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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641392/alcohol-is-not-protective-against-mortality-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Jennifer S Albrecht, Majid Afshar, Deborah M Stein, Gordon S Smith
Alcohol exposure results in reduced mortality following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in animal models, yet clinical studies reported conflicting results and clinical trials based on proposed mechanisms have been disappointing. Methodological issues common to many of the clinical studies may have contributed to spurious results. Our objective was to evaluate the association between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and in-hospital mortality following TBI, overcoming methodological problems of prior studies. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on individuals treated for isolated TBI at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center between 1997-2012 (n = 1,084)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641383/neuroprotection-in-stroke-the-importance-of-collaboration-and-reproducibility
#2
Ain A Neuhaus, Yvonne Couch, Gina Hadley, Alastair M Buchan
Acute ischaemic stroke accounts for 6.5 million deaths per year, and by 2030 will result in the annual loss of over 200 million disability-adjusted life years globally. There have been considerable recent advances in the gold standard of acute ischaemic stroke treatment, some aspects of which-aspirin to prevent recurrence, and treating patients in specialized stroke wards-are widely applicable. Recanalization of the occluded artery through thrombolysis and/or endovascular thrombectomy is restricted to only a small proportion of patients, due to contra-indications and the costs associated with establishing the infrastructure to deliver these treatments...
June 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641376/height-weight-and-aerobic-fitnessin-relation-to-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation
#3
Casey Crump, Jan Sundquist, Marilyn A Winkleby, Kristina Sundquist
Tall stature or obesity has been associated with higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but reported effects of aerobic fitness have been conflicting. A national cohort study was conducted to examine interactions between height or weight and aerobic fitness among 1,547,478 Swedish military conscripts during 1969-1997 (97-98% of all 18-year-old males) in relation to AF identified from nationwide inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2012 (maximum age 62). Increased height, weight, or aerobic fitness (but not muscular strength) at age 18 was associated with higher AF risk in adulthood...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641374/intergenerational-socioeconomic-mobility-and-adult-depression-the-constances-study
#4
Maria Melchior, Abdelkrim Ziad, Emilie Courtin, Marcel Goldberg, Marie Zins, Judith van der Waerden
Socioeconomic mobility from childhood onwards may predict depression risk in adulthood. Using data from the nationally representative CONSTANCES study in France (2012-2014, n = 67,057), we assessed the relationship between intergenerational socioeconomic mobility and adult depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, > = 16 in men, > = 20 in women) and antidepressant use. Socioeconomic position was ascertained by occupational grade (childhood: maternal and paternal measures prior to age 15 years combined; adult: participant own)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641369/markers-of-inflammation-and-incident-breast-cancer-risk-in-the-women-s-health-study
#5
Deirdre K Tobias, Akintunde O Akinkuolie, Paulette D Chandler, Patrick R Lawler, JoAnn E Manson, Julie E Buring, Paul M Ridker, Lu Wang, I-Min Lee, Samia Mora
Chronic inflammation may be a risk factor for breast cancer development and progression, yet which inflammatory biomarkers and pathways are relevant is unknown. The study included 27,071 Women's Health Study participants (mean, 54.5 years old) free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at enrollment (1992 to 1995) with baseline measures of four inflammatory biomarkers: high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, N-acetyl side-chains of acute phase proteins (GlycA), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641367/annual-crop-yield-variation-child-survival-and-nutrition-among-subsistence-farmers-in-burkina-faso
#6
Kristine Belesova, Antonio Gasparrini, Ali Sié, Rainer Sauerborn, Paul Wilkinson
Whether year to year variation in crop yields affects the nutrition, health, and survival of subsistence farming populations is relevant to the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change. However, the empirical evidence is limited. We examined the association of child survival with inter-annual variation in food crop yield and middle-upper arm circumference (MUAC) in a subsistence farming population of rural Burkina Faso. The study was of 44,616 children < 5 years of age included in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, 1992-2012, whose survival was analysed in relation to the food crop yield in the year of birth (which ranged from 65% to 120% of the period average) and, for a subset of 16,698 children, to MUAC, using shared frailty Cox proportional hazards models...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641361/maternal-alcohol-use-disorder-and-risk-of-child-contact-with-the-justice-system-in-western-australia-a-population-cohort-record-linkage-study
#7
Katherine Hafekost, David Lawrence, Colleen O'Leary, Carol Bower, James Semmens, Stephen R Zubrick
BACKGROUND: Early contact with the justice system is associated with a multitude of negative outcomes across the life course. This includes an increased risk of ongoing justice contact, social disadvantage and marginalization, and mental health and substance use issues. Children whose mothers have an alcohol use disorder may be at risk of early justice system contact, and we sought to quantify this relationship in a Western Australian cohort. METHODS: This population cohort study made use of linked administrative data...
