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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920011/perceived-racial-ethnic-discrimination-and-mental-health-a-review-and-future-directions-for-social-epidemiology
#1
Anissa I Vines, Julia B Ward, Evette Cordoba, Kristin Z Black
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent literature on racial or ethnic discrimination and mental health was reviewed to assess the current science and identify key areas of emphasis for social epidemiology. Objectives of this review were to: 1) Determine whether there have been advancements in the measurement and analysis of perceived discrimination; 2) Identify the use of theories and/or frameworks in perceived discrimination and mental health research; and 3) Assess the extent to which stress buffers are being considered and evaluated in the existing literature...
June 2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919323/a-systematic-review-of-person-centered-approaches-to-investigating-patterns-of-trauma-exposure
#2
REVIEW
Meaghan L O'Donnell, Ingo Schaefer, Tracey Varker, Dzenana Kartal, David Forbes, Richard A A Bryant, Derrick Silove, Mark Creamer, Alexander McFarlane, Gin Mahli, Kim Felmingham, Miranda Van Hoof, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Angela Nickerson, Zachary Steel
Recent research has found that exposure to traumatic events may occur in certain patterns, rather than randomly. Person-centered analyses, and specifically latent class analysis, is becoming increasingly popular in examining patterns, or 'classes' of trauma exposure. This review aimed to identify whether there are consistent homogeneous subgroups of trauma-exposed individuals, and the relationship between these trauma classes and psychiatric diagnosis. A systematic review of the literature was completed using the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE (PubMed) and PsycINFO...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919116/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-264-causes-of-death-1980-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#3
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917388/improvised-hand-injury-treatment-using-traditional-veterinary-medicine-in-ethiopia
#4
Raf Aerts, Eva J J November, Maissa Rayyan
In remote wilderness environments, local people with traditional knowledge of medicinal plants are potentially important first-line health care providers. We present a case of a 31-year-old man who fell off a horse while trekking through a remote mountain landscape in Ethiopia and sustained blunt force trauma to the hand. A local mountain hut keeper examined the patient's hand and used heated leaves of the succulent plant Kalanchoe petitiana to treat a suspected metacarpal fracture. As first responder in a low-resource setting, the hut keeper relied on his traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine to improvise a treatment for a human injury in a remote mountain environment...
September 13, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916875/traumatic-injuries-to-the-pregnant-patient-a-critical-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
P Petrone, P Jiménez-Morillas, A Axelrad, C P Marini
INTRODUCTION: Trauma during pregnancy is the leading non-obstetrical cause of maternal death and a significant public health burden. This study reviews the most common causes of trauma during pregnancy, morbidity, and mortality, and the impact upon perinatal outcomes associated with trauma, providing a management approach to pregnant trauma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the current literature from January 2006 to July 2016 was performed...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914102/5-httlpr-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-gene-interactions-and-early-adverse-life-events-effect-on-impulsivity-in-suicide-attempters
#6
Luis Jiménez-Treviño, Pilar Alejandra Saiz, Maria Paz García-Portilla, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, Vladimir Carli, Miriam Iosue, Isabelle Jaussent, Jorge López-Castroman, Concepcion Vaquero-Lorenzo, Marco Sarchiapone, Enrique Baca-García, Philippe Courtet, Julio Bobes
OBJECTIVES: An expanding body of research suggests that childhood adverse experiences can lead to different negative health outcomes, including attempted suicide. Serotonergic genes such as the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) have been associated both with impulsivity in suicide attempts and reactivity to environmental stress exposure. BDNF gene may play an epigenetic role. METHODS: We studied the influence of childhood stressful events and 5-HTTLPR genotype on impulsivity measured by Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-10) in a multicentre sample of 1,655 suicide attempters (69...
September 15, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905129/trauma-exposure-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-cohort-of-pregnant-peruvian-women
#7
Elizabeth J Levey, Bizu Gelaye, Karestan Koenen, Qiu-Yue Zhong, Archana Basu, Marta B Rondon, Sixto Sanchez, David C Henderson, Michelle A Williams
Women have a higher prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than men, with a peak during the reproductive years. PTSD during pregnancy adversely impacts maternal and infant health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of antepartum PTSD symptoms in a population of pregnant Peruvian women and to examine the impact of number of traumatic events and type of trauma experienced. The Traumatic Events Questionnaire was used to collect data about traumatic exposures. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) was used to assess PTSD...
