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10,000 steps and mortality

Dzintars Gotham, Joseph Fortunak, Anton Pozniak, Saye Khoo, Graham Cooke, Frederick E Nytko, Andrew Hill
Background: The estimated worldwide annual incidence of MDR-TB is 480 000, representing 5% of TB incidence, but 20% of mortality. Multiple drugs have recently been developed or repurposed for the treatment of MDR-TB. Currently, treatment for MDR-TB costs thousands of dollars per course. Objectives: To estimate generic prices for novel TB drugs that would be achievable given large-scale competitive manufacture. Methods: Prices for linezolid, moxifloxacin and clofazimine were estimated based on per-kilogram prices of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Mira L Katz, Gregory S Young, Barret J Zimmermann, Cathy M Tatum, Electra D Paskett
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is commonly diagnosed in the USA despite screening tests that have decreased CRC incidence and mortality. Finding the best method to identify patient-level screening barriers is important to improve CRC screening rates. A group-randomized trial was conducted among ten primary-care clinics. Clinics were randomized to a multi-level (clinic, provider, patient) CRC screening intervention or usual care (2007-2013). Subsequent to clinic- and provider-level interventions, a three-step, patient-level intervention was conducted...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Badara Cissé, El Hadj Ba, Cheikh Sokhna, Jean Louis NDiaye, Jules F Gomis, Yankhoba Dial, Catherine Pitt, Mouhamed NDiaye, Matthew Cairns, Ernest Faye, Magatte NDiaye, Aminata Lo, Roger Tine, Sylvain Faye, Babacar Faye, Ousmane Sy, Lansana Konate, Ekoue Kouevijdin, Clare Flach, Ousmane Faye, Jean-Francois Trape, Colin Sutherland, Fatou Ba Fall, Pape M Thior, Oumar K Faye, Brian Greenwood, Oumar Gaye, Paul Milligan
BACKGROUND: Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus amodiaquine (AQ), given each month during the transmission season, is recommended for children living in areas of the Sahel where malaria transmission is highly seasonal. The recommendation for SMC is currently limited to children under five years of age, but, in many areas of seasonal transmission, the burden in older children may justify extending this age limit. This study was done to determine the effectiveness of SMC in Senegalese children up to ten years of age...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
Giorgio Cioni, Pierluigi Viale, Stefania Frasson, Francesco Cipollini, Francesco Menichetti, Nicola Petrosillo, Sergio Brunati, Patrizia Spigaglia, Chiara Vismara, Alessandra Bielli, Fabrizio Barbanti, Giancarlo Landini, Grazia Panigada, Gualberto Gussoni, Erminio Bonizzoni, Giovanni Pietro Gesu
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (CD) is a leading cause of diarrhoea among hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate, the optimal diagnostic work-up, and outcome of CD infections (CDI) in Internal Medicine (IM) wards in Italy. METHODS: PRACTICE is an observational prospective study, involving 40 IM Units and evaluating all consecutive patients hospitalized during a 4-month period. CDI were defined in case of diarrhoea when both enzyme immunoassay for GDH, and test for A/B toxin were positive...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ganesh Veerasekar, Krishnan Swaminathan
BACKGROUND: Using technology to track endemic areas of communicable diseases is possible nowadays. Effectual use of such facilities, especially in developing countries, will increase earlier detection of cases as well as aid in the formulation of effective prevention strategies. METHODS: A retrospective data analysis was carried out by collecting the details of patients presented with positive dengue serology, during the outbreak season in the second half of 2012, at Kovai Medical Center and Hospital, Coimbatore, India...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Stephen R Connor, Julia Downing, Joan Marston
CONTEXT: The need for children's palliative care (CPC) globally is unknown. To understand the scope of the need and to advocate to meet it, more accurate estimates are needed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to create an accurate global estimate of the worldwide need for CPC based on a representative sample of countries from all regions of the world and all World Bank income groups. METHODS: This work builds on previously published methods developed by the International Children's Palliative Care Network, United Nations Children's Fund, and World Health Organization and tested in three African countries...
