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Hong-Jie Li, Dong-Sheng Gao, Yong-Tao Li, Yong-Sheng Wang, Hong-Ying Liu, Jun Zhao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the Coronaviridae family, causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and high mortality rates in neonatal piglets. Severe outbreaks of PEDV variants have re-emerged in Asia and North America since 2010, causing tremendous economic losses to the swine industry. The lack of effective therapeutic treatment promotes the research for new antivirals. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been reported as a potential antiviral drug for certain viruses. In this study, the antiviral effect of LiCl on PEDV in Vero cells was evaluated...
March 5, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Chuang Lyu, Shuwen Wang, Mingxia Sun, Yandong Tang, Jinmei Peng, Zhijun Tian, Xuehui Cai
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a neurotropic virus with the ability to infect peripheral sensory ganglia. The transport of PRV from the peripheral to the central nervous system can cause lethal encephalitis in young piglets. However, the pathogenicity of PRV in the cerebral cortex remains poorly understood. In the present study, we developed a porcine cerebral cortex primary culture system (PCCS) using cerebral cortex tissue dissected from a 3-day-old piglet to investigate the pathogenicity of wild-type (WT) and US2 deleted (ΔUS2) PRV in the CNS in vitro...
March 14, 2018: Virus Genes
Kendra J Alfson, Anthony Griffiths
Complete inactivation of infectious Ebola virus (EBOV) is required before a sample may be removed from a Biosafety Level 4 laboratory. The United States Federal Select Agent Program regulations require that procedures used to demonstrate chemical inactivation must be validated in-house to confirm complete inactivation. The objective of this study was to develop a method for validating chemical inactivation of EBOV and then demonstrate the effectiveness of several commonly-used inactivation methods. Samples containing infectious EBOV ( Zaire ebolavirus ) in different matrices were treated, and the sample was diluted to limit the cytopathic effect of the inactivant...
March 13, 2018: Viruses
Paweł Borowiecki, Patrycja Wińska, Maria Bretner, Małgorzata Gizińska, Mirosława Koronkiewicz, Monika Staniszewska
Three out of 16 newly synthesized 1,3-dimethylxanthine derivatives (proxyphylline analogues) exhibited consistencies between antifungal and anticancer properties. Proxyphylline possessing 1-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)propan-2-yl (6) and polybrominated benzimidazole (41) or benzotriazole moiety (42) remained selectively cidal against Candida albicans (lg R ≥ 3 at conc. of 31, 36 and 20 μM, respectively) however not against normal mammalian Vero cell line in vitro (IC50  ≥ 280 μM) and Galleria mellonella in vivo...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
A Deethae, Y Peerapornpisal, J Pekkoh, P Sangthong, Y Tragoolpua
AIMS: To determine the antiviral activities of Spirogyra spp. algal extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). METHODS AND RESULTS: Spirogyra spp. was extracted using water, ethanol and methanol. Aqueous extract of Spirogyra spp. had the lowest toxicity on Vero cells with the 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50 ) of 4363·30 μg ml-1 . As for potent inhibitory effect, the ethanolic extract presented the highest inhibition of viral infection on HSV-1 in the treatment during viral attachment on Vero cells with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) and selective index (SI) values of 164·20 and 2·17 μg ml-1 ...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Akintayo Lanre Ogundajo, Lateef Apollo Adeniran, Anofi Omotayo Ashafa
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, cytotoxicity, and inhibitory activity against carbohydrate metabolism of extracts from Ocotea bullata stem bark. METHODS: Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were used to extract the air-dried sample. The phytochemical investigation and antioxidant assays were carried out on the extracts using standard procedures. The antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory potentials were evaluated using α-amylase, α-glucosidase and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes respectively...
March 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Yilong Wang, Rongxian Liu, Mijia Lu, Yingzhi Yang, Duo Zhou, Xiaoqiang Hao, Dongming Zhou, Bin Wang, Jianrong Li, Yao-Wei Huang, Zhengyan Zhao
The live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine based on the Hu191 strain has played a significant role in controlling measles in China. However, it has considerable adverse effects that may cause public health burden. We hypothesize that the safety and efficacy of MV vaccine can be improved by altering the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site in the conserved region VI of the large polymerase protein. To test this hypothesis, we established an efficient reverse genetics system for the rMV-Hu191 strain and generated two recombinant MV-Hu191 carrying mutations in the SAM binding site...
