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Stephanie C Goodhew, Mark Edwards
When the human brain is confronted with complex and dynamic visual scenes, two pivotal processes are at play: visual attention (the process of selecting certain aspects of the scene for privileged processing) and object individuation (determining what information belongs to a continuing object over time versus what represents two or more distinct objects). Here we examined whether these processes are independent or whether they interact. Object-substitution masking (OSM) has been used as a tool to examine such questions, however, there is controversy surrounding whether OSM reflects object individuation versus substitution processes...
October 17, 2016: Cognition
Barbara Fenesi, Chelsea Mackinnon, Lucia Cheng, Joseph A Kim, Bruce C Wainman
The use of two-dimensional (2D) images is consistently used to prepare anatomy students for handling real specimen. This study examined whether the quality of 2D images is a critical component in anatomy learning. The visual clarity and consistency of 2D anatomical images was systematically manipulated to produce low-quality and high-quality images of the human hand and human eye. On day 0, participants learned about each anatomical specimen from paper booklets using either low-quality or high-quality images, and then completed a comprehension test using either 2D images or three-dimensional (3D) cadaveric specimens...
October 20, 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I Bukrinsky, Paul J Brindley
Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Swann Pichon, Raphael Guex, Patrik Vuilleumier
Unconscious processes are often assumed immune from attention influence. Recent behavioral studies suggest however that the processing of subliminal information can be influenced by temporal attention. To examine the neural mechanisms underlying these effects, we used a stringent masking paradigm together with fMRI to investigate how temporal attention modulates the processing of unseen (masked) faces. Participants performed a gender decision task on a visible neutral target face, preceded by a masked prime face that could vary in gender (same or different than target) and emotion expression (neutral or fearful)...
2016: PloS One
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
The application of physiological measures to conservation monitoring has been gaining momentum and, while a suite of physiological traits are available to ascertain disturbance and condition in wildlife populations, glucocorticoids (i.e., GCs; cortisol and corticosterone) are the most heavily employed. The interpretation of GC levels as sensitive indicators of population change necessitates that GCs and metrics of population persistence are linked. However, the relationship between GCs and fitness may be highly context-dependent, changing direction, or significance, depending on the GC measure, fitness metric, life history stage, or other intrinsic and extrinsic contexts considered...
July 27, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Agnieszka Mika, Heidi E Day, Alexander Martinez, Nicole L Rumian, Benjamin N Greenwood, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Manipulating gut microbes may improve mental health. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds that increase the growth and activity of health- promoting microorganisms, yet few studies have examined how prebiotics affect CNS function. Using an acute inescapable stressor known to produce learned helplessness behaviors such as failure to escape and exaggerated fear, we tested whether early life supplementation of a blend of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX), and the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC) would attenuate behavioral and biological responses to stress later in life...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Amanda McGuire, Kaitlyn Miedema, Joseph R Fauver, Amber Rico, Tawfik Aboellail, Sandra L Quackenbush, Ann Hawkinson, Tony Schountz
Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions...
October 18, 2016: Viruses
M Garg, M Zhan, T T Luu, H Lakhotia, T Klostermann, A Guggenmos, E Goulielmakis
The frequency of electric currents associated with charge carriers moving in the electronic bands of solids determines the speed limit of electronics and thereby that of information and signal processing. The use of light fields to drive electrons promises access to vastly higher frequencies than conventionally used, as electric currents can be induced and manipulated on timescales faster than that of the quantum dephasing of charge carriers in solids. This forms the basis of terahertz (10(12) hertz) electronics in artificial superlattices, and has enabled light-based switches and sampling of currents extending in frequency up to a few hundred terahertz...
October 19, 2016: Nature
Daniel Ben-Eliezer, Eldad Yechiam
Considered an antidepressant and anti-anxiety agent, Hypericum perforatum affects multiple neurotransmitters in a non-competitive synergistic manner, and may have nootropic potential. We quantitatively reviewed the pre-clinical literature to examine if there is a cognitive-enhancing effect of H. perforatum in healthy rodents. Additionally, within these studies, we compared the effects observed in intact rodents versus those whose performance has been impaired, mostly through stress manipulations. The meta-analysis incorporated studies that examined the effect of H...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Linling Zhu, Yu Zhang, Yifeng Liu, Runjv Zhang, Yiqing Wu, Yun Huang, Feng Liu, Meigen Li, Saijun Sun, Lanfeng Xing, Yimin Zhu, Yiyi Chen, Li Xu, Liangbi Zhou, Hefeng Huang, Dan Zhang
This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006-2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhancheng Li, Wenwei Liu, Hua Cheng, Jieying Liu, Shuqi Chen, Jianguo Tian
Optical metasurfaces consisting of single-layer nanostructures have immensely promising applications in wavefront control because they can be used to arbitrarily manipulate wave phase, and polarization. However, anomalous refraction and reflection waves have not yet been simultaneously and asymmetrically generated, and the limited efficiency and bandwidth of pre-existing single-layer metasurfaces hinder their practical applications. Here, a few-layer anisotropic metasurface is presented for simultaneously generating high-efficiency broadband asymmetric anomalous refraction and reflection waves...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
T A Patil, Arno Nierich
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) can be used to identify risk factors such as aortic atherosclerosis [2] before any sort of surgical manipulations involving aorta and its related structures. TEE has become an important noninvasive tool to diagnose acute thoracic aortic pathologies. TEE evaluation of endoleaks helps early detection and immediate corrective interventions. TEE is an invaluable imaging modality in the management of aortic pathology. TEE has to a large extent improved the patient outcomes.
