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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691730/differentiation-of-dental-restorative-materials-combining-energy-dispersive-x-ray-fluorescence-spectroscopy-and-post-mortem-ct
#1
Tim Merriam, Rolf Kaufmann, Lars Ebert, Renato Figi, Rolf Erni, Robin Pauer, Till Sieberth
Today, post-mortem computed tomography (CT) is routinely used for forensic identification. Mobile energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy of a dentition is a method of identification that has the potential to be easier and cheaper than CT, although it cannot be used with every dentition. In challenging cases, combining both techniques could facilitate the process of identification and prove to be advantageous over chemical analyses. Nine dental restorative material brands were analyzed using EDXRF spectroscopy...
April 24, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691721/mild-cognitive-impairment-is-associated-with-poor-physical-function-but-not-bone-structure-or-density-in-late-adulthood-findings-from-the-hertfordshire-cohort-study
#2
A Patel, K A Jameson, M H Edwards, K Ward, C R Gale, C Cooper, Elaine M Dennison
This study investigated the association between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and physical function and bone health in older adults. MCI was associated with poor physical performance but not bone mineral density or bone microarchitecture. PURPOSE: Cross-sectional study to investigate the association between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and physical performance, and bone health, in a community-dwelling cohort of older adults. METHODS: Cognitive function of 222 men and 221 women (mean age 75...
April 24, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691347/dxa-imaging-in-nontypical-populations
#3
Dana M Black
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease involving reduced bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue. The use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for evaluating bone mass in geriatric patients is well established. However, radiologic technologists also might conduct DXA examinations on younger adults and children. This article discusses diagnosis of osteoporosis and alternative indications for clinical use of DXA.
March 2018: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690883/gamma-rays-excited-radioluminescence-tomographic-imaging
#4
Xuanxuan Zhang, Shouping Zhu, Yang Li, Yonghua Zhan, Xueli Chen, Fei Kang, Jing Wang, Xu Cao
BACKGROUND: Radionuclide-excited luminescence imaging is an optical radionuclide imaging strategy to reveal the distributions of radioluminescent nanophosphors (RLNPs) inside small animals, which uses radioluminescence emitted from RLNPs when excited by high energy rays such as gamma rays generated during the decay of radiotracers used in clinical nuclear medicine imaging. Currently, there is no report of tomographic imaging based on radioluminescence. METHODS: In this paper, we proposed a gamma rays excited radioluminescence tomography (GRLT) to reveal three-dimensional distributions of RLNPs inside a small animal using radioluminescence through image reconstruction from surface measurements of radioluminescent photons using an inverse algorithm...
April 24, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690714/-comparative-study-on-image-quality-of-third-generation-dual-source-ct-pulmonary-angiography-combined-with-advanced-modeled-iterative-reconstruction
#5
X X Liang, L D Liang, Y Y Zhang, J B Gao, Y G Zhang, X Liu, Q Chi
Objective: To quantitatively evaluate the quality of advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) combined with 70 kVp and linear blending images in low dose dual energy (70 kVp/sn150 kVp) pulmonary angiography. Methods: A total of 74 cases with normal BMI underwent dual-source CT dual-energy pulmonary angiography with small amount of contrast medium (30 ml) from 2015 to 2017 from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were randomly assigned to protocol Ⅰ(100 kVp/sn140 kVp) or protocol Ⅱ(70 kVp/sn150 kVp)...
April 3, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690604/nail-properties-and-bone-health-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Pouya Saeedi, Amin Shavandi, Kim Meredith-Jones
Physicochemical properties of nail may offer valuable insight into the health of bone. Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard technique for evaluating bone health through bone mineral density (BMD). However, only 70% of fractures are explained by low BMD according to DXA. Therefore, the World Health Organisation recommended the need for the development of alternative methods of assessing bone health. Keratin and collagen type I are major proteins in nail and bone, respectively...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689767/effects-of-standardized-quassinoid-rich-eurycoma-longifolia-extract-in-a-rat-model-of-osteoporosis-due-to-testosterone-deficiency-a-densitometric-morphometric-and-biomechanical-study
#7
Putri Ayu Jayusman, Isa Naina Mohamed, Ekram Alias, Sulaiman Md Dom, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia (EL) is a well-known aphrodisiac herb for men. Recently, the crude extract of EL was reported to possess anti-osteoporotic activities. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the bone protective effects of the standardized quassinoid-rich EL extract in testosterone-deficient rat model. METHODS: Ninety-six intact male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into baseline, sham, orchidectomized, and chemically castrated groups...