March 8, 2018: Virology
Narong Nitatpattana, Kumchol Chaiyo, Supoth Rajakam, Kanya Poolam, Kusuma Chansiprasert, Norapath Pesirikan, Supanat Buree, Ekkarat Rodpai, Sutee Yoksan
The complete genome of Zika virus (ZIKV) strain CVD_06-274 was isolated from the serum of an infected patient in Thailand in 2006. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this strain belongs to the Asian lineage and also high titers in Vero cells (RCB 10-87). It has potential for development as an inactivated ZIKV vaccine.
March 8, 2018: Genome Announcements
Irene Malkwitz, Angela Berndt, Arwid Daugschies, Berit Bangoura
Toxoplasma gondii is known to be able to infect any nucleated cell including immune cells like macrophages. In addition, it is assumed that macrophages serve as trojan horse during distribution in hosts. The underlying causes of parasite host interaction remain yet not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate susceptibility of chicken macrophages to infection with T. gondii and the process of infection in avian cells in comparison to cells of mammalian origin. Primary avian blood monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with tachyzoites of type II (ME49) and III (NED) strains...
March 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Nadine Schmidt, Stefanie A Barth, Jana Frahm, Ulrich Meyer, Sven Dänicke, Lutz Geue, Christian Menge
The principal virulence factor of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the eponymous Stx, modulates cellular immune responses in cattle, the primary STEC reservoir. We examined whether immunization with genetically inactivated recombinant Shiga toxoids (rStx1MUT /rStx2MUT ) influences STEC shedding in a calf cohort. A group of 24 calves was passively (colostrum from immunized cows) and actively (intra-muscularly at 5th and 8th week) vaccinated. Twenty-four calves served as unvaccinated controls (fed with low anti-Stx colostrum, placebo injected)...
March 7, 2018: Veterinary Research
Chi-Ping Chan, Chun-Kit Yuen, Pak-Hin Hinson Cheung, Sin-Yee Fung, Pak-Yin Lui, Honglin Chen, Kin-Hang Kok, Dong-Yan Jin
PACT is a double-stranded RNA-binding protein that has been implicated in host-influenza A virus (IAV) interaction. PACT facilitates the action of RIG-I in the activation of the type I IFN response, which is suppressed by the viral nonstructural protein NS1. PACT is also known to interact with the IAV RNA polymerase subunit PA. Exactly how PACT exerts its antiviral activity during IAV infection remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we demonstrated the interplay between PACT and IAV polymerase. Induction of IFN-β by the IAV RNP complex was most robust when both RIG-I and PACT were expressed...
March 7, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Chandrasekar Balachandran, Jebiti Haribabu, Kumaramangalam Jeyalakshmi, Nattamai S P Bhuvanesh, Ramasamy Karvembu, Nobuhiko Emi, Suresh Awale
Three novel complexes (1, 3 and 4) ligating N-substituted isatin thiosemicarbazone derivatives have been synthesized and their structural and biological characteristics have been compared with those of the known analogs (2, 5-7 and 8). In addition, the structure of the representative ligands (L1, L3 and L4) and complex (4) was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. All the complexes (1-8) were assessed for their cytotoxic property against a panel of four human cancer cells such as HepG-2 (liver), MOLM-14 (acute monocytic leukemia), U937 (histiocytic lymphoma)...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Katsuhiko Mitachi, Hyun Gi Yun, Sara M Kurosu, Shakiba Eslamimehr, Maddie R Lemieux, Lada Klaić, William M Clemons, Michio Kurosu
The spectrum of antibacterial activity for the nucleoside antibiotic FR-900493 ( 1 ) can be extended by chemical modifications. We have generated a small focused library based on the structure of 1 and identified UT-17415 ( 9 ), UT-17455 ( 10 ), UT-17460 ( 11 ), and UT-17465 ( 12 ), which exhibit anti- Clostridium difficile growth inhibitory activity. These analogues also inhibit the outgrowth of C. difficile spores at 2× minimum inhibitory concentration. One of these analogues, 11 , relative to 1 exhibits over 180-fold and 15-fold greater activity against the enzymes, phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase (MraY) and polyprenyl phosphate-GlcNAc-1-phosphate transferase (WecA), respectively...
