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maternal-fetal interface

Hicham El Costa, Jordi Gouilly, Jean-Michel Mansuy, Qian Chen, Claude Levy, Géraldine Cartron, Francisco Veas, Reem Al-Daccak, Jacques Izopet, Nabila Jabrane-Ferrat
The outbreak of the Zika Virus (ZIKV) and its association with fetal abnormalities have raised worldwide concern. However, the cellular tropism and the mechanisms of ZIKV transmission to the fetus during early pregnancy are still largely unknown. Therefore, we ex vivo modeled the ZIKV transmission at the maternal-fetal interface using organ culture from first trimester pregnancy samples. Here, we provide evidence that ZIKV strain circulating in Brazil infects and damages tissue architecture of the maternal decidua basalis, the fetal placenta and umbilical cord...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Katelyn M Mika, Vincent J Lynch
Variation in female reproductive traits, such as fertility, fecundity, and fecundability, is heritable in humans, but identifying and functionally characterizing genetic variants associated with these traits has been challenging. Here, we explore the functional significance and evolutionary history of a T/C polymorphism of SNP rs2071473, which we have previously shown is an eQTL for TAP2 and significantly associated with fecundability (time to pregnancy). We replicated the association between the rs2071473 genotype and TAP2 expression by using GTEx data and demonstrated that TAP2 is expressed by decidual stromal cells at the maternal-fetal interface...
September 24, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Cristina Faralla, Gabrielle A Rizzuto, David E Lowe, Byoungkwan Kim, Cara Cooke, Lawrence R Shiow, Anna I Bakardjiev
Intrauterine infection is a major detriment for maternal-child health and occurs despite local mechanisms that protect the maternal-fetal interface from a wide variety of pathogens. The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and preterm labor in humans, and serves as a model for placental pathogenesis. Given the unique immunological environment of the maternal-fetal interface we hypothesized that virulence determinants with placental tropism are required for infection of this tissue...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Kenna Degner, Ronald R Magness, Dinesh M Shah
The uterine vasculature undergoes marked changes during pregnancy in order to provide the necessary increase in blood flow to support growth and nutrition of the uterus, placenta, and developing fetus. Pregnancy-associated uterine vascular transformations are orchestrated by a complex array of endocrine and cellular mechanisms to bring about structural modifications at the maternal-fetal interface, which collectively lead to development of the uteroplacental circulation. Understanding intrinsic uterine vascular remodeling in pregnancy is essential for understanding the physiologic and pathophysiologic regulation of maternal uterine blood flow...
October 12, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Serkalem Tadesse, Nicholas G Norwitz, Seth Guller, Felice Arcuri, Paolo Toti, Errol R Norwitz, Dawit Kidane
Preeclampsia (PE) (gestational proteinuric hypertension) is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. Although placental endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are known to contribute to PE, the exact pathological basis for this disorder remains unclear. Previously, we demonstrated that DNA damage at the maternal-fetal interface is more common in the placentas of women with PE than normotensive controls. In this study, we utilized an in vivo comparative study, including 20 preeclamptic women and 8 healthy control subjects, and an in vitro hypoxia/reperfusion model to mimic the effects of oxidative stress at the maternal-fetal interface...
October 5, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Qianlan Yang, Wangsheng Wang, Chao Liu, Yu Wang, Kang Sun
Glucocorticoids are engaged in a number of actions at the feto-maternal interface for the establishment of early pregnancy. However, excessive glucocorticoids can be deleterious to fetal development. Therefore, compartmentalized distribution of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11β-HSD1 and 2), which regenerates and inactivates cortisol respectively, would ensure an optimal cortisol concentration at the feto-maternal interface for the establishment of early gestation. However, the distribution pattern of 11β-HSD1 and 2 at the feto-maternal interface in early human pregnancy is not clearly defined...
October 2016: Placenta
Maria M Mikedis, Karen M Downs
BACKGROUND: PRDM1 is a transcriptional repressor that contributes to primordial germ cell (PGC) development. During early gastrulation, epiblast-derived PRDM1 is thought to be restricted to a lineage-segregated germ line in the allantois. However, given recent findings that PGCs overlap an allantoic progenitor pool that contributes widely to the fetal-umbilical interface, posterior PRDM1 may also contribute to soma. RESULTS: Within the posterior mouse gastrula (Early Streak - 12-s stages, ∼E6...
