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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726621/characterization-of-fitzroy-river-virus-and-serologic-evidence-of-human-and-animal-infection
#1
Cheryl A Johansen, Simon H Williams, Lorna F Melville, Jay Nicholson, Roy A Hall, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Natalie A Prow, Glenys R Chidlow, Shani Wong, Rohini Sinha, David T Williams, W Ian Lipkin, David W Smith
In northern Western Australia in 2011 and 2012, surveillance detected a novel arbovirus in mosquitoes. Genetic and phenotypic analyses confirmed that the new flavivirus, named Fitzroy River virus, is related to Sepik virus and Wesselsbron virus, in the yellow fever virus group. Most (81%) isolates came from Aedes normanensis mosquitoes, providing circumstantial evidence of the probable vector. In cell culture, Fitzroy River virus replicated in mosquito (C6/36), mammalian (Vero, PSEK, and BSR), and avian (DF-1) cells...
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724343/vero-cell-technology-for-rapid-development-of-inactivated-whole-virus-vaccines-for-emerging-viral-diseases
#2
P Noel Barrett, Sara J Terpening, Doris Snow, Ronald R Cobb, Otfried Kistner
Rapid development and production of vaccines against emerging diseases requires well established, validated, robust technologies to allow industrial scale production and accelerated licensure of products. Areas covered: A versatile Vero cell platform has been developed and utilized to deliver a wide range of candidate and licensed vaccines against emerging viral diseases. This platform builds on the 35 years' experience and safety record with inactivated whole virus vaccines such as polio vaccine. The current platform has been optimized to include a novel double inactivation procedure in order to ensure a highly robust inactivation procedure for novel emerging viruses...
July 20, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720756/pixuna-virus-modifies-host-cell-cytoskeleton-to-secure-infection
#3
Pedro Ignacio Gil, Guillermo Albrieu-Llinás, Estela Cecilia Mlewski, Marina Monetti, Laura Fozzatti, Cecilia Cuffini, José Fernández Romero, Patricia Kunda, María Gabriela Paglini
Pixuna virus (PIXV) is an enzootic member of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus complex and belongs to the New World cluster of alphaviruses. Herein we explore the role of the cellular cytoskeleton during PIXV replication. We first identified that PIXV undergoes an eclipse phase consisting of 4 h followed by 20 h of an exponential phase in Vero cells. The infected cells showed morphological changes due to structural modifications in actin microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs). Cytoskeleton-binding agents, that alter the architecture and dynamics of MFs and MTs, were used to study the role of cytoskeleton on PIXV replication...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720432/adhesion-and-invasion-of-clostridium-perfringens-type-a-into-epithelial-cells
#4
Luis A Llanco, Viviane Nakano, Claudia T P de Moraes, Roxane M F Piazza, Mario J Avila-Campos
Clostridium perfringens is the causative agent for necrotic enteritis. It secretes the major virulence factors, and α- and NetB-toxins that are responsible for intestinal lesions. The TpeL toxin affects cell morphology by producing myonecrosis, but its role in the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis is unclear. In this study, the presence of netB and tpeL genes in C. perfringens type A strains isolated from chickens with necrotic enteritis, their cytotoxic effects and role in adhesion and invasion of epithelial cells were evaluated...
July 7, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714338/antiplasmodial-prenylated-flavanonols-from-tephrosia-subtriflora
#5
Lois M Muiva-Mutisya, Yoseph Atilaw, Matthias Heydenreich, Andreas Koch, Hoseah M Akala, Agnes C Cheruiyot, Matthew L Brown, Beatrice Irungu, Faith A Okalebo, Solomon Derese, Charles Mutai, Abiy Yenesew
The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia subtriflora afforded a new flavanonol, named subtriflavanonol (1), along with the known flavanone spinoflavanone B, and the known flavanonols MS-II (2) and mundulinol. The structures were elucidated by the use of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the flavanonols was determined based on quantum chemical ECD calculations. In the antiplasmodial assay, compound 2 showed the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum reference clones (D6 and 3D7), artemisinin-sensitive isolate (F32-TEM) as well as field isolate (KSM 009) with IC50 values 1...
