-of-the-most-promising-compounds
#8
REVIEW
Camyla Alves Leonel, William Gustavo Lima, Michelli Dos Santos, Ariane Coelho Ferraz, Alex Gutterres Taranto, José Carlos de Magalhães, Luciana Lara Dos Santos, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira Ferreira
Dengue virus (DENV) infection can lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations, including fatal hemorrhagic complications. There is a need to find effective pharmacotherapies to treat this disease due to the lack of specific immunotherapies and antiviral drugs. That said, the DENV NS2B/NS3pro protease complex is essential in both the viral multiplication cycle and in disease pathogenesis, and is considered a promising target for new antiviral therapies. Here, we performed a systematic review to evaluate the pharmacophoric characteristics of promising compounds against NS2B/NS3pro reported in the past 10 years...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144601/anti-bacterial-anti-biofilm-and-anti-quorum-sensing-effects-of-thymus-daenensis-and-satureja-hortensis-essential-oils-against-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates
#9
Aram Sharifi, Abdolmajid Mohammadzadeh, Taghi Zahraei Salehi, Pezhman Mahmoodi
AIMS: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus daenensis and Satureja hortensis essential oils (EOs) on the planktonic growth, biofilm formation and quorum sensing (QS) of some Staphylococcus aureus isolates (strong biofilm producers). METHODS AND RESULTS: MIC of the EOs, inhibition of biofilm formation as well as disruption of preformed S. aureus biofilms were assessed. The anti-biofilm activity of the EOs was determined using microtiter-plate test (MtP) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142433/prosopis-juliflora-pods-alkaloid-rich-fraction-in-vitro-anthelmintic-activity-on-goat-gastrointestinal-parasites-and-its-cytotoxicity-on-vero-cells
#10
Helimar Gonçalves Lima, Danilo Cavalcante Gomes, Nathália Silva Santos, Êuder Reis Dias, Mariana Borges Botura, Maria José Moreira Batatinha, Alexsandro Branco
Background: This study was designed to assess the in vitro anthelmintic activity of the fraction containing alkaloid from Prosopis juliflora pods on goat gastrointestinal nematodes using the egg hatch assay (EHA), larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA), and larval motility assay (LMA). Materials and Methods: The alkaloid-rich fraction (AF) - content juliprosopine as major alkaloid - was obtained from ethyl acetate extract after fractionation in Sephadex LH-20 chromatography column and its characterization were made by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis together with literature data comparison...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137671/herpes-simplex-virus-1-entrapped-in-candida-albicans-biofilm-displays-decreased-sensitivity-to-antivirals-and-uva1-laser-treatment
#11
Cristian Ascione, Arianna Sala, Elham Mazaheri-Tehrani, Simona Paulone, Beniamino Palmieri, Elisabetta Blasi, Claudio Cermelli
BACKGROUND: Recently, we published data suggesting a mutualistic relationship between HSV-1 and Candida. albicans; in particular: (a) HSV-1 infected macrophages are inhibited in their anti-Candida effector function and (b) Candida biofilm protects HSV-1 from inactivation. The present in vitro study is aimed at testing the effects of Candida biofilm on HSV-1 sensitivity to pharmacological and physical stress, such as antiviral drugs (acyclovir and foscarnet) and laser UVA1 irradiation...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133550/discovery-of-new-inhibitors-of-toxoplasma-gondii-thanks-to-the-pathogen-box
#12
Jérémy Spalenka, Sandie Escotte-Binet, Ali Bakiri, Jane Hubert, Jean-Hugues Renault, Frédéric Velard, Simon Duchateau, Dominique Aubert, Antoine Huguenin, Isabelle Villena
Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan protozoan parasite which affects approximately 30% of the population worldwide. The drugs currently used against toxoplasmosis are few in number and show several limitations, such as a drug intolerance, poor bioavailability or drug resistance mechanism developed by the parasite. Thus it is important to find new compounds able to inhibit parasite invasion or proliferation. In this study, the 400 compounds of the open access Pathogen Box provided by the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) foundation were screened for their anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129527/identification-of-measles-virus-genotype-b3-associated-with-outbreaks-in-islamabad-pakistan-2013-2015
#13
Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Abdul Hameed, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Massab Umair, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Maqbool Hussain, Salmaan Sharif, Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Adnan Khurshid
BACKGROUND: Measles virus infection remains a significant cause of childhood mortality and morbidity despite continued global efforts and the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Molecular analysis of indigenous measles viruses could provide critical information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can aid the implementation of appropriate control programs in Pakistan. METHODS: Blood samples and throat swabs were collected from subjects suspected with measles in Islamabad, Pakistan from 2013 to 2015...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129436/effects-of-teriparatide-and-risedronate-on-new-fractures-in-post-menopausal-women-with-severe-osteoporosis-vero-a-multicentre-double-blind-double-dummy-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
David L Kendler, Fernando Marin, Cristiano A F Zerbini, Luis A Russo, Susan L Greenspan, Vit Zikan, Alicia Bagur, Jorge Malouf-Sierra, Péter Lakatos, Astrid Fahrleitner-Pammer, Eric Lespessailles, Salvatore Minisola, Jean Jacques Body, Piet Geusens, Rüdiger Möricke, Pedro López-Romero
BACKGROUND: No clinical trials have compared osteoporosis drugs with incident fractures as the primary outcome. We compared the anti-fracture efficacy of teriparatide with risedronate in patients with severe osteoporosis. METHODS: In this double-blind, double-dummy trial, we enrolled post-menopausal women with at least two moderate or one severe vertebral fracture and a bone mineral density T score of less than or equal to -1·50. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 20 μg of teriparatide once daily plus oral weekly placebo or 35 mg of oral risedronate once weekly plus daily injections of placebo for 24 months...