February 28, 2018: ACS Omega
Chun-Miao Ji, Bin Wang, Jiyong Zhou, Yao-Wei Huang
A monkey cell line Vero (ATCC CCL-81) is commonly used for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) propagation in vitro. However, it is still controversial whether the porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) counterpart on Vero cells (Vero-APN) confers PEDV entry. We found that endogenous expression of Vero-APN was undetectable in the mRNA and the protein levels in Vero cells. We cloned the partial Vero-APN gene (3340-bp) containing exons 1 to 9 from cellular DNA and subsequently generated two APN-knockout Vero cell lines by CRISPR/Cas9 approach...
March 1, 2018: Virology
Manjulika Shukla, Isha Soni, Karen Matsuyama, Tran Tran, Mary Tanga, Leyi Gong, Sidharth Chopra
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) is one of the most significant nosocomial pathogens, that is increasingly being isolated in healthcare settings worldwide. Owing to its inherent drug-resistant nature, coupled with its ability to readily acquire resistance to other antibiotic classes, there is a real dearth of antibiotics available to treat infections with MDR-AB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A commercially available library was screened against MDR-AB BAA-1605 to identify novel inhibitory molecules...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Gilda Giancotti, Michela Cancellieri, Andrea Balboni, Mariateresa Giustiniano, Ettore Novellino, Leen Delang, Johan Neyts, Pieter Leyssen, Andrea Brancale, Marcella Bassetto
Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes, responsible for an acute febrile illness associated with painful and debilitating arthralgia, which can persist for several months or become chronic. Over the past few years, infection with this virus has spread worldwide with a previously unknown virulence. No specific antiviral treatments nor vaccines are currently available against this important pathogen. Starting from the structure of a class of selective anti-CHIKV agents previously identified in our research group, different modifications to this scaffold were rationally designed, and 69 novel small-molecule derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their inhibition of Chikungunya virus replication in Vero cells...
February 23, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Robert Alvin Bernedo-Navarro, Ema Romão, Tomomasa Yano, Joar Pinto, Henri De Greve, Yann G-J Sterckx, Serge Muyldermans
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a subset of pathogens leading to illnesses such as diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome and even death. The Shiga toxins are the main virulence factors and divided in two groups: Stx1 and Stx2, of which the latter is more frequently associated with severe pathologies in humans. RESULTS: An immune library of nanobodies (Nbs) was constructed after immunizing an alpaca with recombinant Shiga toxin-2a B subunit (rStx2aB), to retrieve multiple rStx2aB-specific Nbs...
March 1, 2018: Toxins
Aden Díaz Nocera, Romina Comín, Nancy Alicia Salvatierra, Mariana Paula Cid
Collagen is widely used in tissue engineering because it can be extracted in large quantities, and has excellent biocompatibility, good biodegradability, and weak antigenicity. In the present study, we isolated printable collagen from bovine Achilles tendon and examined the purity of the isolated collagen using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The bands obtained corresponded to α1 , α2 and β chains with little contamination from other small proteins. Furthermore, rheological measurements of collagen dispersions (60 mg per ml of PBS) at pH 7 revealed values of viscosity of 35...
February 27, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Anna Cb Oliveira, Thayz Fl Morais, Claudia Bernal, Virginia Ca Martins, Ana Mg Plepis, Priscila Fc Menezes, Janice R Perussi
Development of biomaterials' substitutes and/or equivalents to mimic normal tissue is a current challenge in tissue engineering. Thus, three-dimensional cell culture using type I collagen as a polymeric matrix cell support designed to promote cell proliferation and differentiation was employed to create a dermal equivalent in vitro, as well to evaluate the photobiomodulation using red light. Polymeric matrix cell support was prepared from porcine serous collagen (1.1%) hydrolyzed for 96 h. The biomaterial exhibited porosity of 95%, a median pore of 44 µm and channels with an average distance between the walls of 78 ± 14 µm...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Kiyoshi Himmelsbach, Eberhard Hildt
AIM: To identify cell culture models supportive for Zika virus (ZIKV) replication. METHODS: Various human and non-human cell lines were infected with a defined amount of ZIKV Polynesia strain. Cells were analyzed 48 h post infection for the amount of intracellular and extracellular viral genomes and infectious viral particles by quantitative real-time PCR and virus titration assay. The extent of replication was monitored by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis by using Env and NS1 specific antibodies...
February 12, 2018: World Journal of Virology
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