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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815211/phenotypic-differences-between-asian-and-african-lineage-zika-viruses-in-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#1
Fatih Anfasa, Jurre Y Siegers, Mark van der Kroeg, Noreen Mumtaz, V Stalin Raj, Femke M S de Vrij, W Widagdo, Gülsah Gabriel, Sara Salinas, Yannick Simonin, Chantal Reusken, Steven A Kushner, Marion P G Koopmans, Bart Haagmans, Byron E E Martina, Debby van Riel
Recent Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been associated with a range of neurological complications, in particular congenital microcephaly. Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of microcephaly, and experimental ZIKV infection of hNPCs has been shown to induce cell death. However, the infection efficiency and rate of cell death have varied between studies, which might be related to intrinsic differences between African and Asian lineage ZIKV strains...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815000/african-tick-bite-fever-in-returning-swedish-travellers-report-of-two-cases-and-aspects-of-diagnostics
#2
Kenneth Nilsson, Katarina Wallménius, Pernilla Rundlöf-Nygren, Susanne Strömdahl, Carl Påhlson
Introduction: African tick-bite fever, caused by Rickettsia africae, is endemic in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa and a possible cause of fever in returning Swedish travellers. Two patients are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic methods are discussed. Patients and methods: Two middle-aged men fell ill with fever after returning home from South Africa. Both had single eschars and one also presented with a lymph node swelling. Samples were taken for serology, general bacterial culture from the wound (Patient 1) using a swab and additionally for Patient 2 PCR of a skin biopsy from the eschar...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813096/cytotoxicity-and-bacterial-membrane-destabilization-induced-by-annona-squamosa-l-extracts
#3
Nícolas C C Pinto, Jucélia B Silva, Laura M Menegati, Maria Clara M R Guedes, Lucas B Marques, Thiago P DA Silva, Rossana C N DE Melo, Elaine M DE Souza-Fagundes, Marcos J Salvador, Elita Scio, Rodrigo L Fabri
This study aimed to further investigate the cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines and several bacterial strains of Annona squamosa and its mode of action. Methanol extracts of A. squamosa leaves (ASL) and seeds (ASS) were used. ASL showed significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. faecalis with MIC values of 78, 78 and 39 µg/mL respectively. Moreover, ASL exhibited significant biofilm disruption, rapid time dependent kinetics of bacterial killing, increased membrane permeability and significantly reduced the cell numbers and viability...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811224/hypericin-cytotoxicity-in-tumor-and-non-tumor-cell-lines-a-chemometric-study
#4
Joyce Laura da Silva Gonçalves, Claudia Bernal, Hidetake Imasatoa, Janice Rodrigues Perussi
Hypericin (HY) is an excellent photoactive compound that has been investigated for the photodynamic treatment of cancer as well as for microorganisms inactivation. In this study, chemometric analysis was applied for the first time on photodynamic assays to investigate the cytotoxicity of HY in tumor (HEp-2) and non-tumor (Vero and HUVEC) cell lines. The experimental planning was based on eight assays using the 2(3) full factorial design combining three important variables for PDT: photosensitizer concentrations, incubation time of cells in HY solutions and employed light dose (=590±10nm)...
August 12, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808874/postpartum-glucose-intolerance-an-updated-overview
#5
REVIEW
Ida Pastore, Eusebio Chiefari, Raffaella Vero, Antonio Brunetti
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has increased worldwide over the past three decades, as a consequence of the more westernized lifestyle, which is responsible for the increasing obesity rate in the modern adult's life. Concomitant with this increase there has been a gradual rise in the overall prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, a condition that strongly predisposes to overt diabetes later in life. Many women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus show glucose intolerance in the early postpartum period...
