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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728214/p2x-receptor-channels-in-chronic-pain-pathways
#1
REVIEW
Louis-Philippe Bernier, Ariel R Ase, Philippe Séguéla
Chronic pain is a highly prevalent debilitating condition for which treatment options remain limited for many patients. Ionotropic ATP signaling through excitatory and calcium-permeable P2X receptor-channels is now rightfully considered as a critical player in pathological pain generation and maintenance, therefore their selective targeting represents a therapeutic opportunity with promising yet untapped potential. Recent advances in the structural, functional and pharmacological characterization of rodent and human ATP-gated P2X receptor-channels have shed brighter light on the role of specific subtypes in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory, neuropathic or cancer pain...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728207/-female-urethral-diverticulum-with-calculus-formation-imitating-stress-incontinence
#2
Leonidas Karapanos, Daniel Porres, David Pfister, Ilgar Akbarov, Axel Heidenreich, Vahudin Zugor
A female urethral diverticulum (UD) is a rare condition with a prevalence of 0.6 - 4.7 %. Possible aetiologies include chronic infection of the periurethral glands, childbirth trauma, and iatrogenic lesions after urethral manipulation. The main symptoms are recurrent urinary tract infections, post-void dribbling and leakage of urine or purulent discharge by movement, which is caused by the emptying of the diverticular lumen (paradoxical incontinence). As this may imitate stress urinary incontinence, the final diagnosis is a challenge for urologists...
July 20, 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728157/3-d-volume-assessment-of-the-corpus-callosum-and-cerebellar-vermis-using-various-volume-acquisition-and-post-processing-protocols
#3
Veronika Frisova, Martina Srutova, Jon Hyett
OBJECTIVES: To determine which 3-D techniques are most effective for "real time" prenatal ultrasound assessment of the corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis. METHODS: A prospective study involving 100 consecutive normal singleton pregnancies attending routine anomaly scan at 19-23 weeks' gestation. Midsagittal structures of the fetal brain were assessed using six different methods of 3-D image acquisition and three post-processing techniques. The quality of the resulting images were then assessed and scored by a second operator...
July 21, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728117/alzheimer-s-disease-markers-in-the-aged-sheep-ovis-aries
#4
Suzanne J Reid, Natasha E Mckean, Kristen Henty, Erik Portelius, Kaj Blennow, Skye R Rudiger, C Simon Bawden, Renee R Handley, Paul J Verma, Richard L M Faull, Henry J Waldvogel, Henrik Zetterberg, Russell G Snell
This study reports the identification and characterization of markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in aged sheep (Ovis aries) as a preliminary step toward making a genetically modified large animal model of AD. Importantly, the sequences of key proteins involved in AD pathogenesis are highly conserved between sheep and human. The processing of the amyloid-β (Aβ) protein is conserved between sheep and human, and sheep Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratios in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are also very similar to human. In addition, total tau and neurofilament light levels in CSF are comparable with those found in human...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727998/enrichment-of-endogenous-fractalkine-and-anti-inflammatory-cells-via-aptamer-functionalized-hydrogels
#5
Syed Faaiz Enam, Jack R Krieger, Tarun Saxena, Brian E Watts, Claire E Olingy, Edward A Botchwey, Ravi V Bellamkonda
Early recruitment of non-classical monocytes and their macrophage derivatives is associated with augmented tissue repair and improved integration of biomaterial constructs. A promising therapeutic approach to recruit these subpopulations is by elevating local concentrations of chemoattractants such as fractalkine (FKN, CX3CL1). However, delivering recombinant or purified proteins is not ideal due to their short half-lives, suboptimal efficacy, immunogenic potential, batch variabilities, and cost. Here we report an approach to enrich endogenous FKN, obviating the need for delivery of exogenous proteins...
