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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166594/individual-differences-in-processing-emotional-images-after-reading-disgusting-and-neutral-sentences
#1
Alex Hartigan, Anne Richards
The present study examined the extent to which Event Related Potentials (ERPs) evoked by disgusting, threatening and neutral photographic images were influenced by disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity and attentional control following exposure to disgusting information. Emotional cognition was manipulated by instructing participants to remember either disgusting or neutral sentences; participants in both groups then viewed emotional images while ERPs were recorded. Disgust propensity was associated with a reduced Late Positive Potential (LPP) gap between threatening and neutral stimuli (an effect driven by a rise in the LPP for neutral images) but only amongst individuals who were exposed to disgusting sentences...
November 19, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166164/a-physiological-signature-of-the-cost-of-reproduction-associated-with-parental-care
#2
Melinda A Fowler, Tony D Williams
Costs of reproduction are an integral and long-standing component of life-history theory, but we still know relatively little about the specific physiological mechanisms underlying these trade-offs. We experimentally manipulated workload during parental care in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) using attachment of radios and/or wing clipping and assessed measures of workload, current breeding productivity, future fecundity, and survival (local return rate) in relation to treatment. Females with wing clipping and radio attachment paid a clear cost of reproduction compared with all other treatment groups: they had lower future fecundity and lower return rates despite having lower current breeding productivity...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166066/manipulation-of-pauli-spin-blockade-in-double-quantum-dot-systems
#3
WenJie Hou, YuanDong Wang, JianHua Wei, YiJing Yan
Pauli spin blockade (PSB) is a significant physical effect in double quantum dot (DQD) systems. In this paper, we start from the fundamental quantum model of the DQD with the electron-electron interaction being considered and then systematically study the PSB effect in DQD by using a recently developed nonperturbative method, the hierarchical equations of motion approach. By checking the current-voltage and nonequilibrium spectral function features, the physical picture of the PSB is explicitly elucidated. Then, various kinds of manipulation of PSBs are discussed, including gate voltage, exchange interaction, and electron spin resonance...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165659/age-differences-in-the-influence-of-induced-negative-emotion-on-decision-making-the-role-of-emotion-regulation
#4
Xuqun You, Chengting Ju, Mo Wang, Baoshan Zhang, Pei Liu, Nicole Anderson
Objectives: In this study, we hypothesized that there is an age difference in the influence of negative emotion on decision-making and that this age difference is related to emotion regulation strategies. Method: We carried out two studies. In the first, the older and younger adults completed the ultimatum game (UG) while in either an induced negative emotional or a neutral context. In the second, both the older and younger adults completed the UG while in an induced negative emotion while using either emotion reappraisal or expressive suppression to regulate their emotions during the task...
November 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165599/direct-axillary-cannulation-with-open-seldinger-guided-technique-is-it-safe
#5
Davide Carino, Makoto Mori, Philip Y K Pang, Mrinal Singh, Sherif Elkinany, Maryann Tranquilli, Bulat A Ziganshin, John A Elefteriades
OBJECTIVES: Axillary artery cannulation is commonly used in thoracic aortic surgery, often utilizing a sidearm graft. Although our institutional preference is femoral cannulation, we use axillary cannulation in select cases with a 'dirty' aorta on computed tomography scan or intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography. Since 2011, we have routinely used an open Seldinger-guided approach for axillary cannulation. Here, we report our experience with open Seldinger-guided technique, evaluating its safety and efficacy...
November 20, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165363/identification-and-initial-characterization-of-the-effectors-of-an-anther-smut-fungus-and-potential-host-target-proteins
#6
Venkata S Kuppireddy, Vladimir N Uversky, Su San Toh, Ming-Chang Tsai, William C Beckerson, Catarina Cahill, Brittany Carman, Michael H Perlin
(1) Background: Plant pathogenic fungi often display high levels of host specificity and biotrophic fungi; in particular, they must manipulate their hosts to avoid detection and to complete their obligate pathogenic lifecycles. One important strategy of such fungi is the secretion of small proteins that serve as effectors in this process. Microbotryum violaceum is a species complex whose members infect members of the Caryophyllaceae; M. lychnidis-dioicae, a parasite on Silene latifolia, is one of the best studied interactions...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165328/transformation-of-a-thermostable-g-quadruplex-structure-into-dna-duplex-driven-by-reverse-gyrase
#7
Dawei Li, Qiang Wang, Yun Liu, Kun Liu, Qiang Zhuge, Bei Lv
Reverse gyrase is a topoisomerase that can introduce positive supercoils to its substrate DNA. It is demonstrated in our studies that a highly thermal stable G-quadruplex structure in a mini-plasmid DNA was transformed into its duplex conformation after a treatment with reverse gyrase. The structural difference of the topoisomers were verified and analyzed by gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy examination, and endonuclease digestion assays. All evidence suggested that the overwinding structure of positive supercoil could provide a driven force to disintegrate G-quadruplex and reform duplex...