August 14, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807302/targeted-overexpression-of-cyclic-amp-dependent-protein-kinase-subunit-in-toxoplasma-gondii-promotes-replication-and-virulence-in-host-cells
#6
Hongchao Sun, Suhua Wang, Xianfeng Zhao, Chaoqun Yao, Haohan Zhuang, Yechuan Huang, Xueqiu Chen, Yi Yang, Aifang Du
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is one of the most common parasite that can infect almost any warm-blooded animals including humans. The cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates a spectrum of intracellular signal pathways in many organisms. Protein kinase catalytic subunit (PKAC) is the core of the whole protein, and plays an important role in the life cycle of T.gondii. Here, T.gondii PKAC (TgPKAC) overexpression strain (TgPKAC-OE) was constructed. The growth of the TgPKAC-OE, RH△Ku80, and TgPKAC inhibition strains (TgPKAC-H89) were analysed by SYBR-green real-time PCR, and the ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807293/sarcocystis-neurona-and-neospora-caninum-in-brazilian-opossums-didelphis-spp-molecular-investigation-and-in-vitro-isolation-of-sarcocystis-spp
#7
Leane S Q Gondim, Rogério F Jesus, Müller Ribeiro-Andrade, Jean C R Silva, Daniel B Siqueira, Maria F V Marvulo, Felipe M Aléssio, Jean-François Mauffrey, Fred S Julião, Elisa San Martin Mouriz Savani, Rodrigo M Soares, Luís F P Gondim
Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. are protozoan parasites that induce neurological diseases in horses and other animal species. Opossums (Didelphis albiventris and Didelphis virginiana) are definitive hosts of S. neurona, which is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and infects a wide range of animal species, while N. hughesi is known to induce neurologic disease in equids. The aims of this study were to investigate S. neurona and N. caninum in tissues from opossums in the northeastern Brazil, and to isolate Brazilian strains of Sarcocystis spp...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807281/toxoplasma-gondii-in-the-cornigliese-sheep-breed-in-italy-meat-juice-serology-in-vitro-isolation-and-genotyping
#8
A Vismarra, E Barilli, M Miceli, C Mangia, M Genchi, F Brindani, L Kramer, C Bacci
Toxoplasma gondii is considered one of the most important food-borne parasitic zoonoses globally and sheep are important intermediate hosts of the parasite. Meat and milk from infected sheep are considered an important source of infection for humans. Here, the authors evaluated T. gondii infection in the Italian Cornigliese sheep breed using meat juice ELISA, and in vitro assay for followed by Real Time-PCR and PCR-RFLP. Twenty-one hearts were collected at slaughter. Meat juice serology was carried out on all samples, while eleven hearts with the highest antibody titres were subjected to acid-peptic digestion and seeding onto Vero cells...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803995/depsidones-and-an-%C3%AE-pyrone-derivative-from-simpilcillium-sp-psu-h41-an-endophytic-fungus-from-hevea-brasiliensis-leaf
#9
Praphatsorn Saetang, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Sita Preedanon, Jariya Sakayaroj, Suparerk Borwornpinyo, Sawinee Seemakhan, Chatchai Muanprasat
Nine previously undescribed depsidones (simplicildones A-I) and one previously undescribed α-pyrone (simplicilopyrone) were isolated from the endophytic fungus Simplicillium sp. PSU-H41 along with 11 known compounds. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Simplicildone A and known botryorhodine C displayed weak antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus with equal MIC values of 32 μg/mL. Additionally, botryorhodine C was active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus with the same MIC value...