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Annette Vegas
A basic understanding of evolving 3D technology enables the echocardiographer to master the new skills necessary to acquire, manipulate, and interpret 3D datasets. Single button activation of specific 3D imaging modes for both TEE and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) matrix array probes include (a) live, (b) zoom, (c) full volume (FV), and (d) color Doppler FV. Evaluation of regional LV wall motion by RT 3D TEE is based on a change in LV chamber subvolume over time from altered segmental myocardial contractility...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
Tanja Milotić, Stijn Quidé, Thomas Van Loo, Maurice Hoffmann
Dung beetles form an insect group that fulfils important functions in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the world. These include nutrient cycling through dung removal, soil bioturbation, plant growth, secondary seed dispersal and parasite control. We conducted field experiments at two sites in the northern hemisphere temperate region in which dung removal and secondary seed dispersal were assessed. Dung beetles were classified in three functional groups, depending on their size and dung manipulation method: dwellers, large and small tunnelers...
October 19, 2016: Oecologia
Joseph F O'Grady, Laura S Hoelters, Martin T Swain, David C Wilcockson
BACKGROUND: Talitrus saltator is an amphipod crustacean that inhabits the supralittoral zone on sandy beaches in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. T. saltator exhibits endogenous locomotor activity rhythms and time-compensated sun and moon orientation, both of which necessitate at least one chronometric mechanism. Whilst their behaviour is well studied, currently there are no descriptions of the underlying molecular components of a biological clock in this animal, and very few in other crustacean species...
2016: PeerJ
Mariana Moreira Coutinho Arroja, Emma Reid, Christopher McCabe
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) consists of the systemic hormone system, critically involved in regulation and homeostasis of normal physiological functions [i.e. blood pressure (BP), blood volume regulation], and an independent brain RAS, which is involved in the regulation of many functions such as memory, central control of BP and metabolic functions. In general terms, the RAS consists of two opposing axes; the 'classical axis' mediated primarily by Angiotensin II (Ang II), and the 'alternative axis' mediated mainly by Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7))...
2016: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine
Joseph Tseng, Peter Poullos
Fournier's gangrene is a severe polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital, or perianal regions. The classic presentation is severe pain and swelling with systemic signs. Crepitus and cutaneous necrosis are often seen. Characteristic CT findings include subcutaneous gas and inflammatory stranding. Unless treated aggressively, patients can rapidly become septic and die. Factitious Disorder is the falsification of one's own of medical or psychological signs and symptoms. Many deceptive methods have been described, from falsely reporting physical or psychological symptoms, to manipulating lab tests, or even injecting or ingesting foreign substances in order to induce illness...
September 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Olivier Senn, Lorenz Kilchenmann, Richard von Georgi, Claudia Bullerjahn
This study tested the influence of expert performance microtiming on listeners' experience of groove. Two professional rhythm section performances (bass/drums) in swing and funk style were recorded, and the performances' original microtemporal deviations from a regular metronomic grid were scaled to several levels of magnitude. Music expert (n = 79) and non-expert (n = 81) listeners rated the groove qualities of stimuli using a newly developed questionnaire that measures three dimensions of the groove experience (Entrainment, Enjoyment, and the absence of Irritation)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Vinuta V Patil, Bala H Subramanya, N Kiranchand, S Bala Bhaskar, Srinivasalu Dammur
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: C-MAC(®) video laryngoscope (VL) with Macintosh blade has been found to improve Cormack-Lehane (C-L) laryngoscopic view as well as intubating conditions for orotracheal intubation. However, studies done on the performance of C-MAC(®) VL for nasotracheal intubation (NTI) are very few in number. Hence, we compared laryngoscopy and intubating conditions between Macintosh direct laryngoscope and C-MAC(®) VL for NTI. METHODS: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I, II patients, aged 8-18 years, posted for tonsillectomy surgeries under general anaesthesia with NTI were randomised, into two groups...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
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