July 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701405/propagation-of-astrovirus-va1-a-neurotropic-human-astrovirus-in-cell-culture
#6
Andrew B Janowski, Irma K Bauer, Lori R Holtz, David Wang
Astrovirus VA1/HMO-C (VA1; mamastrovirus 9) is a recently discovered astrovirus genotype that is divergent from the classic human astroviruses (mamastrovirus 1). The gastrointestinal tract is presumed to be the primary site of infection and pathogenicity for astroviruses. However, VA1 has been independently detected in brain tissue of five cases of human encephalitis. Studies of the pathogenicity of VA1 are currently impossible because there are no reported cell culture systems or in vivo models that support VA1 infection...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699858/bovine-lactoferrin-activity-against-chikungunya-and-zika-viruses
#7
Carlos A M Carvalho, Samir M M Casseb, Rafael B Gonçalves, Eliana V P Silva, Andre M O Gomes, Pedro F C Vasconcelos
Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are arboviruses which have recently broken their sylvatic isolation and gone on to spread rampantly among humans in some urban areas of the world, especially in Latin America. Given the lack of effective interventions against such viruses, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antiviral potential of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) in their infections. Through viability, plaque, immunofluorescence and nucleic acid quantification assays, our data show that bLf exerts a dose-dependent strong inhibitory effect on the infection of Vero cells by the aforementioned arboviruses, reducing their infection efficiency by up to nearly 80 %, with no expressive cytotoxicity, and that such antiviral activity occurs at the levels of input and output of virus particles...
July 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698509/almond-skin-extracts-abrogate-hsv-1-replication-by-blocking-virus-binding-to-the-cell
#8
Carlo Bisignano, Giuseppina Mandalari, Antonella Smeriglio, Domenico Trombetta, Maria Musarra Pizzo, Rosamaria Pennisi, Maria Teresa Sciortino
The aim of the present research was to determine the effect of almond skin extracts on herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication. Drug-resistant strains of HSV frequently develop following therapeutic treatment. Therefore, the discovery of novel anti-HSV drugs deserves great effort. Here, we tested both natural (NS) and blanched (BS) polyphenols-rich almond skin extracts against HSV-1. HPLC analysis showed that the prevalent compounds in NS and BS extracts contributing to their antioxidant activity were quercetin, epicatechin and catechin...
July 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697990/avian-antibodies-igy-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-purification-and-characterization-studies
#9
Thirssa H Grando, Matheus D Baldissera, Mariângela F de Sá, Guilherme do Carmo, Bianca Carolina Z Porto, Gisele S V Aguirre, Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Francielli P K de Jesus, Janio M Santurio, Michele R Sagrillo, Lenita Moura Stefani, Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro
Trypanosoma cruzi is a flagellated protozoan belonging to the Trypanosomatidae family, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Currently, there is neither a licensed vaccine nor effective treatment, characterizing an unmet clinical need. The IgY refers to the egg yolk immunoglobulin (Y=yolk) and its production and use are subjects of many studies due to the diversity of its diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Several researchers have shown that the use of specific IgY may prevent and/or control infectious and parasitic diseases...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694822/chemical-composition-and-cytotoxic-and-antibacterial-activities-of-the-essential-oil-of-aloysia-citriodora-palau-grown-in-morocco
#10
Moulay Ali Oukerrou, Mounir Tilaoui, Hassan Ait Mouse, Inass Leouifoudi, Abdeslam Jaafari, Abdelmajid Zyad
The aim of this work is to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of the essential oils of Aloysia citriodora Palau, harvested in different regions of Morocco. The chemical profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The cytotoxic activity against P815, MCF7, and VERO cell lines as well as the normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was evaluated using the MTT assay. Standard, ATCC, strains of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were cultivated in Muller Hinton media...