September 13, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899769/incidence-and-predictors-of-complications-due-to-urethral-stricture-in-patients-awaiting-urethroplasty
#8
Nathan Y Hoy, David W Chapman, Nicholas Dean, Keith F Rourke
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence and predictors of complications due to urethral stricture in patients awaiting urethroplasty. METHODS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients undergoing urethroplasty from 2009-2013 was performed. The primary outcome was complications, defined as any unplanned interaction with the health care system due to the urethral stricture during the period between decision for surgery and urethroplasty...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899559/emergency-general-surgery-and-trauma-outcomes-from-the-first-consultant-led-service-in-singapore
#9
Sachin Mathur, Woan Wui Lim, Tiong Thye Goo
INTRODUCTION: There is a significant burden on public health systems from emergency surgical and trauma (ESAT) patients. In Western countries, the response has been to separate acute and elective surgery with the creation of a new sub-specialty: acute care surgery. Dedicated acute units have shown improvements in efficiency and clinical outcomes for patients. The aim of this study was to assess the results of the first such unit in Singapore. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of a 12-month period of acute admissions between May 2014 and April 2015, with comparison of 6-months before and after the creation of the ESAT service...
September 5, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899378/prevalence-rates-of-childhood-trauma-in-medical-students-a-systematic-review
#10
Eimear King, Claire Steenson, Ciaran Shannon, Ciaran Mulholland
BACKGROUND: It is known that medical students suffer from high rates of mental health difficulties. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the need to improve support and treatment services for those in difficulty. In order to meet these needs it is important to clarify the relevant aetiological factors. There is robust evidence from general population studies that a history of childhood trauma (including physical and sexual abuse and emotional neglect) predisposes to the subsequent development of mental health difficulties in adult life...
September 12, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899316/road-safety-serious-injuries-remain-a-major-unsolved-problem
#11
Ben Beck, Peter A Cameron, Mark C Fitzgerald, Rodney T Judson, Warwick Teague, Ronan A Lyons, Belinda J Gabbe
OBJECTIVE: To investigate temporal trends in the incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and costs of health loss caused by serious road traffic injury. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective review of data from the population-based Victorian State Trauma Registry and the National Coronial Information System on road traffic-related deaths (pre- and in-hospital) and major trauma (Injury Severity Score > 12) during 2007-2015.Main outcomes and measures: Temporal trends in the incidence of road traffic-related major trauma, mortality, DALYs, and costs of health loss, by road user type...
September 18, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895487/-%C3%A2-like-because-you-are-a-grownup-you-do-not-need-help-experiences-of-transition-from-pediatric-to-adult-care-among-youth-with-perinatal-hiv-infection-their-caregivers-and-health-care-providers-in-the-dominican-republic
#12
María C Pinzón-Iregui, Gladys Ibanez, Consuelo Beck-Sagué, Mina Halpern, Rosa M Mendoza
With the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) worldwide, youth with perinatal HIV infection are increasingly surviving childhood and transitioning to adult care. Although a normal life span is anticipated posttransition, successful transition to adult HIV care has proven difficult, with worse outcomes posttransition than in pediatric and adult care. This study is a qualitative analysis of data from 4 focus groups of pre- and posttransition patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers in the Dominican Republic at an institution that provides comprehensive treatment including ART for HIV-infected persons of all ages...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888692/canadian-study-of-health-and-aging-clinical-frailty-scale-does-it-predict-adverse-outcomes-among-geriatric-trauma-patients
#13
Annie Cheung, Barbara Haas, Thom J Ringer, Amanda McFarlan, Camilla L Wong
BACKGROUND: The Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) and the laboratory Frailty Index (FI-lab) are validated tools based on clinical and laboratory data, respectively. Their utility as predictors of geriatric trauma outcomes is unknown. Our primary objective was to determine whether pre-admission CFS is associated with adverse discharge destination. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the relationships between CFS and in-hospital complications and between admission FI-lab and discharge destination...
September 6, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882488/association-between-serum-periostin-concentrations-and-outcome-after-acute-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#14
Wen-Jian Ji, Xiao-Min Chou, Gang-Qun Wu, Yang-Fang Shen, Xiao-Gang Yang, Zhi-Feng Wang, Luo-Xin Lan, Xu-Gang Shi
BACKGROUND: Higher serum periostin concentrations are associated with mortality after head trauma. We further determined the relationship between periostin concentrations, severity, and clinical outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: We prospectively included 128 controls and 128 consecutive patients with acute ICH within the first 24h after onset. At admission, we measured serum periostin concentrations. RESULTS: Serum periostin concentrations were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls...