August 9, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803932/the-thiopurine-nucleoside-analogue-6-methylmercaptopurine-riboside-6mmpr-effectively-blocks-zika-virus-replication
#10
Otavio Valério de Carvalho, Daniele Mendes Félix, Leila Rodrigues de Mendonça, Catarina Maria Cataldi Sabino de Araújo, Rafael Freitas de Oliveira Franca, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Abelardo Silva Júnior, Lindomar José Pena
Since the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in 2015, 48 countries and territories in the Americas have confirmed autochthonous cases of the disease caused by the virus. The ZIKV-associated neurological manifestations and congenital defects make the development of safe and effective antivirals against ZIKV of utmost importance. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activity of 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr), a thiopurine nucleoside analog derived from the prodrug azathioprine (AZA), against the epidemic ZIKV strain circulating in Brazil...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799270/non-activated-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-promote-the-growth-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-decrease-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-silver-nanoparticles
#11
Anita Bogdanov, László Janovák, Ildikó Lantos, Valéria Endrész, Dániel Sebők, Tamás Szabó, Imre Dékány, Judit Deák, Zsolt Rázga, Katalin Burián, Dezső P Virok
AIMS: Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus are the most prevalent bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections. Due to the chronic nature of their infections, they are able to interact with titanium-dioxide nanoparticles applied as food additives or drug delivery vehicles. The aim of our study was to describe the interactions of these two prevalent pathogens with the titanium-dioxide nanoparticles. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus-2 were treated with non-activated titanium-dioxide nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles and silver decorated titanium-dioxide nanoparticles before infection of HeLa and Vero cells...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796406/diarylpyrazole-ligated-dihydropyrimidine-hybrids-as-potent-non-classical-antifolates-and-their-efficacy-against-plasmodium-falciparum
#12
Jaimin D Bhatt, Chaitanya J Chudasama, Kanuprasad D Patel
A series of diarylpyrazole clubbed dihydropyrimidine derivatives (J1-J30) was synthesized under microwave-assisted heating conditions by employing Biginelli reaction methodology and utilizing triethylammonium acetate both as a catalyst and as reaction medium, leading towards a greener reaction pathway. The synthesized entities were screened for their antimalarial efficacy against a Plasmodium falciparum strain in vitro. The active entities (J9, J15, J21, J25, and J27) obtained out of the in vitro screening were further evaluated for their enzyme inhibitory potency against the Pf-DHFR enzyme in vitro as well as in silico using Glide...
August 10, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794038/in-vitro-enhancement-of-rsv-infection-by-maternal-antibodies-does-not-explain-disease-severity-in-infants
#13
Elisabeth A van Erp, Puck B van Kasteren, Teun Guichelaar, Inge M L Ahout, Cornelis A M de Haan, Willem Luytjes, Gerben Ferwerda, Oliver Wicht
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of severe respiratory illness in infants. At this young age, infants typically depend on maternally transferred antibodies (matAbs) and their innate immune system for protection against infections. RSV-specific matAbs are thought to protect from severe illness, yet severe RSV disease occurs mainly below 6 months of age, when neutralizing matAb levels are present. To investigate this discrepancy, we asked if disease severity is related to antibody properties other than neutralization...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791314/generation-of-a-vero-based-packaging-cell-line-to-produce-sv40-gene-delivery-vectors-for-use-in-clinical-gene-therapy-studies
#14
Miguel G Toscano, Jeroen van der Velden, Sybrand van der Werf, Machteld Odijk, Ana Roque, Rafael J Camacho-Garcia, Irene G Herrera-Gomez, Irene Mancini, Peter de Haan
Replication-defective (RD) recombinant simian virus 40 (SV40)-based gene delivery vectors hold a great potential for clinical applications because of their presumed non-immunogenicity and capacity to induce immune tolerance to the transgene products in humans. However, the clinical use of SV40 vectors has been hampered by the lack of a packaging cell line that produces replication-competent (RC) free SV40 particles in the vector production process. To solve this problem, we have adapted the current SV40 vector genome used for the production of vector particles and generated a novel Vero-based packaging cell line named SuperVero that exclusively expresses the SV40 large T antigen...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780467/in-vitro-schistosomicidal-and-antiviral-activities-of-arctium-lappa-l-asteraceae-against-schistosoma-mansoni-and-herpes-simplex-virus-1
#15
Mirna Meana Dias, Ohana Zuza, Lorena R Riani, Priscila de Faria Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva Pinto, Marcos P Silva, Josué de Moraes, Ana Caroline Z Ataíde, Fernanda de Oliveira Silva, Alzira Batista Cecílio, Ademar A Da Silva Filho
Schistosomiasis and herpes diseases represent serious issues to the healthcare systems, infecting a large number of people worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), known as "bardana" and "burdock", is a medicinal plant popularly used for several purposes, including as antiseptic. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of the crude extract of A. lappa, which have not yet been described. Fruits of A. lappa L. were extracted by maceration with ethanol: H2O (96:4 v/v) in order to obtain the hydroalcoholic extract of A...