October 3, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Sevan A Vahanian, Anthony M Vintzileos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Placental implantation abnormalities (PIAs) comprise a large group of disorders associated with significant maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors include prior uterine surgery/myometrial scarring and the presence of placenta previa with or without prior cesarean delivery. Newly identified risk factors include previous prelabor cesarean delivery and previous postpartum hemorrhage. PIAs contribute substantially to preterm birth with prematurity rates ranging from 38 to 82%...
September 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Fabio Morandi, Roberta Rizzo, Enrico Fainardi, Nathalie Rouas-Freiss, Vito Pistoia
HLA-G is a HLA-class Ib molecule with potent immunomodulatory activities, which is expressed in physiological conditions, where modulation of the immune response is required to avoid allograft recognition (i.e., maternal-fetal interface or transplanted patients). However, HLA-G can be expressed de novo at high levels in several pathological conditions, including solid and hematological tumors and during microbial or viral infections, leading to the impairment of the immune response against tumor cells or pathogens, respectively...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Folusho D Adeyinka, Richard A Laven, Gina Denicolo, Kevin E Lawrence, Timothy J Parkinson
The functional surface areas of the feto-maternal unit of the bovine placentomes were quantified from Day 100 to 260 of gestation by using stereology. This study was achieved using intact placentomes obtained from an abattoir. There was no change in volume and surface densities of binucleate cells, fetal trophoblast, fetal and maternal tissues, and maternal epithelium with gestation age, although the total volume of these components increased with gestation age from Day 126 to 260. The total surface area of the feto-maternal interface increased in a similar pattern as the placentomal components without a change in the fetal to maternal tissue ratio when estimated with stereology...
September 9, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Graham J Burton, Abigail L Fowden, Kent L Thornburg
Epidemiological evidence links an individual's susceptibility to chronic disease in adult life to events during their intrauterine phase of development. Biologically this should not be unexpected, for organ systems are at their most plastic when progenitor cells are proliferating and differentiating. Influences operating at this time can permanently affect their structure and functional capacity, and the activity of enzyme systems and endocrine axes. It is now appreciated that such effects lay the foundations for a diverse array of diseases that become manifest many years later, often in response to secondary environmental stressors...
October 2016: Physiological Reviews
Shrey Kohli, Satish Ranjan, Juliane Hoffmann, Muhammed Kashif, Evelyn A Daniel, Moh'd Mohanad Al-Dabet, Fabian Bock, Sumra Nazir, Hanna Huebner, Peter R Mertens, Klaus-Dieter Fischer, Ana C Zenclussen, Stefan Offermanns, Anat Aharon, Benjamin Brenner, Khurrum Shahzad, Matthias Ruebner, Berend Isermann
Preeclampsia (PE) is a placenta-induced inflammatory disease associated with maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying PE remain enigmatic and delivery of the placenta is the only known remedy. PE is associated with coagulation and platelet-activation and increased extracellular vesicles (EV) formation. However, thrombotic occlusion of the placental vascular bed is rarely observed and the mechanistic relevance of EV and platelet-activation remains unknown. Here we show that EV induce a thrombo-inflammatory response specifically in the placenta...
September 2, 2016: Blood
Manalee Vishnu Surve, Anjali Anil, Kshama Ganesh Kamath, Smita Bhutda, Lakshmi Kavitha Sthanam, Arpan Pradhan, Rohit Srivastava, Bhakti Basu, Suryendu Dutta, Shamik Sen, Deepak Modi, Anirban Banerjee
Infection of the genitourinary tract with Group B Streptococcus (GBS), an opportunistic gram positive pathogen, is associated with premature rupture of amniotic membrane and preterm birth. In this work, we demonstrate that GBS produces membrane vesicles (MVs) in a serotype independent manner. These MVs are loaded with virulence factors including extracellular matrix degrading proteases and pore forming toxins. Mice chorio-decidual membranes challenged with MVs ex vivo resulted in extensive collagen degradation leading to loss of stiffness and mechanical weakening...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Yohan Choi, Heewon Seo, Jisoo Han, Inkyu Yoo, Jinyoung Kim, Hakhyun Ka
Many chemokines are present at the maternal-fetal interface and play important roles in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Our study demonstrates that a chemokine, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28 (CCL28), is expressed in the uterine endometrium during early pregnancy in pigs. Thus, we investigated expression of CCL28 and its receptors, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor type 3 (CCR3) and 10 (CCR10), in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy and the function of CCL28 at the maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy...