April 18, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688745/evaluation-of-dual-energy-computed-tomography-iodine-mapping-within-the-myocardial-blood-pool-for-detection-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-correlation-with-histopathologic-findings-in-a-porcine-model
#8
Kai Sun, Ruijuan Han, Ruiping Zhao, Shuancheng Bai, Junyan Wang, Jiang Hu, Bin Lu
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the diagnostic value of "one-step" dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in combination with coronary CT angiography and iodine mapping within the myocardial blood pool in detecting AMI. METHODS: Five minipigs were subjected to transcatheter embolization of coronary artery with a gelatin sponge to induce AMI. Arterial-phase myocardial DECT imaging was carried out 1 h before and 24 h after embolism of the coronary. Color-coded iodine maps were used to evaluate myocardial blood pool deficits in the 17-segment model...
April 24, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688556/dynamics-of-nutrient-utilization-heat-production-and-body-composition-in-broiler-breeder-hens-during-egg-production
#9
Justina V Caldas, Katie Hilton, Nirun Boonsinchai, Judith A England, Andy Mauromoustakos, Craig N Coon
Changes in heat production (HP) and body composition (BC) in modern broiler breeders can provide means to understand nutrient utilization. Twelve Cobb 500 breeders were evaluated 10 times from 26 to 59 wk of age. The same wired caged breeders were moved to respiratory chambers connected to an indirect calorimetry to obtain oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2), HP, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). The same hens were evaluated for BC using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Data were analyzed during light (16 h) and dark (8 h) period using a mixed model to evaluate calorimetry parameters, a factorial design 2 × 10 for normalized calorimetry parameters, and Complete Randomized Design (CRD)-one way ANOVA for BC...
April 24, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687090/sex-difference-in-the-effect-of-fetal-exposure-to-maternal-diabetes-on-insulin-secretion
#10
Jean-François Gautier, Lila Sabrina Fetita, Jean-Pierre Riveline, Fidaa Ibrahim, Raphaël Porcher, Charbel Abi Khalil, Gilberto Velho, Simeon-Pierre Choukem, Samy Hadjadj, Etienne Larger, Ronan Roussel, Philippe Boudou, Michel Marre, Eric Ravussin, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis
We previously showed that fetal exposure to maternal type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with altered glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in adult offspring. Here, we investigated whether this β -cell defect displays a sex dimorphism. Twenty-nine adult nondiabetic offspring of T1D mothers (ODMs) were compared with 29 nondiabetic offspring of T1D fathers. We measured early insulin secretion in response to oral glucose and insulin secretion rate in response to intravenous glucose ramping. Insulin sensitivity and body composition were assessed by a euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685522/rapid-switching-kvp-dual-energy-ct-value-of-reconstructed-dual-energy-ct-images-and-organ-dose-assessment-in-multiphasic-liver-ct-exams
#11
Usman Mahmood, Natally Horvat, Joao Vicente Horvat, Davinia Ryan, Yiming Gao, Gabriella Carollo, Rommel DeOcampo, Richard K Do, Seth Katz, Scott Gerst, C Ross Schmidtlein, Lawrence Dauer, Yusuf Erdi, Lorenzo Mannelli
PURPOSE: Clinical applications of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) have been widely reported; however, the importance of the different image reconstructions and radiation organ dose remains a relevant area of investigation, particularly considering the different commercially available DECT equipment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the image reliability and compare the information content between several image reconstructions in a rapid-switching DECT (rsDECT), and assess radiation organ dose between rsDECT and conventional single-energy computed tomography (SECT) exams...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684108/pituitary-diseases-and-bone
#12
Gherardo Mazziotti, Stefano Frara, Andrea Giustina
Neuroendocrinology of bone is a new area of research based on the evidence that pituitary hormones may directly modulate bone remodeling and metabolism. Skeletal fragility associated with high risk of fractures is a common complication of several pituitary diseases such as hypopituitarism, Cushing disease, acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia. As in other forms of secondary osteoporosis, pituitary diseases generally affect bone quality more than bone quantity and fractures may occur even in the presence of normal or low-normal bone mineral density as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, making difficult the prediction of fractures in these clinical settings...
April 19, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682672/a-salen-al-carbazole-dyad-based-guest-host-assembly-enhancement-of-luminescence-efficiency-via-intramolecular-energy-transfer
#13
Sang Woo Kwak, Hyomin Jin, Heuiseok Shin, Ji Hye Lee, Hyonseok Hwang, Junseong Lee, Min Kim, Yongseog Chung, Youngjo Kim, Kang Mun Lee, Myung Hwan Park
A novel class of salen-Al/carbazole dyads (D1 and D2) was synthesized and fully identified. The emission spectra of the dyads presented intriguing dual-emission patterns via an intramolecular energy transfer (IET) state in solution. Furthermore, the IET feature of the dyads was clearly observed in the rigid state. Interestingly, the emission efficiency of the dyads was enhanced by the significant IET process from the carbazole group to the salen-Al moiety. Particularly, D1 exhibited a nearly three-fold enhanced luminescence efficiency compared to the corresponding mononuclear aluminum complexes (A1)...