2017: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694750/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anticancer-studies-of-2-hydroxy-chalcone-derivatives-exhibit-apoptosis-in-colon-cancer-cells-by-hdac-inhibition-and-cell-cycle-arrest
#11
Aditya Narayan Pande, Subhankar Biswas, Neetinkumar D Reddy, B S Jayashree, Nitesh Kumar, C Mallikarjuna Rao
Considering the therapeutic values of bioflavonoids in colon cancer treatment, six 2'-hydroxy chalcones (C1-C6) were synthesized, characterized and screened for in vitro cytotoxicity on human colon carcinoma (HCT116) and African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero). Only C5 showed selective cytotoxicity against HCT116 cells. Other potent cytotoxic compounds were C1, C2 and C3. Further screening included enzyme inhibition studies on histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzyme where C1 showed lowest IC50 value (105...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693954/nano-encapsulation-of-chicken-immunoglobulin-igy-in-sodium-alginate-nanoparticles-in%C3%A2-vitro-characterization
#12
Mostafa Bakhshi, Firouz Ebrahimi, Shahram Nazarian, Jamil Zargan, Faeze Behzadi, Dawood Sadeghi Gariz
Controlled delivery of therapeutic agents by alginate nanoparticles became an attractive issue in the gastric organ. Some therapeutic agents such as proteins could not tolerate in severe condition in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, four concentrations of a specific IgY as a prophylactic agent against E. coli O157: H7 was entrapped in 0.2% w/v sodium alginate nanoparticles by ionic gelation method. Depending on the IgY concentration entrapment efficacy was 28.31-99.84%. The physicochemical and structural characteristics of free and IgY-loaded Alg NPs revealed that the individual particles exhibited a spherical shape with a diameter of 45-85 nm, and a negatively charged surface with a zeta potential value of 26-36 mV...
July 7, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693308/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-new-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-variant-that-occurred-in-korea-in-2014
#13
Dong-Kun Yang, Ha-Hyun Kim, Seong-Hun Lee, Soon-Seek Yoon, Joong-Won Park, In-Soo Cho
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has caused significant economic losses in the swine industry, and another epidemic occurred recently in Korea in 2014. Isolating and culturing the PED virus (PEDV) allow investigations into its pathogenesis and development of vaccines and diagnostic assays. In this study, we successfully isolated two PEDV isolates (QIAP1401 and QIAP1402) from naturally infected piglets in Jeju-do. Viral propagation was confirmed in Vero cells according to cytopathic effects, immunofluorescence assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopic analyses...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688542/evaluation-of-apoptotic-activity-of-withania-coagulans-methanolic-extract-against-human-breast-cancer-and-vero-cell-lines
#14
Rumana Ahmad, Afreen Fatima, A N Srivastava, Mohsin Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: The genus Withania (Family: Solanaceae) holds an important position in Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine. Withania somnifera Dunal and Withania coagulans Dunal have been documented in folklore as panaceas for various ailments since time immemorial. W. coagulans (WC), commonly called as Indian cheese maker is used for fermenting milk for cheese production in various parts of India. OBJECTIVES: In the study, in vitro cytotoxicity of methanolic extract of dried fruits (berries) of WC was evaluated in a dose dependent manner using trypan blue dye exclusion method against human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and normal kidney epithelial cell line Vero in the range 20-200 μg/ml...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687324/in%C3%A2-vitro-antiviral-efficacy-of-caffeic-acid-against-canine-distemper-virus
#15
Zong-Mei Wu, Zhen-Jiang Yu, Zhen-Qiang Cui, Lu-Yuan Peng, Hao-Ran Li, Chun-Lei Zhang, Hai-Qing Shen, Peng-Fei Yi, Ben-Dong Fu
Canine distemper (CD) is a highly contagious disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV), and mortality can be as high as 100%. However, there is no specific treatment for CD. In this study, the antiviral activity of the caffeic acid against CDV was evaluated in vitro. The results showed that the IC50 of the caffeic acid against CDV at 1 and 2 h post infection (PI) is 23.3 and 32.3 μg/mL, respectively. Consistently, at 1 and 2 h PI, the caffeic acid exhibited a reduced (23.3-57.0% and 37.2-38.1%) viral inhibitory effect in vero cells...
