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Dual energy

Wai-Kay Seto, Yasuhiro Asahina, Todd T Brown, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Carol Stanciu, Dzhamal Abdurakhmanov, Fehmi Tabak, Tuan T Nguyen, Wan-Long Chuang, Tetsuro Inokuma, Fusao Ikeda, Teresa Antonia Santantonio, François Habersetzer, Alnoor Ramji, Audrey H Lau, Vithika Suri, John F Flaherty, Hongyuan Wang, Anuj Gaggar, G Mani Subramanian, Shrikant Mukewar, Maurizia R Brunetto, Scott Fung, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Long-term use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) reduces bone mineral density (BMD). Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a new prodrug of tenofovir, has shown non-inferior efficacy to TDF in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, with improved bone effects at 48 weeks. We performed a randomized trial to evaluate the bone safety of TAF compared with TDF over 2 years, assessing baseline risk factors for bone loss, were evaluated after 2 years of treatment...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Sašo Grozdanov, Koenraad Schalm, Vincenzo Scopelliti
We argue that the gravitational shock wave computation used to extract the scrambling rate in strongly coupled quantum theories with a holographic dual is directly related to probing the system's hydrodynamic sound modes. The information recovered from the shock wave can be reconstructed in terms of purely diffusionlike, linearized gravitational waves at the horizon of a single-sided black hole with specific regularity-enforced imaginary values of frequency and momentum. In two-derivative bulk theories, this horizon "diffusion" can be related to late-time momentum diffusion via a simple relation, which ceases to hold in higher-derivative theories...
June 8, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Akira Hirano, Hiroaki Inoue, Kaoru Ogura, Akinori Hattori, Hiroko Yukawa, Shiho Sakaguchi, Aya Matsuoka, Natsuko Tanaka, Asaka Kodera, Mari Kamimura, Yoshihiko Naritaka, Tadao Shimizu
PURPOSE: Unlike anastrozole, the effect of long-term exemestane (EXE) therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) is still unknown. We assessed changes in BMD from baseline to 5 years of EXE treatment. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer receiving EXE as adjuvant therapy were enrolled in this study. EXE was administered for 5 years. The BMD of the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 years...
June 22, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Ola Belfrage, Magnus Tägil, Martin Sundberg, Uldis Kesteris, Gunnar Flivik
BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonates have previously been shown to increase the density of impacted graft bone. In the present study we hypothesise that bisphosphonates also reduce early stem subsidence. We examined the effect of locally applied bisphosphonate to allografts on prosthetic micromotion and bone density in femoral stem revision with impaction grafting. METHODS: 37 patients were randomised to either clodronate or saline as local adjunct to the morsellised allograft bone...
June 1, 2018: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
Maria R M F Mendonça-Louzeiro, Kleber C Andrade, Daniela A Yela, Cristina L Benetti-Pinto
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) often present with thromboembolic risk factors, such as obesity, hyperandrogenism, and insulin resistance [1]. Furthermore, some PCOS-related metabolic abnormalities represent cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to assess the association between hemostatic parameters and clinical and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of fat distribution in these women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Frans Kauw, Jan W Dankbaar, Jesse Habets, Maarten J M Cramer, Hugo W A M de Jong, Birgitta K Velthuis, L Jaap Kappelle
This case report describes a patient who experienced a recurrent ischemic stroke within 24 h. Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) angiography on admission showed 2 intracardiac thrombi, 1 in the left ventricle and 1 in the left atrial appendage. Following the second ischemic event, repeated DECT angiography showed that the ventricular thrombus had considerably diminished, suggesting that the recurrent brain infarction was caused by cardioembolism. This case emphasizes (1) the potential benefit of cardiac evaluation through CT angiography in the acute stroke setting, and (2) the use of DECT angiography for the detection of thrombus and the differentiation between thrombus, the myocardial wall, and a slow flow of contrast...