August 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780191/significant-inhibition-of-tembusu-virus-envelope-and-ns5-gene-using-an-adenovirus-mediated-short-hairpin-rna-delivery-system
#16
Hongzhi Wang, Qiang Feng, Lei Wei, Liling Zhuo, Hao Chen, Youxiang Diao, Yi Tang
Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, which was first isolated in the tropics during the 1970s. Recently, a disease characterized by ovarian haemorrhage and neurological symptoms was observed in ducks in China, which threatens poultry production. However, there is no suitable vaccination strategy or effective antiviral drugs to combat TMUV infections. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a new anti-TMUV therapy. In this study, we report an efficient short hairpin RNA (shRNA) delivery strategy for the inhibition of TMUV production using an adenovirus vector system...
August 3, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776750/generation-of-a-non-transmissive-borna-disease-virus-vector-lacking-both-matrix-and-glycoprotein-genes
#17
Kan Fujino, Yusuke Yamamoto, Takuji Daito, Akiko Makino, Tomoyuki Honda, Keizo Tomonaga
Borna disease virus (BoDV), a prototype of mammalian bornavirus, is a non-segmented, negative strand RNA virus that often causes severe neurological disorders in infected animals, including horses and sheep. Unique among animal RNA viruses, BoDV transcribes and replicates non-cytopathically in the cell nucleus, leading to the establishment of a long-lasting persistent infection. This striking feature of BoDV indicates its potential as an RNA virus vector system. In a previous study, we demonstrated that recombinant BoDV (rBoDV) lacking an envelope glycoprotein (G) gene develops a persistent infection in the transduced cells without loss of the viral genome...
August 4, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776046/jak-inhibitors-modulate-production-of-replication-competent-zika-virus-in-human-hofbauer-trophoblasts-and-neuroblastoma-cells
#18
Christina Gavegnano, Leda C Bassit, Bryan D Cox, Hui-Mien Hsiao, Erica L Johnson, Mehul Suthar, Rana Chakraborty, Raymond F Schinazi
Zika Virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that has been implicated in causing brain deformations, birth defects, and microcephaly in fetuses, and associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Mechanisms responsible for transmission of ZIKV across the placenta to the fetus are incompletely understood. Herein, we define key events modulating infection in clinically relevant cells, including primary placental macrophages (human Hofbauer cells; HC), trophoblasts, and neuroblastoma cells. Consistent with previous findings, HC and trophoblasts are permissive to ZIKV infection...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767697/cyclophilin-a-potentiates-trim5%C3%AE-inhibition-of-hiv-1-nuclear-import-without-promoting-trim5%C3%AE-binding-to-the-viral-capsid
#19
Mallori Burse, Jiong Shi, Christopher Aiken
The host immunophilin cyclophilin A (CypA) binds to the capsid protein (CA) of HIV-1 and regulates its infectivity. Depending on the target cell type, CypA can either promote or inhibit HIV-1 infection. The ability of CypA to promote HIV-1 infection has been extensively studied and linked to several steps in early replication including uncoating, reverse transcription and nuclear import. By contrast, the mechanism by which CypA inhibits infection is less well understood. We investigated the mechanism by which CypA potentiates restriction of HIV-1 by the tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5α)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760649/ribavirin-and-boceprevir-are-able-to-reduce-canine-distemper-virus-growth-in-vitro
#20
Gianvito Lanave, Alessandra Cavalli, Vito Martella, Tommaso Fontana, Ruggero Losappio, Maria Tempesta, Nicola Decaro, Domenico Buonavoglia, Michele Camero
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major infectious disease of dogs. Although vaccines were successful to control CDV spread in canine population, the disease is still common and may pose a threat to unvaccinated dogs. In the attempt to develop specific anti-viral therapeutic tools, the efficacy of several molecules against CDV has been investigated in vitro. In this study the antiviral efficacy in vitro against CDV of ribavirin and boceprevir alone or in combination was evaluated. CDV growth in VERO cells was inhibited by ribavirin, by boceprevir and by a combination of the two molecules at non-cytotoxic concentrations, as evaluated by end-point viral titration in cell monolayers and by quantification of viral RNA using quantitative RT-PCR...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
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