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Nagarathnamma Chaudhry, Corinne Bachelin, Violetta Zujovic, Melissa Hilaire, Katherine T Baldwin, Rose M Follis, Roman Giger, Bruce D Carter, Anne Baron-Van Evercooren, Marie T Filbin
Remyelination of CNS axons by Schwann cells (SCs) is not efficient, in part due to the poor migration of SCs into the adult CNS. Although it is known that migrating SCs avoid white matter tracts, the molecular mechanisms underlying this exclusion have never been elucidated. We now demonstrate that myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a well known inhibitor of neurite outgrowth, inhibits rat SC migration and induces their death via γ-secretase-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (also known as p75 cleavage)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Giuseppe Migliara, Martin Mueller, Alessia Piermattei, Chaya Brodie, Michael J Paidas, Eytan R Barnea, Francesco Ria
Neurologic disease diagnosis and treatment is challenging. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease with few clinical forms and uncertain etiology. Current studies suggest that it is likely caused by infection(s) triggering a systemic immune response resulting in antigen/non-antigen-related autoimmune response in central nervous system (CNS). New therapeutic approaches are needed. Secreted by viable embryos, PreImplantation Factor (PIF) possesses a local and systemic immunity regulatory role...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
Yvonne Dombrowski, Thomas O'Hagan, Marie Dittmer, Rosana Penalva, Sonia R Mayoral, Peter Bankhead, Samara Fleville, George Eleftheriadis, Chao Zhao, Michelle Naughton, Rachel Hassan, Jill Moffat, John Falconer, Amanda Boyd, Peter Hamilton, Ingrid V Allen, Adrien Kissenpfennig, Paul N Moynagh, Emma Evergren, Bernard Perbal, Anna C Williams, Rebecca J Ingram, Jonah R Chan, Robin J M Franklin, Denise C Fitzgerald
Regeneration of CNS myelin involves differentiation of oligodendrocytes from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. In multiple sclerosis, remyelination can fail despite abundant oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, suggesting impairment of oligodendrocyte differentiation. T cells infiltrate the CNS in multiple sclerosis, yet little is known about T cell functions in remyelination. We report that regulatory T cells (Treg) promote oligodendrocyte differentiation and (re)myelination. Treg-deficient mice exhibited substantially impaired remyelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation, which was rescued by adoptive transfer of Treg...
May 2017: Nature Neuroscience
Nathaly Espitia Pinzon, Berta Sanz-Morello, John J P Brevé, John G J M Bol, Benjamin Drukarch, Jan Bauer, Wia Baron, Anne-Marie van Dam
Astrogliosis as seen in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) develops into astroglial scarring, which is beneficial because it seals off the site of central nervous system (CNS) damage. However, astroglial scarring also forms an obstacle that inhibits axon outgrowth and (re)myelination in brain lesions. This is possibly an important cause for incomplete remyelination in the CNS of early stage MS patients and for failure in remyelination when the disease progresses. In this study we address whether under demyelinating conditions in vivo, tissue Transglutaminase (TG2), a Ca(2+) -dependent enzyme that catalyses posttranslational modification of proteins, contributes to extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and/or aggregation...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Adriana Octaviana Dulamea
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS) during development and throughout adulthood. They result from a complex and well controlled process of activation, proliferation, migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) from the germinative niches of the CNS. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the complex pathological process produces dysfunction and apoptosis of OLs leading to demyelination and neurodegeneration. This review attempts to describe the patterns of demyelination in MS, the steps involved in oligodendrogenesis and myelination in healthy CNS, the different pathways leading to OLs and myelin loss in MS, as well as principles involved in restoration of myelin sheaths...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sheridan L Roberts, Xin-Peng Dun, Gemma Dee, Bethany Gray, Thomas Mindos, David B Parkinson
Myelination in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is controlled by both positive and negative regulators within Schwann cells to ensure timely onset and correct myelin thickness for saltatory conduction by neurons. Transcription factors such as Sox10, octamer-binding transcription factor 6 (Oct6) and Krox20 form a positive regulatory network, whereas negative regulators such as cJun and Sox2 oppose myelination in Schwann cells. The role of the p38 MAPK pathway has been studied in PNS myelination, but its precise function remains unclear, with both positive and negative effects of p38 activity reported upon both myelination and processes of nerve repair...