June 22, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641316/a-cancer-geography-paradox-poorer-cancer-outcomes-with-longer-travelling-times-to-healthcare-facilities-despite-prompter-diagnosis-and-treatment-a-data-linkage-study
#8
Melanie Turner, Shona Fielding, Yuhan Ong, Chris Dibben, Zhiqianq Feng, David H Brewster, Corri Black, Amanda Lee, Peter Murchie
BACKGROUND: Rurality and distance from cancer treatment centres have been shown to negatively impact cancer outcomes, but the mechanisms remain obscure. METHODS: We analysed the impact of travel time to key healthcare facilities and mainland/island residency on the cancer diagnostic pathway (treatment within 62 days of referral, and within 31 days of diagnosis) and 1-year mortality using a data-linkage study with 12 339 patients. RESULTS: After controlling for important confounders, mainland patients with more than 60 min of travelling time to their cancer treatment centre ((OR 1...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641305/incidence-of-autoimmune-myasthenia-gravis-in-a-health-maintenance-organization-in-buenos-aires-argentina
#9
Mariela Bettini, Marcelo Chaves, Edgardo Cristiano, Vanina Pagotto, Lucia Perez, Diego Giunta, Marcelo Rugiero
BACKGROUND: Different epidemiological studies, especially in Europe, have estimated the incidence density of myasthenia gravis (MG) to range between 1.7 and 21.3/1,000,000/person-year; however, data from regions such as Latin America are scarce. This study is aimed at estimating the incidence and prevalence of acquired MG in Buenos Aires, Argentina. METHODS: The study population comprised of affiliates of the Italian Hospital Medical Care Program, a prepaid health maintenance organization located in Buenos Aires...
June 23, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641231/association-between-timing-of-intubation-and-outcome-in-critically-ill-patients-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-icon-audit
#10
Philippe R Bauer, Ognjen Gajic, Rahul Nanchal, Rahul Kashyap, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Yasser Sakr, Stephan M Jakob, Bruno François, Xavier Wittebole, Richard G Wunderink, Jean-Louis Vincent
PURPOSE: The optimal timing of endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation remains undefined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a secondary analysis of the large, prospective ICON database, we used a piecewise proportional hazards model to compare outcomes in patients who underwent intubation early (within two days after intensive care unit [ICU] admission) or later. RESULTS: After excluding 5340 patients already intubated on admission or with therapeutic limitation, 4729 patients were analyzed, of whom 4074 never underwent intubation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641219/comparison-of-brand-versus-generic-antiepileptic-drug-adverse-event-reporting-rates-in-the-u-s-food-and-drug-administration-adverse-event-reporting-system-faers
#11
Md Motiur Rahman, Yasser Alatawi, Ning Cheng, Jingjing Qian, Annya V Plotkina, Peggy L Peissig, Richard L Berg, David Page, Richard A Hansen
OBJECTIVE: Despite the cost saving role of generic anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), debate exists as to whether generic substitution of branded AEDs may lead to therapeutic failure and increased toxicity. This study compared adverse event (AE) reporting rates for brand vs. authorized generic (AG) vs. generic AEDs. Since AGs are pharmaceutically identical to brand but perceived as generics, the generic vs. AG comparison minimized potential bias against generics. METHODS: Events reported to the U...
June 13, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641217/the-aggressor-at-the-mirror-psychiatric-correlates-of-deliberate-self-harm-in-male-prison-inmates
#12
N Verdolini, A Murru, L Attademo, R Garinella, I Pacchiarotti, C Del Mar Bonnin, L Samalin, L Pauselli, M Piselli, A Tamantini, R Quartesan, A F Carvalho, E Vieta, A Tortorella
BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) causes important concern in prison inmates as it worsens morbidity and increases the risk for suicide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and correlates of DSH in a large sample of male prisoners. METHODS: A cross-sectional study evaluated male prisoners aged 18+ years. Current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II Disorders and with the Addiction Severity Index-Expanded Version...