November 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165025/familiar-face-priming-the-role-of-second-order-configuration-and-individual-face-recognition-abilities
#8
Marlena L Itz, Stefan R Schweinberger, Jürgen M Kaufmann
The role of second-order configuration-that is, metric distances between individual features-for familiar face recognition has been the subject of debate. Recent reports suggest that better face recognition abilities coincide with a weaker reliance on shape information for face recognition. We examined contributions of second-order configuration to familiar face repetition priming by manipulating metric distances between facial features. S1 comprised familiar face primes as either: unaltered, with increased or decreased interocular distance, with increased or decreased distance between nose and mouth; or a different familiar face (unprimed)...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164857/modeling-insight-into-battery-electrolyte-electrochemical-stability-and-interfacial-structure
#9
Oleg Borodin, Xiaoming Ren, Jenel Vatamanu, Arthur von Wald Cresce, Jaroslaw Knap, Kang Xu
Electroactive interfaces distinguish electrochemistry from chemistry and enable electrochemical energy devices like batteries, fuel cells, and electric double layer capacitors. In batteries, electrolytes should be either thermodynamically stable at the electrode interfaces or kinetically stable by forming an electronically insulating but ionically conducting interphase. In addition to a traditional optimization of electrolytes by adding cosolvents and sacrificial additives to preferentially reduce or oxidize at the electrode surfaces, knowledge of the local electrolyte composition and structure within the double layer as a function of voltage constitutes the basis of manipulating an interphase and expanding the operating windows of electrochemical devices...
November 22, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164722/experimental-manipulation-reveals-a-trade-off-between-weapons-and-testes
#10
U Somjee, C W Miller, N J Tatarnic, L W Simmons
Theory predicts a trade-off between sexually selected weapons used to secure mates and post-copulatory traits used to maximize fertilization success. However, individuals that have a greater capacity to acquire resources from the environment may invest more in both pre- and post-copulatory traits, and trade-offs may not be readily apparent. Here, we manipulate the phenotype of developing individuals to examine allocation trade-offs between weapons and testes in Mictis profana (Hemiptera: Coreidae), a species where the hind legs are sexually selected weapons used in contests over access to females...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164655/role-of-two-5-aminolevulinic-acid-biosynthetic-pathways-in-heme-and-secondary-metabolite-biosynthesis-in-amycolatopsis-orientalis
#11
Li Zhu, Xiuping Qian, Daijie Chen, Mei Ge
Analysis of the Amycolatopsis orientalis genome revealed that two genes, hemA1 and hemA2, belonging to divergent pathways, were involved in the biosynthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid. The roles of hemA1 and hemA2 were elucidated via genetic manipulation and metabolite analysis. The disruption of hemA1, encoding the glutamyl-tRNA(Glu) reductase of the C5 pathway, was essential for cell growth and is used for heme synthesis. Overexpression of hemA1 resulted in elevated vancomycin and ECO-0501 production in Amycolatopsis orientalis, and it was also effective in increasing the production of daptomycin and natamycin in other Streptomycetes...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164366/contrasting-survival-and-physiological-responses-of-sub-arctic-plant-types-to-extreme-winter-warming-and-nitrogen
#12
Stef Bokhorst, Laura Jaakola, Katja Karppinen, Guro K Edvinsen, Hanne K Mæhre, Jarle W Bjerke
Evergreen plants are more vulnerable than grasses and birch to snow and temperature variability in the sub-Arctic. Most Arctic climate impact studies focus on single factors, such as summer warming, while ecosystems are exposed to changes in all seasons. Through a combination of field and laboratory manipulations, we compared physiological and growth responses of dominant sub-Arctic plant types to midwinter warming events (6 °C for 7 days) in combination with freezing, simulated snow thaw and nitrogen additions...
November 21, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164303/percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-position-position-position
#13
REVIEW
Zhijian Zhao, Junhong Fan, Yang Liu, Jean de la Rosette, Guohua Zeng
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the regular surgery for treating large or complex renal stones. Since its first inception, many variations have come in the approach including the modifications of patient position. The prone position is traditionally used, and subsequently, variations in prone and supine technique have been proposed and assessed over time. In an attempt to provide comprehensive information about the strategy applications of patient's position, the present review describes the position-related general basis, and provides a literature review of the pros and cons of various positions from a surgical and anaesthetic point of view...