April 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
Filip Petković, Iain L Campbell, Berta Gonzalez, Bernardo Castellano
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a potential role in MS. Here we used transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of IL-6 (GFAP-IL6Tg) to study the effect of IL-6 in the cuprizone-induced demyelination paradigm, which is an experimental model of de- and re-myelination, both hallmarks of MS. Our results demonstrated that cuprizone-treated GFAP-IL6Tg mice showed a significant reduction in astroglial and especially microglial activation/accumulation in the corpus callosum in comparison with the corresponding cuprizone-treated wild type (WT)...
August 18, 2016: Glia
Alexander Klistorner, Chenyu Wang, Vera Fofanova, Michael H Barnett, Con Yiannikas, John Parratt, Yuyi You, Stuart L Graham
BACKGROUND: Radial Diffusivity (RD) has been suggested as a promising biomarker associated with the level of myelination in MS lesions. However, the level of RD within the lesion is affected not only by loss of myelin sheaths, but also by the degree of tissue destruction. This may lead to exaggeration of diffusivity measures, potentially masking the effect of remyelination. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the T2 hyperintense lesion edge that extends beyond the T1 hypointense lesion core is less affected by tissue loss, and therefore a more appropriate target for imaging biomarker development targeting de- and re-myelination...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Héctor R Quintá, Carlos Wilson, Ada G Blidner, Christian González-Billault, Laura A Pasquini, Gabriel A Rabinovich, Juana M Pasquini
UNLABELLED: Axonal growth cone collapse following spinal cord injury (SCI) is promoted by semaphorin3A (Sema3A) signaling via PlexinA4 surface receptor. This interaction triggers intracellular signaling events leading to increased hydrogen peroxide levels which in turn promote filamentous actin (F-actin) destabilization and subsequent inhibition of axonal re-growth. In the current study, we demonstrated that treatment with galectin-1 (Gal-1), in its dimeric form, promotes a decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels and F-actin repolimerization in the growth cone and in the filopodium of neuron surfaces...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
Jiasi Li, Lei Zhang, Yongxin Chu, Michael Namaka, Benqiang Deng, Jiming Kong, Xiaoying Bi
White matter is primarily composed of myelin and myelinated axons. Structural and functional completeness of myelin is critical for the reliable and efficient transmission of information. White matter injury has been associated with the development of many demyelinating diseases. Despite a variety of scientific advances aimed at promoting re-myelination, their benefit has proven at best to be marginal. Research suggests that the failure of the re-myelination process may be the result of an unfavorable microenvironment...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Alexander Schulz, Robert Büttner, Christian Hagel, Stephan L Baader, Lan Kluwe, Johannes Salamon, Victor-Felix Mautner, Thomas Mindos, David B Parkinson, Jeffrey R Gehlhausen, D Wade Clapp, Helen Morrison
Schwannomas are predominantly benign nerve sheath neoplasms caused by Nf2 gene inactivation. Presently, treatment options are mainly limited to surgical tumor resection due to the lack of effective pharmacological drugs. Although the mechanistic understanding of Nf2 gene function has advanced, it has so far been primarily restricted to Schwann cell-intrinsic events. Extracellular cues determining Schwann cell behavior with regard to schwannoma development remain unknown. Here we show pro-tumourigenic microenvironmental effects on Schwann cells where an altered axonal microenvironment in cooperation with injury signals contribute to a persistent regenerative Schwann cell response promoting schwannoma development...
August 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Marta Parrilla, Fernando León-Lobera, Concepción Lillo, Rosario Arévalo, José Aijón, Juan Manuel Lara, Almudena Velasco
The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve...
2016: PloS One
Natalie A Wheeler, Babette Fuss
There is an increasing number of neurologic disorders found to be associated with loss and/or dysfunction of the CNS myelin sheath, ranging from the classic demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis, through CNS injury, to neuropsychiatric diseases. The disabling burden of these diseases has sparked a growing interest in gaining a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the differentiation of the myelinating cells of the CNS, oligodendrocytes (OLGs), and the process of (re)myelination. In this context, the importance of the extracellular milieu is becoming increasingly recognized...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
Tamjeed A Siddiqui, Starlee Lively, Lyanne C Schlichter
BACKGROUND: Microglia are the "professional" phagocytes of the CNS. Phagocytosis is crucial for normal CNS development and maintenance, but it can be either beneficial or detrimental after injury or disease. For instance, white matter damage releases myelin debris that must be cleared by microglia in order for re-myelination to occur. However, phagocytosis can also produce damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, microglia can acquire pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) activation states that affect cell functions...