April 14, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641204/towards-dosimetry-for-photodynamic-diagnosis-with-the-low-level-dose-of-photosensitizer
#13
Igor Buzalewicz, Iwona Hołowacz, Agnieszka Ulatowska-Jarża, Halina Podbielska
BACKGROUND: Contemporary medicine does not concern the issue of dosimetry in photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) but follows the photosensitizer (PS) producers recommendation. Most preclinical and clinical PDD studies indicate a considerable variation in the possibility of visualization and treatment, as e.g. in case of cervix lesions. Although some of these variations can be caused by the different histological subtypes or various tumor geometries, the issue of varying PS concentration in the tumor tissue volume is definitely an important factor...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641189/qualitative-and-quantitative-simulation-of-androgen-receptor-antagonists-a-case-study-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers
#14
Yang Wu, Wei Shi, Pu Xia, Xiaowei Zhang, Hongxia Yu
Recently, great attention has been paid to the identification and prediction of the androgen disrupting potencies of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). However, few existing models can discriminate active and inactive compounds, which make the quantitative prediction process including the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) technique unreliable. In this study, different grouping methods were investigated and compared for qualitative identification, including molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations (MD)...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641169/association-between-switching-antiepileptic-drug-products-and-healthcare-utilization-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Patrick Kwan, André Palmini
AIMS: There is ongoing concern whether switching between different antiepileptic drug (AED) products may compromise patient care. We systematically reviewed changes in healthcare utilization following AED switch. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (1980-October 2016) for studies that assessed the effect of AED switching in patients with epilepsy on outpatient visits, emergency room visits, hospitalization and hospital stay duration. RESULTS: A total of 14 articles met the inclusion criteria...
June 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641154/serum-albumin-adjusted-glycated-albumin-as-a-better-indicator-of-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-with-short-duration-of-hemodialysis
#16
Takahiro Yajima, Kumiko Yajima, Makoto Hayashi, Hiroshi Takahashi, Keigo Yasuda
AIMS: Serum albumin-adjusted glycated albumin (adjusted GA) is reportedly a better predictor of mortality than GA in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on hemodialysis (HD). We compared how accurately GA and adjusted GA reflected glycemic control in these patients. METHODS: We enrolled 31 patients with T2DM on HD. They were divided into two groups according to duration of HD: ≤6months (short HD group, N=16) and >6months (long HD group, N=15). GA or adjusted GA and parameters of glycemic control obtained by continuous glucose monitoring were measured, and the correlations between these were analyzed...
June 9, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641148/non-suicidal-self-injury-and-suicide-attempts-in-a-new-zealand-birth-cohort
#17
Daniel D L Coppersmith, Shyamala Nada-Raja, Annette L Beautrais
BACKGROUND: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts are related, but distinct behaviors. The primary aim of the current study was to identify factors that distinguish those with different lifetime histories of self-injury. A secondary aim was to test whether lifetime history of self-injury at age 26 predicted current suicide ideation at age 32. METHODS: Participants were 26 year olds from a large birth cohort with a lifetime history of no self-injury (n = 466), a lifetime history of NSSI (n = 191), or a lifetime history of NSSI and a suicide attempt (NSSI+SA; n = 52)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641129/moderate-and-vigorous-physical-activity-patterns-among-marijuana-users-results-from-the-2007-2014-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-surveys
#18
Denise C Vidot, Jordan B Bispo, WayWay M Hlaing, Guillermo Prado, Sarah E Messiah
The relationship between marijuana use and recreational physical activity has yet to be explored in the United States. Our aim was to examine this relationship in a population-based sample of 20-to-59-year olds (N=12,618) using 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Marijuana use was categorized as never (reference group), past (previously but not within the last 30-days), and current (>1day in the last 30-days) use. Current users were further categorized based on frequency of use (light, moderate, and heavy users)...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641071/giving-it-our-best-shot-human-papillomavirus-and-hepatitis-b-virus-immunization-among-refugees-massachusetts-2011-2013
#19
Rachel Stein Berman, Laura Smock, Megan H Bair-Merritt, Jennifer Cochran, Paul L Geltman
INTRODUCTION: The receipt rate of hepatitis B virus vaccine among adolescents in the United States is high, while the receipt rate of human papillomavirus vaccine is low. Rates have not been closely studied among refugees, whose home countries have high rates of disease caused by these viruses. METHODS: We examined human papillomavirus and hepatitis B virus immunization rates among 2,269 refugees aged 9 to 26 years who resettled in Massachusetts from 2011 through 2013...
June 22, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641050/thrifty-females-frisky-males-winter-energetics-of-hibernating-bats-from-a-cold-climate
#20
Zenon J Czenze, Kristin A Jonasson, Craig K R Willis
Mammalian hibernation consists of energy-saving torpor bouts (periods of controlled reduction in body temperature [Tb]) interspersed with brief arousals to normothermic Tb. Frequency and duration of torpor bouts and arousals can affect winter survival and are thought to be influenced by an optimization balancing the energetic benefits of prolonged torpor against the physiological and ecological costs (e.g., accumulation of metabolic wastes). Female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) spend their fat reserves more slowly than males during winter, presumably so they can emerge from hibernation in good condition to initiate pregnancy...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
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