February 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Jens Henrichs, Viki Verfaille, Laura Viester, Myrte Westerneng, Bert Molewijk, Arie Franx, Henriette van der Horst, Judith E Bosmans, Ank de Jonge, Petra Jellema
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a major risk factor for perinatal mortality and morbidity. Thus, there is a compelling need to introduce sensitive measures to detect IUGR fetuses. Routine third trimester ultrasonography is increasingly used to detect IUGR. However, we lack evidence for its clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and information on ethical considerations of additional third trimester ultrasonography. This nationwide stepped wedge cluster-randomized trial examines the (cost-)effectiveness of routine third trimester ultrasonography in reducing severe adverse perinatal outcome through subsequent protocolized management...
October 13, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Changfa Xia, Clare Kahn, Jinfeng Wang, Yilan Liao, Wanqing Chen, Xue Qin Yu
To describe geographical variation in breast cancer mortality over time, we analysed breast cancer mortality data from three retrospective national surveys on causes of death in recent decades in China. We first calculated the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for each of the 31 provinces in mainland China stratified by survey period (1973-1975, 1990-1992 and 2004-2005). To test whether the geographical variation in breast cancer mortality changed over time, we then estimated the rate ratio (RR) for the aggregated data for seven regions and three economic zones using generalized linear models...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Norberto Navarrete, Nelcy Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Burns are one of the most severe traumas that an individual can suffer. The World Health Organization (WHO) affirms that injuries related to burns are a global public health problem mainly in low- and middle-income countries. The first step towards reducing any preventable injury is based on accurate information. In Colombia, the basic epidemiological characteristics of burn injuries are unknown. The objectives were establishing the causes, high-risk populations, mortality rate, and tendencies of burn deaths...
2016: Burns and trauma
Jacqueline R Argamany, Andrew Delgado, Kelly R Reveles
BACKGROUND: Recognition of health disparities in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an initial step toward improved resource utilization and patient health. The purpose of this study was to identify health disparities by black vs. white race among hospitalized adults with CDI in the United States (U.S.) over 10 years. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of the U.S. National Hospital Discharge Surveys from 2001 to 2010. Eligible cases included adults with an ICD-9-CM code for CDI (008...
August 27, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Suzan Sayegh, Mercia Van Der Walt, Mohamed Ghaith Al-Kuwari
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a growing health concern and has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. The Arab region includes countries with some of the world's highest physical inactivity levels, such as Qatar, more specifically the Qatari female population. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the physical activity levels of Qatari national female adults during a 1-year pedometer-based program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 549 Qatari national females aged between 18 years and 64 years were included...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Simone Baldovino, Antoni Montserrat Moliner, Domenica Taruscio, Erica Daina, Dario Roccatello
The European Union defines rare diseases (RDs) as life-threatening or chronically debilitating conditions whose prevalence is less than 5 per 10,000. Moreover, for many RDs, including those of genetic origin, combined efforts are required to reduce morbidity or perinatal and early mortality, and address the considerable decline in an individual's quality of life and socioeconomic potential. Their specificities, i.e., a limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise, make RDs a unique condition which requires wide cooperation at a supranational level...
June 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Henry Löffler-Wirth, Edith Willscher, Peter Ahnert, Kerstin Wirkner, Christoph Engel, Markus Loeffler, Hans Binder
Three-dimensional (3D) whole body scanners are increasingly used as precise measuring tools for the rapid quantification of anthropometric measures in epidemiological studies. We analyzed 3D whole body scanning data of nearly 10,000 participants of a cohort collected from the adult population of Leipzig, one of the largest cities in Eastern Germany. We present a novel approach for the systematic analysis of this data which aims at identifying distinguishable clusters of body shapes called body types. In the first step, our method aggregates body measures provided by the scanner into meta-measures, each representing one relevant dimension of the body shape...
2016: PloS One
Katharine Kripke, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli, Julia Samuelson, Melissa Schnure, Shona Dalal, Timothy Farley, Catherine Hankins, Anne G Thomas, Jason Reed, Peter Stegman, Naomi Bock
BACKGROUND: In 2007, the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) identified 14 priority countries across eastern and southern Africa for scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services. Several years into this effort, we reflect on progress. METHODS: Using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool (DMPPT) 2.1, we assessed age-specific impact, cost-effectiveness, and coverage attributable to circumcisions performed through 2014...
