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Low molecular weight heparin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339133/antithrombin-iii-binding-site-analysis-of-low-molecular-weight-heparin-fractions
#1
Yin Chen, Jing Zhao, Yanlei Yu, Xinyue Liu, Lei Lin, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are widely used as clinical anticoagulant drugs. LMWHs are heterogeneous and highly negatively charged glycans prepared by chemical or enzymatic depolymerization of unfractionated heparin. The detailed structural analysis of a LMWH is essential for the drug quality control. In this study, a LMWH, enoxaparin sodium (a generic version of Lovenox) was separated to different molecular weights fractions by a Superdex peptide column. The disaccharide compositions, 3-O-sulfo group containing tetrasaccharides composition, and antithrombin III binding affinity of the fractions from this LMWH were analyzed...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330739/patterns-and-outcomes-of-prescribing-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-hospitalized-older-adults-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Mark Goldin, Jessica Cohen, Alex Makhnevich, Colm Mulvany, Meredith Akerman, Liron Sinvani
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Hospitalized, medically ill older adults have increased risk; despite guidelines, data suggest suboptimal pharmacologic prophylaxis rates. Factors influencing provider prescribing non-compliance are unclear. We aimed to describe VTE prophylaxis practices and identify risk factors for, and outcomes of, prescribing non-compliance. A retrospective study was conducted of hospitalized adults aged ≥ 75 years, admitted to the medicine service of a large academic tertiary center from May 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327131/renal-vein-thrombosis-complicating-severe-acute-pyelonephritis-with-renal-abscesses-and-associated-bacteraemia-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli
#3
Stelios F Assimakopoulos, Pantelis Kraniotis, Charalambos Gogos, Markos Marangos
Acute pyelonephritis might be complicated by the formation of renal and perirenal abscesses and very rarely by renal vein thrombosis, which is a life-threatening condition. The main causative agents of acute pyelonephritis are enterobacteriaceae with the incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains increasing worldwide. We present the case of a 71-year-old Greek man with history of diabetes mellitus and recent hospitalization, who suffered from severe pyelonephritis with renal abscesses formation and associated bacteraemia caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, complicated by extensive thrombosis of the ipsilateral renal vein and its branches, protruding also in the inferior venal cava...
January 11, 2018: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326015/ecchymosis-and-or-haematoma-formation-after-prophylactic-administration-of-subcutaneous-enoxaparin-in-the-abdomen-or-arm-of-the-critically-ill-patient
#4
R Jareño-Collado, M M Sánchez-Sánchez, M P Fraile-Gamo, N García-Crespo, S Barba-Aragón, H Bermejo-García, R Sánchez-Izquierdo, E I Sánchez-Muñoz, A López-López, S Arias-Rivera
INTRODUCTION: Ecchymosis and/or haematoma are the most common adverse events after subcutaneous administration of low molecular weight heparin. There is no strong recommendation as to the puncture site. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adverse events, ecchymosis and/or haematoma after the administration of prophylactic subcutaneous enoxaparin in the abdomen vs the arm in the critically ill patient. METHODOLOGY: A randomised, two-arm clinical trial (injection in the abdomen vs the arm), performed between July 2014 and January 2017, in an 18-bed, polyvalent intensive care unit...
January 8, 2018: Enfermería Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325825/-thromboembolic-disease-in-pediatric-oncology
#5
A Theron, C Biron-Andreani, S Haouy, L Saumet, M Saguintah, E Jeziorski, N Sirvent
The survival rate of children with cancer is now close to 80 %, as a result of continuous improvement in diagnostic and treatment procedures. Prevention and treatment of treatment-associated complications is now a major challenge. Thromboembolic venous disease, due to multifactorial pathogenesis, is a frequent complication (up to 40 % asymptomatic thrombosis in children with cancer), responsible for significant morbidity. Predominantly in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, lymphoma, or sarcoma, thromboembolic disease justifies primary prophylaxis in certain populations at risk, whether genetic or environmental...
January 8, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325495/management-of-cancer-associated-venous-thromboembolism-a-case-based-practical-approach
#6
Minna Voigtlaender, Florian Langer
In patients with solid tumours or haematological malignancies, venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of death and significantly contributes to morbidity and healthcare resource utilization. Current practice guidelines recommend long-term anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) as the treatment of choice for cancer-associated VTE, based on clinical trial data showing an overall improved safety and efficacy profile of LMWH compared to vitamin K antagonists. However, several open questions remain, e...