July 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727794/lie-construction-affects-information-storage-under-high-memory-load-condition
#6
Yuqiu Liu, Chunjie Wang, Haibo Jiang, Hongjian He, Feiyan Chen
Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM) resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items) during the deception process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727743/effect-of-depth-information-on-multiple-object-tracking-in-three-dimensions-a-probabilistic-perspective
#7
James R H Cooke, Arjan C Ter Horst, Robert J van Beers, W Pieter Medendorp
Many daily situations require us to track multiple objects and people. This ability has traditionally been investigated in observers tracking objects in a plane. This simplification of reality does not address how observers track objects when targets move in three dimensions. Here, we study how observers track multiple objects in 2D and 3D while manipulating the average speed of the objects and the average distance between them. We show that performance declines as speed increases and distance decreases and that overall tracking accuracy is always higher in 3D than in 2D...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727686/fbxw7-regulates-disc1-stability-via-the-ubiquitin-proteosome-system
#8
K Yalla, C Elliott, J P Day, J Findlay, S Barratt, Z A Hughes, L Wilson, E Whiteley, M Popiolek, Y Li, J Dunlop, R Killick, D R Adams, N J Brandon, M D Houslay, B Hao, G S Baillie
Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a multi-functional scaffolding protein that has been associated with neuropsychiatric disease. The role of DISC1 is to assemble protein complexes that promote neural development and signaling, hence tight control of the concentration of cellular DISC1 in neurons is vital to brain function. Using structural and biochemical techniques, we show for we believe the first time that not only is DISC1 turnover elicited by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) but that it is orchestrated by the F-Box protein, FBXW7...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727442/manipulating-semicrystalline-polymers-in-confinement
#9
Nitin Shingne, Markus Geuss, Thomas Thurn-Albrecht, Hans-Werner Schmidt, Carmen Mijangos, Martin Steinhart, Jaime Martin
Because final properties of nanoscale polymeric structures are largely determined by the solid-state microstructure of the confined polymer, it is imperative not only to understand how the microstructure of polymers develops under nanoscale confinement but also to establish means to manipulate it. Here we present a series of processing strategies, adapted from methods used in bulk polymer processing, that allow to control the solidification of polymer materials confined in the nanopores of anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) templates...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727162/-will-i-want-these-stickers-tomorrow-preschoolers-ability-to-predict-current-and-future-needs
#10
Gema Martin-Ordas
Between 3 and 5 years of age, children develop the ability to plan for their own and others' future needs; however, they have great difficulty predicting future needs that conflict with current ones. Importantly, this ability has only been tested in the domain of physiological states (e.g., thirst). Therefore, it is still an open question whether in a different context preschoolers can disengage from their current needs to secure a different future one. In a Resource Allocation task, 4- and 5-year-olds had to distribute three types of rewards between themselves and another child for either 'right now' or 'tomorrow'...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727022/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-genetics-and-breeding-for-intramuscular-fat-and-oleic-acid-content-in-pigs
#11
J Estany, R Ros-Freixedes, M Tor, R N Pena
The intramuscular fat (IMF) and oleic acid (OL) content have been favorably related to pork quality and human health. This influences the purchasing behavior of consumers and, therefore, also shifts the attention of breeding companies toward whether these traits are included into the breeding goal of the lines producing for high-valued markets. Because IMF and OL are unfavorably associated with lean content, a key economic trait, the real challenge for the industry is not simply to increase IMF and OL, but rather to come up with the right trade-off between them and lean content...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727015/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-molecular-mechanisms-related-to-bovine-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-the-longissimus-muscle
#12
M Baik, H J Kang, S J Park, S W Na, M Piao, S Y Kim, D M Fassah, Y S Moon
The intramuscular fat (IMF) content of the LM, also known as marbling, is particularly important in determining the price of beef in Korea, Japan, and the United States. Deposition of IMF is influenced by both genetic (e.g., breed, gender, and genotype) and nongenetic factors (e.g., castration, nutrition, stressors, animal weight, and age). Castration of bulls markedly increases deposition of IMF, resulting in improved beef quality. Here, we present a comparative gene expression approach between bulls and steers...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727013/changes-in-the-rumen-bacterial-microbiome-of-cattle-exposed-to-ponderosa-pine-needles
#13
K D Welch, C A Stonecipher, D R Gardner, D Cook, J A Pfister
Consumption of ponderosa pine needles, as well as needles and bark from a number of other trees, can cause abortions in cattle. The abortifacient compounds in these trees are labdane resin acids, including isocupressic acid and agathic acid. Previous research has demonstrated that cattle conditioned to pine needles metabolize the labdane resin acids more quickly than naïve cattle. The results from that study indicated that changes had occurred in the rumen of conditioned cattle. Therefore, in this study, the changes that occurred in the rumen bacterial microflora of cattle during exposure to ponderosa pine needles were evaluated...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726763/cloning-and-characterization-of-thshrs-and-thscr-transcription-factors-in-taxodium-hybrid-zhongshanshan-406
#14
Zhiquan Wang, Yunlong Yin, Jianfeng Hua, Wencai Fan, Chaoguang Yu, Lei Xuan, Fangyuan Yu
Among the GRAS family of transcription factors, SHORT ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) are key regulators of the formation of root tissues. In this study, we isolated and characterized two genes encoding SHR proteins and one gene encoding an SCR protein: ThSHR1 (Accession Number MF045148), ThSHR2 (Accession Number MF045149) and ThSCR (Accession Number MF045152) in the adventitious roots of Taxodium hybrid 'Zhongshanshan'. Gene structure analysis indicated that ThSHR1, ThSHR2 and ThSCR are all intron free. Multiple protein sequence alignments showed that each of the corresponding proteins, ThSHR1, ThSHR2 and ThSCR, contained five well-conserved domains: leucine heptad repeat I (LHRI), the VHIID motif, leucine heptad repeat II (LHR II), the PFYRE motif, and the SAW motif...