May 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
Brad J Schoenfeld, Brett S Nickerson, Colin D Wilborn, Stacie L Urbina, Sara B Hayward, James Krieger, Alan A Aragon, Grant M Tinsley
Schoenfeld, BJ, Nickerson, BS, Wilborn, CD, Urbina, SL, Hayward, SB, Krieger, J, Aragon, AA, and Tinsley, G. Comparison of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance vs. dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for assessing body composition changes after participation in a 10-week resistance training program. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) to determine alterations in total and segmental body composition across a 10-week resistance training (RT) program in comparison with the criterion reference dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jennifer F Hoy, Robyn Richardson, Peter R Ebeling, Jhon Rojas, Nicholas Pocock, Stephen J Kerr, Esteban Martinez, Andrew Carr
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of switching tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or treatment with an intravenous bisphosphonate on bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-positive adults with low bone mass. DESIGN: Two-year, randomised, open-label study at 10 sites in Australia and Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Of 112 adults on TDF-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) screened, 87 with low BMD (T-score < -1.0 at hip or spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and undetectable plasma HIV viral load were randomised to either switch TDF to another active antiretroviral drug or to continue TDF-based ART and receive intravenous zoledronic acid (ZOL) 5 mg annually for 2 years...
June 20, 2018: AIDS
Pedro D M Lourenco, Ryan Rawski, Mohammed F Mohammed, Faisal Khosa, Savvas Nicolaou, Patrick McLaughlin
OBJECTIVE: Sensitivity of CT of the abdomen for detection of acute bowel ischemia (ABI) can be as low as 60%. In this study, we assessed the diagnostic performance of iodine-map and monoenergetic (40-keV) images in patients with suspected ABI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 60 consecutive patients with suspected ABI who underwent a standardized imaging protocol dual-source dual-energy CT (DECT) over a 26-month period. Clinical and operative outcomes were recorded as the reference standard...
June 21, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Shivesh Yadav, Swarup Deb, Kantimay Das Gupta, Subhabrata Dhar
The photo-response properties of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) grown [101[combining macron]0] oriented individual GaN nanowires of the diameter ranging from 30 to 100 nm are investigated under the joint illumination of above and sub-bandgap lights. When illuminated with above-bandgap light, these wires show persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effects with long build-up and decay times. The study reveals the quenching of photoconductivity (PC) upon illumination with an additional sub-bandgap light. PC recovers when the sub-bandgap illumination is withdrawn...
June 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Shahar A Glomski, Jeremy R Wortman, Jennifer W Uyeda, Aaron D Sodickson
PURPOSE: To compare dual-energy CT (DECT) iodine overlay images with renal mass protocol CT in the evaluation of polycystic kidneys with respect to reading time, diagnostic confidence, and detection of renal lesions that are not definitively benign. METHODS: Following IRB approval, portal venous phase dual-source DECT scans performed between September 2013 and February 2016 from 55 patients (mean age 67 ± 15 years, 31 male, 24 female) with polycystic kidneys (4 or more cysts) were included...
June 20, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Philipp Gutsche, Manuel Nieto-Vesperinas
We derive expressions for the scattering, extinction and conversion of the chirality of monochromatic light scattered by bodies which are characterized by a T-matrix. In analogy to the conditions obtained from the conservation of energy, these quantities enable the classification of arbitrary scattering objects due to their full, i.e. either chiral or achiral, electromagnetic response. To this end, we put forward and determine the concepts of duality and breaking of duality symmetry, anti-duality, helicity variation, helicity annhiliation and the breaking of helicity annihilation...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Neslihan Ucuncuoglu, Kurt Warncke
The adenosylcobalamin- (coenzyme B12 ) dependent ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL) plays a key role in aminoethanol metabolism, associated with microbiome homeostasis and Salmonella- and Escherichia coli-induced disease conditions in the human gut. To gain molecular insight into these processes toward development of potential therapeutic targets, reactions of the cryotrapped (S)-2-aminopropanol substrate radical EAL from Salmonella typhimurium are addressed over a temperature (T) range of 220-250 K by using T-step reaction initiation and time-resolved, full-spectrum electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Yanting Xu, Binling Chen, Jun Nie, Guiping Ma
Sluggish kinetics and thermodynamic unfavorability restrict electrocatalysis for energy storage and conversion reactions such as oxygen reduction/evolution and hydrogen evolution reactions. Herein, we report the synthesis and electrochemical performance of novel core-shell nanoparticles@porous carbon microspheres. A unique core-shell architecture of dual-phase FeCo-based nanoparticles@heteroatom-doped carbon microspheres (FeCo@C MS) has been prepared via a two-step carbonization process from a reactive multifunctional core-double shell template...