January 12, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324334/rivaroxaban-versus-warfarin-for-the-prevention-of-post-thrombotic-syndrome
#7
K K Utne, A Dahm, H S Wik, L P Jelsness-Jørgensen, P M Sandset, W Ghanima
INTRODUCTION: Despite treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with low molecular weight heparin and warfarin, up to 50% of patients develop post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Our aims were to assess whether treatment of DVT with rivaroxaban would reduce the rate of subsequent PTS and improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as compared to conventional anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)/warfarin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with an objectively confirmed DVT diagnosed between 2011 and 2014 and treated with either rivaroxaban or warfarin were included in this study 24 (±6) months after DVT...
January 8, 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322206/-perioperative-handling-of-anticoagulation
#8
REVIEW
J F Lock, J Wagner, V Luber, U A Dietz, S Lichthardt, N Matthes, K Krajinovic, C-T Germer, S Knop, A Wiegering
A growing number of patients in Germany receive a long-term prophylactic anticoagulation with phenprocoumone or one of the novel direct oral anticoagulants (NOAC), such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban or apixaban. The most common indication for an oral anticoagulant therapy is atrial fibrillation (approximately 75%) where the anticoagulant therapy can reduce the risk for an embolic event, particularly stroke by 60%. Operations carried out during such a therapy can result in major bleeding complications. On the other hand, suspending anticoagulant therapy can lead to an increased risk of thromboembolisms...
January 10, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321641/antiphospholipid-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Karen Schreiber, Savino Sciascia, Philip G de Groot, Katrien Devreese, Soren Jacobsen, Guillermo Ruiz-Irastroza, Jane E Salmon, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Ora Shovman, Beverley J Hunt
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, such as lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies and anti-β2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies. APS can present with a variety of clinical phenotypes, including thrombosis in the veins, arteries and microvasculature as well as obstetrical complications. The pathophysiological hallmark is thrombosis, but other factors such as complement activation might be important. Prevention of thrombotic manifestations associated with APS includes lifestyle changes and, in individuals at high risk, low-dose aspirin...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321061/enoxaparin-attenuates-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-rats-via-interfering-with-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-apoptosis
#10
Reem Ali Shaker, Samer Hassan Abboud, Hayder Chasib Assad, Najah Hadi
BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin (DOX) is commonly used in the treatment of many types of cancers but its cardiotoxicity is limiting its clinical use. Beyond its anticoagulant action, enoxaparin (ENX), a low molecular weight heparin, has been shown to exert multiple pharmacological actions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess if ENX could ameliorate cardiotoxicity induced by DOX. METHODS: Twenty-one adult male Wistar albino rats were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 7 each) of control, receiving 0...
January 10, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316202/anticoagulant-prophylaxis-and-therapy-in-children-current-challenges-and-emerging-issues
#11
Fiona Newall, Brian Branchford, Christoph Male
This review aims to describe the unique challenges of anticoagulant prophylaxis and treatment in children, and to highlight areas for research for improving clinical outcomes of children with thromboembolic disease. The evidence presented demonstrates the challenges of advancing the evidence-base informing optimal management of thromboembolic disease in children. Recent observational studies have identified risk factors of venous thromboembolism in children, but there are few interventional studies assessing the benefit-risk of using thromboprophylaxis in risk-stratified clinical subgroups...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315455/home-versus-in-patient-treatment-for-deep-vein-thrombosis
#12
REVIEW
Richard Othieno, Emmanuel Okpo, Rachel Forster
BACKGROUND: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot blocks blood flow through a vein, which can occur after surgery, after trauma, or when a person has been immobile for a long time. Clots can dislodge and block blood flow to the lungs (pulmonary embolism (PE)), causing death. DVT and PE are known by the term venous thromboembolism (VTE). Heparin (in the form of unfractionated heparin (UFH)) is a blood-thinning drug used during the first three to five days of DVT treatment...