March 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Stephanie Dooves, Marjo S van der Knaap, Vivi M Heine
White matter disorders (WMDs) are a major source of handicap at all ages. They often lead to progressive neurological dysfunction and early death. Although causes are highly diverse, WMDs share the property that glia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) are among the cells primarily affected, and that myelin is either not formed or lost. Many WMDs might benefit from cell replacement therapies. Successful preclinical studies in rodent models have already led to the first clinical trials in humans using glial or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells aiming at (re)myelination...
July 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Hye-Lan Lee, Hye Yeong Lee, Yeomin Yun, Jinsoo Oh, Lihua Che, Minhyung Lee, Yoon Ha
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic cytokine that stimulates the differentiation and function of vascular endothelial cells. VEGF has been implicated in improving nervous system function after injury. However, uncontrolled overexpression of VEGF increases the risk of tumor formation at the site of gene delivery. For this reason, VEGF expression needs to be strictly controlled. The goal of the present study was to understand the effects of hypoxia-induced gene expression system to control VEGF gene expression in neural stem cells (NSCs) on the regeneration of neural tissue after sciatic nerve injury...
March 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Michael J E Joseph, Jayalakshmi Caliaperumal, Lyanne C Schlichter
Damage to myelinated axons contributes to neurological deficits after acute CNS injury, including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Potential treatments to promote re-myelination will require fully differentiated oligodendrocytes, but almost nothing is known about their fate following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Using a rat model of ICH in the striatum, we quantified survival, proliferation, and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) (at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days) in the peri-hematoma region, surrounding striatum, and contralateral striatum...
June 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Yin-da Tang, Xue-sheng Zheng, Ting-ting Ying, Yan Yuan, Shi-ting Li
This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of nimodipine-mediated neural repair after facial nerve crush injury in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: healthy controls, surgery alone, and surgery plus nimodipine. A facial nerve crush injury model was constructed. Immediately after surgery, the rats in the surgery plus nimodipine group were administered nimodipine, 6 mg/kg/day, for a variable numbers of days. The animals underwent electromyography (EMG) before surgery and at 3, 10, or 20 days after surgery...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Kristina Candido, Henry Soufi, Mausumi Bandyopadhyay, Subhajit Dasgupta
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a female predominant autoimmune demyelinating disease of central nervous system. The proper etiology is not clear. The existing therapies with interferon beta (Betaseron, Rebif), glatiramer acetate (copolymer 1, copaxone) are found to be promising for MS patients. The alpha-4 integrin antagonist monoclonal antibody Natalizumab has been found to decrease brain inflammation in relapsing-remitting MS via inhibition of alpha-4 beta- 1 integrinmediated mode of action of antigen -primed T cells to enter into central nervous system through blood brain barrier...
2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Elisabeth A Kappos, Patricia E Engels, Mathias Tremp, Moritz Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Pietro di Summa, Arne Fischmann, Stefanie von Felten, Arnaud Scherberich, Dirk J Schaefer, Daniel F Kalbermatten
Tissue engineering is a popular topic in peripheral nerve repair. Combining a nerve conduit with supporting adipose-derived cells could offer an opportunity to prevent time-consuming Schwann cell culture or the use of an autograft with its donor site morbidity and eventually improve clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to provide a broad overview over promising transplantable cells under equal experimental conditions over a long-term period. A 10-mm gap in the sciatic nerve of female Sprague-Dawley rats (7 groups of 7 animals, 8 weeks old) was bridged through a biodegradable fibrin conduit filled with rat adipose-derived stem cells (rASCs), differentiated rASCs (drASCs), human (h)ASCs from the superficial and deep abdominal layer, human stromal vascular fraction (SVF), or rat Schwann cells, respectively...
September 15, 2015: Stem Cells and Development
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