August 31, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Asako Mori, Hirotaka Nishi, Toru Sasaki, Yuzo Nagamitsu, Rie Kawaguchi, Aikou Okamoto, Masahiko Kuroda, Keiichi Isaka
INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia occurs in the first trimester of placental development and is implicated in the regulation of trophoblast differentiation. Prolonged hypoxic conditions in the placenta are related to the development of preeclampsia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding, single-stranded RNAs that modulate gene expression by targeting messenger RNA. We hypothesized that, under hypoxic conditions, trophoblasts may have a unique miRNA profile that may play a critical role in placental development...
September 2016: Placenta
Tomohiro Arikawa, Shengjun Liao, Hiroki Shimada, Tomoki Inoue, Hiromi Sakata-Haga, Takanori Nakamura, Toshihisa Hatta, Hiroki Shoji
Placental development and trophoblast invasion of the maternal endometrium establish the maternal-fetal interface, which is critical for the developing embryo and fetus. Herein we show that overexpression of Galectin-4 (Gal-4) during trophoblast differentiation inhibited the enlargement of Rcho-1 cells (a model for rat trophoblast differentiation) and promoted cell-cell adhesion, whereas trophoblast specific markers and MMP-9 activity were not affected. In the rat placenta, microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3) protein, an autophagy marker, is highly expressed on the maternal side of the decidua where Gal-4 expression is weak...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jorge R Pasqualini, Gérard S Chetrite
The fetal endocrine system constitutes the earliest system developing in fetal life and operates during all the steps of gestation. Its regulation is in part dependent on the secretion of placental and/or maternal precursors emanating across the feto-maternal interface. Human fetal and placental compartments possess all the enzymatic systems necessary to produce steroid hormones. However, their activities are different and complementary: the fetus is very active in converting acetate into cholesterol, in transforming pregnanes to androstanes, various hydroxylases, sulfotransferases, while all these transformations are absent or very limited in the placenta...
July 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Lucia Funghi, Francesco Damiani, Chih-Feng Yen, Chyi-Long Lee, Annalia Lombardi, Frederick Schatz, Charles J Lockwood, Paola Marcolongo, Felice Petraglia, Felice Arcuri
Glucocorticoids are implicated in successful blastocyst implantation, whereas alterations in glucocorticoid levels are associated with various pregnancy disorders including preeclampsia. Tissue concentration of active glucocorticoids depends on the expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD). This study investigated the contribution of first trimester decidua to glucocorticoid availability at the fetal-maternal interface by assessing the expression and regulation of 11β-HSD in human first trimester decidual tissues and cells and by evaluating 11β-HSD levels in preeclamptic vs...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Chelsie B Steinhauser, McKinsey Landers, Louise Myatt, Robert C Burghardt, Jeffrey L Vallet, Fuller W Bazer, Greg A Johnson
The fetal fluids and uterine flushings of pigs contain higher concentrations of fructose than glucose, but fructose is not detected in maternal blood. Fructose can be synthesized from glucose via enzymes of the polyol pathway, aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD), transported across cell membranes by solute carriers SLC2A5 and SLC2A8, and converted to fructose-1-phosphate by keto-hexokinase (KHK). SLC2A8, SLC2A5, AKR1B1, SORD and KHK mRNAs and proteins were analyzed using qPCR and immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization in endometria and placentae of cyclic and pregnant gilts, cyclic gilts injected with estrogen, and ovariectomized gilts injected with progesterone (P4)...
August 17, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Xiaohua Yang, Ming Li, Maricela Haghiac, Patrick M Catalano, Perrie O'Tierney-Ginn, Sylvie Hauguel-de Mouzon
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Obesity triggers complex inflammatory networks within the innate immune system. During pregnancy, the placenta amplifies the low-grade inflammation through activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling pathways. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of obesity on placental TLR4 expression and inflammatory signals. The secondary aim was to analyse the placental cell type responsible for TLR4 activation. METHODS: Thirty-nine women recruited at term-scheduled Caesarean section were grouped according to their pre-gravid BMI (<25 kg/m(2) and >30 kg/m(2))...
November 2016: Diabetologia
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