April 23, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682551/quantification-of-volumetric-bone-mineral-density-of-proximal-femurs-using-a-two-compartment-model-and-computed-tomography-images
#14
Yan-Lin Liu, Jui-Ting Hsu, Tian-Yu Shih, Dmytro Luzhbin, Chun-Yuan Tu, Jay Wu
Objectives: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is frequently used to measure the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in clinical practice. However, DXA measurements are affected by the bone thickness and the body size and are unable to indicate nonosseous areas within the trabecular bone. This study aims to quantify the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) using computed tomography (CT) images and the two-compartment model (TCM) methods. Methods: The TCM method was proposed and validated by dipotassium phosphate (K2 HPO4 ) phantoms and a standard forearm phantom...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682291/metformin-in-gestational-diabetes-the-offspring-follow-up-mig-tofu-body-composition-and-metabolic-outcomes-at-7-9-years-of-age
#15
Janet A Rowan, Elaine C Rush, Lindsay D Plank, Jun Lu, Victor Obolonkin, Suzette Coat, William M Hague
Objective: To compare body composition and metabolic outcomes at 7-9 years in offspring of women with gestational diabetes (GDM) randomized to metformin (±insulin) or insulin treatment during pregnancy. Research design and methods: Children were assessed at 7 years in Adelaide (n=109/181) and 9 years in Auckland (n=99/396) by anthropometry, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n=92/99) and fasting bloods (n=82/99)...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681582/subchondral-insufficiency-fracture-of-the-femoral-head-in-a-pregnant-woman-with-pre-existing-anorexia-nervosa
#16
Kyoko Kasahara, Tomohiro Mimura, Suzuko Moritani, Taku Kawasaki, Shinji Imai, Shunichiro Tsuji, Fuminori Kimura, Takashi Murakami
Subchondral insufficiency fracture (SIF) is a fragility fracture secondary to osteoporosis that leads to collapse of the femoral head with no evidence of osteonecrosis. SIF of the femoral head has been reported in adults of varying ages and both sexes, but it has never been reported to occur in pregnant women. Herein, we describe a 40-year-old primiparous patient with pre-existing anorexia nervosa who developed SIF of the femoral head in the third trimester. At 29 weeks of gestation, the patient complained of sudden pain on walking in both hips...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681525/site-specific-three-color-labeling-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-via-conjugation-to-uniquely-reactive-cysteines-during-assembly-by-native-chemical-ligation
#17
Taehyung C Lee, Crystal R Moran, Philip A Cistrone, Philip E Dawson, Ashok A Deniz
Single-molecule fluorescence is widely used to study conformational complexity in proteins, and has proven especially valuable with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Protein studies using dual-color single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) are now quite common, but many could benefit from simultaneous measurement of multiple distances through multi-color labeling. Such studies, however, have suffered from limitations in site-specific incorporation of more than two dyes per polypeptide...
April 12, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681438/usefulness-of-reflection-scanning-in-determining-whole-body-composition-in-broadly-built-individuals-using-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry
#18
Andreia V Moço, Catarina N Matias, Diana A Santos, Paulo M Rocha, Cláudia S Minderico, Edilson S Cyrino, Luís B Sardinha, Analiza M Silva
Whole-body composition analysis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires subjects to fit within the width limits of the DXA bed. To overcome this limitation, the aim of this study was to validate a partial scanning technique at which the upper left limb is deliberately left unscanned and measurements are "reflected" from the right-side upper limb. A Hologic Explorer-W densitometer was used in a sample of 189 participants, including athletes and nonathletes, ranging from underweight to obese (body mass index: 17...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680487/spectrum-of-chronic-complications-related-to-silicone-leakage-and-migration
#19
Alexander J Ryu, Katrina N Glazebrook, Naziya Samreen, Philippe R Bauer, Eunhee S Yi, Jay H Ryu
BACKGROUND: Medical silicone is widely used as implants and free injections but the spectrum of complications related to migration or embolization of silicone remains unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 79 patients with silicone migration as confirmed on pathology between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2016. The presenting clinical and imaging features, diagnostic testing, treatment, and outcome were assessed. RESULTS: Nearly all were women and 43% had a history of breast cancer...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680267/oxyntomodulin-analogue-increases-energy-expenditure-via-the-glucagon-receptor
#20
R Scott, J Minnion, T Tan, S R Bloom
The gut hormone oxyntomodulin (OXM) causes weight loss by reducing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. Several analogues are being developed to treat obesity. Exactly how oxyntomodulin works, however, remains controversial. OXM can activate both glucagon and GLP-1 receptors but no specific receptor has been identified. It is thought that the anorectic effect occurs predominantly through GLP-1 receptor activation but, to date, it has not been formally confirmed which receptor is responsible for the increased energy expenditure...
April 19, 2018: Peptides
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