November 9, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122531/uplc-pda-esi-qtof-ms-profiling-and-potent-anti-hsv-ii-activity-of-eucalyptus-sideroxylon-leaves
#15
Mona M Okba, Rania A El Gedaily, Rehab M Ashour
Eucalyptus is one of the most important and highly exploited genus in family Myrtaceae. An UPLC/PDA/ESI-qTOF-MS method was adopted to identify Eucalyptus sideroxylon Cunn. ex Woolls leaves phytoconstituents. Cytotoxicity of E. sideroxylon leaves phloroglucinol-rich extract (PGRE) on VERO cells was determined. The antiviral effect of PGRE against hepatitis A (HAV), herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-I), herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-II), coxsackie (CoxB4), and adenoviruses was in vitro evaluated using MTT assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118117/a-y161f-hemagglutinin-substitution-increases-thermostability-and-improves-yields-of-2009-h1n1-influenza-a-virus-in-cells
#16
Feng Wen, Lei Li, Nan Zhao, Meng-Jung Chiang, Hang Xie, Jim Cooley, Richard Webby, Peng George Wang, Xiu-Feng Wan
Vaccination is the primary strategy for influenza prevention and control. Yet egg-based vaccines, the predominant production platform, have several disadvantages including the emergence of viral antigenic variants that can be induced during egg passage. These limitations have prompted development of cell-based vaccines which themselves are not without issue. Most importantly, vaccine seed viruses often do not grow efficiently in mammalian cell lines. Here we aimed to identify novel high-yield signatures for influenza viruses in continuous Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Vero cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117727/crispoic-acid-a-new-compound-from-laelia-marginata-orchidaceae-and-biological-evaluations-against-parasites-human-cancer-cell-lines-and-zika-virus
#17
Andrezza C Belloto, Gredson K Souza, Paula C Perin, Ivania T A Schuquel, Silvana M O Santin, Lucas U R Chiavelli, Francielle P Garcia, Vanessa Kaplum, Jean H S Rodrigues, Débora B Scariot, Rodrigo Delvecchio, Erik Machado-Ferreira, Renato Santana Aguiar, Carlos A G Soares, Celso V Nakamura, Armando M Pomini
The phytochemical study of Laelia marginata (Lindl.) L. O. Williams (Orchidaceae) led to the isolation of a new natural product named crispoic acid (1), together with six other known compounds (2-7). The new natural product was identified as a dimer of eucomic acid and was structurally characterised based upon 1D and 2D NMR and HRMS data. Biological assays with plant crude extract, fractions and isolated compounds were performed against two human cancer cell lines (Hela and Siha), and the tropical parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis...
November 8, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117195/biological-and-phylogenetic-characteristics-of-west-african-lineages-of-west-nile-virus
#18
Gamou Fall, Nicholas Di Paola, Martin Faye, Moussa Dia, Caio César de Melo Freire, Cheikh Loucoubar, Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall
The West Nile virus (WNV), isolated in 1937, is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) that infects thousands of people each year. Despite its burden on global health, little is known about the virus' biological and evolutionary dynamics. As several lineages are endemic in West Africa, we obtained the complete polyprotein sequence from three isolates from the early 1990s, each representing a different lineage. We then investigated differences in growth behavior and pathogenicity for four distinct West African lineages in arthropod (Ap61) and primate (Vero) cell lines, and in mice...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113824/comparative-analysis-of-different-cell-systems-for-zika-virus-zikv-propagation-and-evaluation-of-anti-zikv-compounds-in-vitro
#19
Ilaria Vicenti, Adele Boccuto, Alessia Giannini, Filippo Dragoni, Francesco Saladini, Maurizio Zazzi
A strong correlation between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and severe neurological disease in newborns and occasionally adults has emerged in the Brazilian outbreak. Efficient human cell-based assays are required to test candidate inhibitors of ZIKV replication. The aim of this work was to investigate ZIKV propagation and quantification in different cell lines. The human (U87, A549, Huh7), mosquito (C6/36) and monkey (VERO E6) cell lines tested were all permissive to ZIKV infection. When assessed by plaque forming units (PFU) in three different target cell lines, the maximal production of ZIKV was achieved in Huh7 at day 3 post-infection (6...
November 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109164/zika-virus-zikv-replication-is-substantially-inhibited-by-novel-favipiravir-and-interferon-alpha-combination-regimens
#20
Camilly P Pires de Mello, Xun Tao, Tae Hwan Kim, Jürgen B Bulitta, Jaime L Rodriquez, Justin J Pomeroy, Ashley N Brown
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a major public health concern due to its overwhelming spread into the Americas. Currently there are neither licensed vaccines nor antiviral therapies available for the treatment of ZIKV. We aimed to identify and rationally optimize effective therapeutic regimens for ZIKV by evaluating the antiviral potential of approved broad-spectrum antiviral agents favipiravir (FAV), interferon-alpha (IFN), and ribavirin (RBV) as single agent and combinations. For these studies, Vero cells were infected with ZIKV in the presence of increasing concentrations of FAV, IFN, or/and RBV for four days...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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