July 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726588/reconstituting-mouse-lungs-with-conditionally-reprogrammed-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#15
Ryan LaRanger, Jennifer R Peters-Hall, Melissa Coquelin, Busola R Alabi, Chris Chen, Woodring E Wright, Jerry Shay
We developed methods for conditionally reprogramming (CR) primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) to extend their functional life span and permit their differentiation into both upper and lower airway lung epithelium. We also developed a bioreactor to support vascular perfusion and rhythmic breathing of decellularized mouse lungs reconstituted with CR HBECs isolated from patients with and without cystic fibrosis (CF). While conditionally reprogrammed cells only differentiate into an upper airway epithelium after 35 days at the air liquid interface, in reconstituted lungs these cells differentiate into upper airway bronchial epithelium and lower airway alveolar structures after 12 days...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726579/the-immunomodulatory-role-of-bmp-2-on-macrophages-to-accelerate-osteogenesis
#16
Fei Wei, Yinghong Zhou, Jing Wang, Changsheng Liu, Yin Xiao
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is one of the most frequently used osteogenic factors for osteogenesis. Macrophages, acting as both immune cells and osteoclast precursors, have an indispensable functional input during multiple stages of bone healing. This study aims to investigate the immunoregulatory role of BMP-2 on macrophages and the subsequent effects on osteogenesis. In the subcutaneous implantation study, gelatin sponge incorporated with 20 μg/mL BMP-2 rendered significantly enhanced macrophage infiltration compared to the gelatin sponge control...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726525/working-memory-capacity-and-addiction-treatment-outcomes-in-adolescents
#17
Jon M Houck, Sarah W Feldstein Ewing
BACKGROUND: Brief addiction treatments including motivational interviewing (MI) have shown promise with adolescents, but the factors that influence treatment efficacy in this population remain unknown. One candidate is working memory, the ability to hold a fact or thought in mind. This is relevant, as in therapy, a client must maintain and manipulate ideas while working with a clinician. Working memory depends upon brain structures and functions that change markedly during neurodevelopment and that can be negatively impacted by substance use...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726502/spatial-reorientation-decline-in-aging-the-combination-of-geometry-and-landmarks
#18
Alessandro O Caffò, Antonella Lopez, Giuseppina Spano, Silvia Serino, Pietro Cipresso, Fabrizio Stasolla, Michelina Savino, Giulio E Lancioni, Giuseppe Riva, Andrea Bosco
OBJECTIVES: The study is focused on the assessment of reorientation skills in a sample of community-dwelling elderly people, manipulating landmarks and geometric (layout) information. METHOD: A neuropsychological assessment was administered to 286 elderly participants, divided into six groups (healthy controls, HC; four subgroups of participants with mild cognitive impairment, MCI; participants with probable dementia, Prob_D) and tested with the Virtual Reorientation Test (VReoT)...
July 20, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726445/the-hebb-repetition-effect-as-a-laboratory-analogue-of-language-acquisition-learning-three-lists-at-no-cost
#19
Jean Saint-Aubin, Katherine Guérard
The Hebb repetition effect (i.e., the enhanced recall performance for a sequence of items that is repeated during a serial recall experiment) is considered an experimental analogue to language learning. However, although language learning occurs in a context in which multiple verbal sequences are repeated concurrently, the effect of increasing the number of repeated sequences in the Hebb repetition paradigm has received little attention, and previous studies have used tasks that depart considerably from the natural language learning experience...
July 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726333/the-auditory-oddball-paradigm-revised-to-improve-bedside-detection-of-consciousness-in-behaviorally-unresponsive-patients
#20
Dominique Morlet, Perrine Ruby, Nathalie André-Obadia, Catherine Fischer
Active paradigms requiring subjects to engage in a mental task on request have been developed to detect consciousness in behaviorally unresponsive patients. Using auditory ERPs, the active condition consists in orienting patient's attention toward oddball stimuli. In comparison with passive listening, larger P300 in the active condition identifies voluntary processes. However, contrast between these two conditions is usually too weak to be detected at the individual level. To improve test sensitivity, we propose as a control condition to actively divert the subject's attention from the auditory stimuli with a mental imagery task that has been demonstrated to be within the grasp of the targeted patients: navigate in one's home...
July 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
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