January 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314514/non-immediate-heparin-and-heparinoid-cutaneous-allergic-reactions-a-role-for-fondaparinux
#13
Elina Tan, Grace Thompson, Charlotta Ekstrom, Michaela Lucas
Non-immediate allergic cutaneous reactions to heparins have been increasingly reported, typically manifesting as large, eczematous plaques at sites of subcutaneous injection. Patients may demonstrate cross-reactivity between unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin and semi-synthetic heparinoids, making finding an alternative difficult. Fondaparinux has been identified as a useful alternative in such patients; here we present the first two documented cases in Australia and a literature review.
January 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312856/acute-compartment-syndrome-of-the-thigh-following-hip-replacement-by-anterior-approach-in-a-patient-using-oral-anticoagulants
#14
Dirk Pieter Hogerzeil, Imraan Muradin, Eline W Zwitser, Joris A Jansen
Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the thigh following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a highly uncommon complication and has not yet been reported before with regards to the anterior approach through the anterior supine interval. We present a case of a 69-year-old male patient with a history of stroke, who developed ACS of the thigh after elective THA while using therapeutic low molecular weight heparin as bridging for regular oral anticoagulation. ACS pathogenesis, diagnostic tools, treatment and relevant literature are discussed...
December 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310972/porto-mesenteric-venous-thrombosis-after-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-a-case-report-and-systematic-review-of-the-104-cases
#15
Kerem Karaman, Mehmet Aziret, Ali Bal, Volkan Öter, Metin Ercan, Erdal Birol Bostancı
INTRODUCTION: Porto-mesenteric venous thrombosis (PMVT) is a rare but fatal complication after bariatric surgery. However, an increasing number of PMVT complications have been observed in the last years after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) operations. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old male was admitted to the emergency clinic in a septic status with a sudden once of abdominal pain and vomiting. The patient underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) 15 days ago...
January 5, 2018: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310339/an-unusual-case-of-perforation-of-the-alimentary-canal-following-bigu-a-taoist-fasting-technique
#16
Jun Wang, Jun Jin, Xiaofeng Xue, Yan Hao, Dongrong Li, Shan Xu, Fang Huang
RATIONALE: Bigu is a Taoist fasting technique interpreted as avoiding grains in the Encyclopedia of China. This technique has been used from ancient times to the present day in China and other parts of the world to achieve good health, weight loss, longevity, and even immortality. A variety of health problems have been identified in relation to the severe diet during Bigu. However, perforation of the alimentary canal has not been reported to be associated with Bigu. In the present study, we illustrated an unusual case of perforation of the alimentary canal in relation to Bigu...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303833/alteplase-administration-recommendations-for-inpatients-on-low-molecular-weight-heparin
#17
Sarah L Livesay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303832/alteplase-administration-recommendations-for-inpatients-on-low-molecular-weight-heparin
#18
Jenae Chamberlain, Ann Allison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297975/clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-of-pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-related-hepatic-vein-occlusive-disease
#19
Yuzheng Zhuge, Yi Wang, Feng Zhang, Chengkai Zhu, Wei Zhang, Ming Zhang, Qibin He, Jian Yang, Jian He, Jun Chen, Xiaoping Zou
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation related hepatic vein occlusive disease (HSCT-HVOD) has been researched extensively; however, little is known about the clinical features and treatment of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced HVOD (PA-HVOD). This retrospective single center study examined the clinical and laboratory characteristics of 108 patients with acute PA-HVOD and explored the efficacy of anticoagulation and TIPS therapy. METHODS: The study included 108 consecutive patients with PA-HVOD between July 2008 and June 2016...
January 3, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296764/antiangiogenic-effects-of-decorin-restored-by-unfractionated-low-molecular-weight-and-nonanticoagulant-heparins
#20
Amy K L Chui, Tilini N Gunatillake, Vera Ignjatovic, Paul T Monagle, Padma Murthi, Shaun P Brennecke, John M Whitelock, Joanne M Said
Pregnancies affected by preeclampsia (PE) or fetal growth restriction (FGR) display increases in thrombin generation and reductions in angiogenesis and cell growth. There is significant interest in the potential for low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) to reduce the recurrence of PE and FGR. However, LMWH is associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Therefore, it is of vital importance to determine the exact molecular function of heparins in pregnancy if they are used as therapy for pregnant women. We aimed to determine this using our model for PE/FGR in microvascular endothelial cells...
July 11, 2017: Blood Advances
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