2016: PloS One
Helena Boene, Marianne Vidler, Charfudin Sacoor, Abel Nhama, Ariel Nhacolo, Cassimo Bique, Pedro Alonso, Diane Sawchuck, Rahat Qureshi, Eusébio Macete, Clara Menéndez, Peter von Dadelszen, Esperança Sevene, Khátia Munguambe
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest maternal mortality ratio at 500 deaths per 100,000 live births. In Mozambique maternal mortality is estimated at 249-480 per 100,000 live births and eclampsia is the third leading cause of death. The objective of this study was to describe the community understanding of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, as a crucial step to improve maternal and perinatal health in southern Mozambique. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in Maputo and Gaza Provinces of southern Mozambique...
June 8, 2016: Reproductive Health
Robert L Haddock, David R Olson, Lorraine Backer, Josephine Malilay
We reviewed patient records with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis-also known as urinary tract or kidney stone disease, nephrolithiasis-upon discharge from Guam's sole civilian hospital during 2006 to 2010 and urinary cancer mortality records from the Guam Cancer Registry for 1970 to 2009 to determine the source of municipal water supplied to the patients' residence. The objective was to investigate a possible relationship between the sources of municipal water supplied to Guam villages and the incidence of urolithiasis and urinary cancer...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghaddam, Fatemeh Bakhtari-Aghdam, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi, Hamid Allahverdipour, Saeed Dabagh-Nikookheslat, Roghaiyeh Nourizadeh
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity (PA) has been shown to reduce risk of morbidity and overall mortality. A study has displayed that achieving 10,000 steps/day is associated with important health outcomes and have been used to promote PA. Pedometers are a popular tool for PA interventions in different setting. This study investigated the effects on pedometer-based and self-reported PA among Tabriz University employees. METHODS: This experimental study assessed the effects of 16 weeks pedometer-based workplace intervention...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Lucy Marcil, Kaosar Afsana, Henry B Perry
The processes for implementing effective programs at scale in low-income countries have not been well-documented in the peer-reviewed literature. This article describes the initial steps taken by one such program--the BRAC Manoshi Project, which now reaches a population of 6.9 million. The project has achieved notable increases in facility births and reductions in maternal and neonatal mortality. The focus of the paper is on the initial steps--community engagement, social mapping, and census taking. Community engagement began with (1) engaging local leaders, (2) creating Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health Committees for populations of approximately 10,000 people, (3) responding to advice from the community, (4) social mapping of the community, and (5) census taking...
February 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
N Khakimov, G Khasanova, K Ershova, L Gibadullina, T Vetkina, G Lobisheva, A Chumakova
BACKGROUND: The relevance of the problem of colorectal cancer (CRC) is evident because of extremely high morbidity and mortality rates, associated with this disease. CRC is mostly diagnosed only at very advanced stages. The reduction of mortality can be achieved by the popularization of screening-methods for early identification of CRC and adenomatous polyps of the colon, which are proved to be precancerous condition. Fecal occult blood test is a well-known method of screening for CRC...
2015: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
Paul R Torgerson, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Nicolas Praet, Niko Speybroeck, Arve Lee Willingham, Fumiko Kasuga, Mohammad B Rokni, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Eric M Fèvre, Banchob Sripa, Neyla Gargouri, Thomas Fürst, Christine M Budke, Hélène Carabin, Martyn D Kirk, Frederick J Angulo, Arie Havelaar, Nilanthi de Silva
BACKGROUND: Foodborne diseases are globally important, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Parasitic diseases often result in high burdens of disease in low and middle income countries and are frequently transmitted to humans via contaminated food. This study presents the first estimates of the global and regional human disease burden of 10 helminth diseases and toxoplasmosis that may be attributed to contaminated food. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were abstracted from 16 systematic reviews or similar studies published between 2010 and 2015; from 5 disease data bases accessed in 2015; and from 79 reports, 73 of which have been published since 2000, 4 published between 1995 and 2000 and 2 published in 1986 and 1981...
December 2015: PLoS Medicine
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