June 20, 2018: Nanoscale
Yafei Luo, Wuhong Hu, Wei Shen
In this article, the photo-deactivation mechanism of dual emission of a neutral iridium (III) complex is explored by using density function theory (DFT) and time-dependent density function theory (TD-DFT) calculations. To explore the phosphorescence quantum yield of the iridium (III) complex, the radiative decay constant of each emission excited state was computed by TD-DFT calculations, including spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In these calculations, factors such as the transition dipole moments, energy gaps, and SOC elements between the emission states and singlet excited states are taken into account in the evaluation of the radiative decay constants...
June 19, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Qingxia Wu, Dapeng Shi, Tianming Cheng, Hongming Liu, Niuniu Hu, Xiaowan Chang, Ying Guo, Meiyun Wang
OBJECTIVE: To (a) assess the diagnostic performance of material decomposition (MD) water (iodine) images for the evaluation of cervical intervertebral discs (IVDs) in patients who underwent dual-energy head and neck CT angiography (HNCTA) compared with 70-keV images and (b) to explore the correlation of water concentration with the T2 relaxation time of IVDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four consecutive patients who underwent dual-energy HNCTA and cervical spine MRI were studied...
June 19, 2018: European Radiology
Pavel M Marozik, Marija Tamulaitiene, Ema Rudenka, Vidmantas Alekna, Irma Mosse, Alena Rudenka, Volha Samokhovec, Katsiaryna Kobets
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is one of the main mediators of vitamin D biological activity. VDR dysfunction might substantially contribute to development of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). Numerous studies have revealed the effects of several VDR gene variants on osteoporosis risk, although significant variation in different ethnicities have been suggested. The main purpose of this work was to assess the frequency of distribution of VDR genetic variants with established effect and evaluate their haplotype association with the risk of PMO in a cohort of Belarusian and Lithuanian women...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Vivien Ghielmetti, Brigitta Wichert, Simon Rüegg, Diana Frey, Annette Liesegang
Overweight and obesity are multifactorial diseases caused by an imbalance in energy metabolism. An underlying genetic predisposition is often a factor in these conditions. In the cat breeding family of the Institute of Animal Nutrition at the Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, a segregating overweight phenotype with a genetic contribution was observed. From this breeding family, 26 kittens were followed from birth up to 8 months of age. During this time, food intake was measured using an automatic feeding station, and energy expenditure was investigated using indirect calorimetry at the ages of 4 and 6 months...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
E Han, Y-H Lee, B K Kim, J Y Park, D Y Kim, S H Ahn, B-W Lee, E S Kang, B-S Cha, K-H Han, S U Kim
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is significantly associated with the degree of liver fibrosis. This study investigated the influence of sarcopenia on liver fibrosis in individuals with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2011 were analysed. The sarcopenia index (total appendicular skeletal muscle mass [kg]/body mass index [kg/m2 ]) was calculated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was defined as the lowest quintile sarcopenia index value (cut-offs: 0...
June 19, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Hongjuan Fang, Elizabeth Berg, Xiaoguang Cheng, Wei Shen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Abdominal obesity, especially the increase of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is closely associated with increased mortality related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. This review provides an overview of the recent advances for abdominal obesity measurement. RECENT FINDINGS: Compared to simple waist circumference, emerging three-dimensional (3D) body-scanning techniques also measure abdominal volume and shape. Abdominal dimension measures have been implemented in bioelectrical impedance analysis to improve accuracy when estimating VAT...
June 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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