July 4, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685180/first-toxoplasma-gondii-isolate-from-an-aborted-foetus-of-european-bison-bison-bonasus-bonasus-l
#16
Bożena Moskwa, Justyna Bień, Aleksandra Kornacka, Aleksandra Cybulska, Katarzyna Goździk, Michał K Krzysiak, Katarina Reiterova, Władysław Cabaj
The study was performed on a male European bison (Bison bonasus bonasus L.) foetus spontaneously aborted at the fourth or fifth month of pregnancy in the Białowieża Forest. Serum samples from the foetus and mother revealed the presence of antibodies against T. gondii (S/P% = 88% and 75%, respectively). Mobile extracellular tachyzoites were first observed in a Vero cell culture, 110 days following inoculation of brain homogenate. PCR amplification with TGR1E1 and TGR1E2 primers confirmed the presence of T...
July 6, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683141/isolation-of-serotype-specific-antibodies-against-dengue-virus-non-structural-protein-1-using-phage-display-and-application-in-a-multiplexed-serotyping-assay
#17
Kebaneilwe Lebani, Martina L Jones, Daniel Watterson, Andrea Ranzoni, Renee J Traves, Paul R Young, Stephen M Mahler
The multidimensional nature of dengue virus (DENV) infections, which can be caused by four distinct serotypes of the virus, complicates the sensitivity of assays designed for the diagnosis of infection. Different viral markers can be optimally detected at different stages of infection. Of particular clinical importance is the early identification of infection, which is pivotal for disease management and the development of blood screening assays. Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is an early surrogate marker of infection and its detection in serum coincides with detectable viraemia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683117/genetic-variation-and-expression-changes-associated-with-molybdate-resistance-from-a-glutathione-producing-wine-strain-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#18
Francesco Mezzetti, Justin C Fay, Paolo Giudici, Luciana De Vero
Glutathione (GSH) production during wine fermentation is a desirable trait as it can limit must and wine oxidation and protect various aromatic compounds. UMCC 2581 is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain with enhanced GSH content at the end of wine fermentation. This strain was previously derived by selection for molybdate resistance following a sexual cycle of UMCC 855 using an evolution-based strategy. In this study, we examined genetic and gene expression changes associated with the derivation of UMCC 2581...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676004/evaluation-of-1-3-benzoxathiol-2-one-derivatives-as-potential-antifungal-agents
#19
Luciana Terra, Eliza de L Chazin, Paola de S Sanches, Max Saito, Marcus V N de Souza, Claudia R B Gomes, James L Wardell, Solange M S V Wardell, Plínio C Sathler, Gabriela C C Silva, Viviane O Lione, Marcos Kalil, Ana Joffily, Helena C Castro, Thatyana R A Vasconcelos
BACKGROUND: Over the last few years, fungal infections have emerged as a worrisome global public health problem. Candidiasis is a disease caused by Candida species and has been a problem worldwide mainly for immunosuppressed patients. Lately, the resistant strains and side effects have been reported as important issues for treating Candidiasis, which have to be solved by identifying new drugs. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this work was to synthesize a series of 1,3-benzoxathiol-2-one derivatives, XY-benzo[d][1,3]oxathiol-2-ones, and evaluate their antifungal activity against five Candida species...
July 3, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672946/enterovirus-71-infection-impairs-the-reproductive-capacity-of-female-mice
#20
Bo Qin, Qiuyue Yan, Xing Chen, Xiuping Xu, Yanan Wang, Jinkun Chen, Xuejun Dong
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD); however, no clinically approved vaccine or antiviral treatment is currently available for EV71 infection. In the present study, a murine model of EV71 infection was constructed. The clinical isolates of EV71 were amplified in Vero cells and used to challenge adult mice via hydrodynamic injection (HI) and intraperitoneal injection (IP). Following two challenges, >50% of the mice succumbed to EV71 infection. Surviving female mice were identified to have impaired fertility and their litter sizes were significantly decreased compared with the control group...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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