November 21, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164154/the-application-of-dextran-sedimentation-as-an-initial-step-in-neutrophil-purification-promotes-their-stimulation-due-to-the-presence-of-monocytes
#14
Alex Quach, Antonio Ferrante
The purification of human neutrophils for in vitro studies is challenging as they are easily activated through ex vivo manipulations. The technique of erythrocyte sedimentation combined with density gradient centrifugation remains widely practiced and was the subject of this study. Since in the sedimentation step the leukocytes are incubated with dextran, we have raised the likelihood that cellular activation would occur with mediator release leading to neutrophil activation. By comparing the activity of neutrophils purified from whole blood by the classical 2-step method of dextran sedimentation followed by low-density Ficoll-Hypaque (1...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163884/magnetic-control-of-cellular-processes-using-biofunctional-nanoparticles
#15
REVIEW
Cornelia Monzel, Chiara Vicario, Jacob Piehler, Mathieu Coppey, Maxime Dahan
Remote control of cellular functions is a key challenge in biomedical research. Only a few tools are currently capable of manipulating cellular events at distance, at spatial and temporal scales matching their naturally active range. A promising approach, often referred to as 'magnetogenetics', is based on the use of magnetic fields, in conjunction with targeted biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles. By triggering molecular stimuli via mechanical, thermal or biochemical perturbations, magnetic actuation constitutes a highly versatile tool with numerous applications in fundamental research as well as exciting prospects in nano- and regenerative medicine...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163669/current-status-and-perspectives-of-genome-editing-technology-for-microalgae
#16
REVIEW
Seungjib Jeon, Jong-Min Lim, Hyung-Gwan Lee, Sung-Eun Shin, Nam Kyu Kang, Youn-Il Park, Hee-Mock Oh, Won-Joong Jeong, Byeong-Ryool Jeong, Yong Keun Chang
Genome editing techniques are critical for manipulating genes not only to investigate their functions in biology but also to improve traits for genetic engineering in biotechnology. Genome editing has been greatly facilitated by engineered nucleases, dubbed molecular scissors, including zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN), TAL effector endonuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced palindromic sequences (CRISPR)/Cas9. In particular, CRISPR/Cas9 has revolutionized genome editing fields with its simplicity, efficiency and accuracy compared to previous nucleases...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163625/genome-wide-association-study-reveals-novel-genes-associated-with-culm-cellulose-content-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#17
Simerjeet Kaur, Xu Zhang, Amita Mohan, Haixiao Dong, Prashant Vikram, Sukhwinder Singh, Zhiwu Zhang, Kulvinder S Gill, Kanwarpal S Dhugga, Jaswinder Singh
Plant cell wall formation is a complex, coordinated and developmentally regulated process. Cellulose is the most dominant constituent of plant cell walls. Because of its paracrystalline structure, cellulose is the main determinant of mechanical strength of plant tissues. As the most abundant polysaccharide on earth, it is also the focus of cellulosic biofuel industry. To reduce culm lodging in wheat and for improved ethanol production, delineation of the variation for stem cellulose content could prove useful...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163607/increasing-leaf-vein-density-via-mutagenesis-in-rice-results-in-an-enhanced-rate-of-photosynthesis-smaller-cell-sizes-and-can-reduce-interveinal-mesophyll-cell-number
#18
Aryo B Feldman, Hei Leung, Marietta Baraoidan, Abigail Elmido-Mabilangan, Irma Canicosa, William P Quick, John Sheehy, Erik H Murchie
Improvements to leaf photosynthetic rates of crops can be achieved by targeted manipulation of individual component processes, such as the activity and properties of RuBisCO or photoprotection. This study shows that simple forward genetic screens of mutant populations can also be used to rapidly generate photosynthesis variants that are useful for breeding. Increasing leaf vein density (concentration of vascular tissue per unit leaf area) has important implications for plant hydraulic properties and assimilate transport...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163569/olive-cultivation-in-the-southern-hemisphere-flowering-water-requirements-and-oil-quality-responses-to-new-crop-environments
#19
REVIEW
Mariela Torres, Pierluigi Pierantozzi, Peter Searles, M Cecilia Rousseaux, Georgina García-Inza, Andrea Miserere, Romina Bodoira, Cibeles Contreras, Damián Maestri
Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a crop well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing in the Mediterranean Basin. Nevertheless, the increasing international demand for olive oil and table olives in the last two decades has led to expansion of olive cultivation in some countries of the southern hemisphere, notably in Argentina, Chile, Perú and Australia. While the percentage of world production represented by these countries is still low, many of the new production regions do not have typical Mediterranean climates, and some are located at subtropical latitudes where there is relatively little information about crop function...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163544/macrophage-autophagy-and-bacterial-infections
#20
REVIEW
Aïcha Bah, Isabelle Vergne
Autophagy is a well-conserved lysosomal degradation pathway that plays key roles in bacterial infections. One of the most studied is probably xenophagy, the selective capture and degradation of intracellular bacteria by lysosomes. However, the impact of autophagy goes beyond xenophagy and involves intensive cross-talks with other host defense mechanisms. In addition, autophagy machinery can have non-canonical functions such as LC3-associated phagocytosis. In this review, we intend to summarize the current knowledge on the many functions of autophagy proteins in cell defenses with a focus on bacteria-macrophage interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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