September 4, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882361/relation-between-parental-psychopathology-and-posttraumatic-growth-after-a-child-s-admission-to-intensive-care-two-faces-of-the-same-coin
#15
Rocío Rodríguez-Rey, Jesús Alonso-Tapia
OBJECTIVES: Confronted with the potentially traumatic experience of a child's admission to a paediatric intensive care unit, parents may experience psychopathological post-trauma symptoms as well as posttraumatic growth. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relation between psychopathology symptoms, namely, posttraumatic stress disorder), anxiety and depression, as well as post traumatic growth in parents following their child's hospitalisation in a paediatric intensive care unit...
September 4, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882073/qualitative-research-methods-to-advance-research-on-health-inequities-among-previously-incarcerated-women-living-with-hiv-in-alabama
#16
Courtenay Sprague, Michael L Scanlon, David W Pantalone
Justice-involved HIV-positive women have poor health outcomes that constitute health inequities. Researchers have yet to embrace the range of qualitative methods to elucidate how psychosocial histories are connected to pathways of vulnerability to HIV and incarceration for this key population. We used life course narratives and intersubjectivity-predicated on interview dialogue-to investigate how familial and social settings established their social patterning of HIV, incarceration risk, and poor health. Working with two Alabama community-based organizations, we recruited and interviewed 24 HIV-positive cisgender women with cyclical incarceration...
September 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877699/honoring-the-voices-of-bereaved-caregivers-a-metasummary-of-qualitative-research
#17
Lorraine Holtslander, Sharon Baxter, Kelly Mills, Sarah Bocking, Tina Dadgostari, Wendy Duggleby, Vicky Duncan, Peter Hudson, Agatha Ogunkorode, Shelley Peacock
BACKGROUND: Family caregiving in the context of advanced disease in particular, can be physically and emotionally taxing. Caregivers can subsequently face bereavement exhausted with few supports, limited resources and a significant proportion will develop negative psychological and social outcomes. Although some research has attended to the bereavement experiences of family caregivers who had cared for a person requiring palliative care, a comprehensive qualitative understanding of the impact of caregiving on bereavement has not been articulated...
September 6, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877603/the-use-of-psychosocial-services-post-hand-and-upper-limb-injury-and-trauma-a-pilot-study
#18
Gregory Chown, Mary Beckwold, Heather Chernosky, Jonathan Lozoskie, Allison Yerkes
BACKGROUND: Research demonstrates that hand injuries may cause psychological difficulties. To enhance recovery, therapists must provide appropriate referrals. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of psychosocial services by occupational therapists (OTs) and certified hand therapists (CHTs) post hand and upper limb injury or trauma. METHODS: A quantitative survey design was implemented using a self-made questionnaire, which consisted of questions regarding demographic information, types and frequency of hand and upper limb injuries, psychiatric diagnoses, frequency of psychosocial service referrals, frames of references used, types of psychosocial assessments and interventions employed, and barriers to psychosocial services...
September 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876672/civilian-gunshot-wounds-to-the-chest-a-clinicopathological-analysis-of-an-annual-caseload-at-a-level-1-trauma-centre
#19
V M Meijering, A T Hattam, P H Navsaria, A J Nicol, S Edu
BACKGROUND: Gunshot wounds (GSW) to the chest are common presentations to trauma centres in South Africa. The clinical management and outcome of GSW to the chest are significantly altered by missile trajectory and the associated anatomical structures injured making them challenging injuries to treat. Currently, the management of GSW chest is based on scant evidence and treatment is typically according to algorithms based largely on the anecdotal experience of high volume institutions and experienced clinicians...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876670/foley-catheter-balloon-tamponade-fcbt-for-penetrating-neck-injuries-pni-at-groote-schuur-hospital-an-update
#20
M F Scriba, P H Navsaria, A J Nicol, S Edu, A Al-Sayari
BACKGROUND: A previous study from Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH) highlighted the success of FCBT (PNI). METHOD: The records of all patients with PNI requiring FCBT for a neck injury presenting to GSH within an 11-month study period were reviewed. Prospectively captured data on the Electronic Trauma Health Record Application (eTHRApp), was retrospectively analysed. Analysed data included demographics, clinical signs on admission, imaging, management and major outcomes...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
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