Read by QxMD icon Read


Filip Petković, Iain L Campbell, Berta Gonzalez, Bernardo Castellano
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a potential role in MS. Here we used transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of IL-6 (GFAP-IL6Tg) to study the effect of IL-6 in the cuprizone-induced demyelination paradigm, which is an experimental model of de- and re-myelination, both hallmarks of MS. Our results demonstrated that cuprizone-treated GFAP-IL6Tg mice showed a significant reduction in astroglial and especially microglial activation/accumulation in the corpus callosum in comparison with the corresponding cuprizone-treated wild type (WT)...
August 18, 2016: Glia
Alexander Klistorner, Chenyu Wang, Vera Fofanova, Michael H Barnett, Con Yiannikas, John Parratt, Yuyi You, Stuart L Graham
BACKGROUND: Radial Diffusivity (RD) has been suggested as a promising biomarker associated with the level of myelination in MS lesions. However, the level of RD within the lesion is affected not only by loss of myelin sheaths, but also by the degree of tissue destruction. This may lead to exaggeration of diffusivity measures, potentially masking the effect of remyelination. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the T2 hyperintense lesion edge that extends beyond the T1 hypointense lesion core is less affected by tissue loss, and therefore a more appropriate target for imaging biomarker development targeting de- and re-myelination...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Héctor R Quintá, Carlos Wilson, Ada G Blidner, Christian González-Billault, Laura A Pasquini, Gabriel A Rabinovich, Juana M Pasquini
UNLABELLED: Axonal growth cone collapse following spinal cord injury (SCI) is promoted by semaphorin3A (Sema3A) signaling via PlexinA4 surface receptor. This interaction triggers intracellular signaling events leading to increased hydrogen peroxide levels which in turn promote filamentous actin (F-actin) destabilization and subsequent inhibition of axonal re-growth. In the current study, we demonstrated that treatment with galectin-1 (Gal-1), in its dimeric form, promotes a decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels and F-actin repolimerization in the growth cone and in the filopodium of neuron surfaces...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
Jiasi Li, Lei Zhang, Yongxin Chu, Michael Namaka, Benqiang Deng, Jiming Kong, Xiaoying Bi
White matter is primarily composed of myelin and myelinated axons. Structural and functional completeness of myelin is critical for the reliable and efficient transmission of information. White matter injury has been associated with the development of many demyelinating diseases. Despite a variety of scientific advances aimed at promoting re-myelination, their benefit has proven at best to be marginal. Research suggests that the failure of the re-myelination process may be the result of an unfavorable microenvironment...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Alexander Schulz, Robert Büttner, Christian Hagel, Stephan L Baader, Lan Kluwe, Johannes Salamon, Victor-Felix Mautner, Thomas Mindos, David B Parkinson, Jeffrey R Gehlhausen, D Wade Clapp, Helen Morrison
Schwannomas are predominantly benign nerve sheath neoplasms caused by Nf2 gene inactivation. Presently, treatment options are mainly limited to surgical tumor resection due to the lack of effective pharmacological drugs. Although the mechanistic understanding of Nf2 gene function has advanced, it has so far been primarily restricted to Schwann cell-intrinsic events. Extracellular cues determining Schwann cell behavior with regard to schwannoma development remain unknown. Here we show pro-tumourigenic microenvironmental effects on Schwann cells where an altered axonal microenvironment in cooperation with injury signals contribute to a persistent regenerative Schwann cell response promoting schwannoma development...
August 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Marta Parrilla, Fernando León-Lobera, Concepción Lillo, Rosario Arévalo, José Aijón, Juan Manuel Lara, Almudena Velasco
The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve...
2016: PloS One
Natalie A Wheeler, Babette Fuss
There is an increasing number of neurologic disorders found to be associated with loss and/or dysfunction of the CNS myelin sheath, ranging from the classic demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis, through CNS injury, to neuropsychiatric diseases. The disabling burden of these diseases has sparked a growing interest in gaining a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the differentiation of the myelinating cells of the CNS, oligodendrocytes (OLGs), and the process of (re)myelination. In this context, the importance of the extracellular milieu is becoming increasingly recognized...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
Tamjeed A Siddiqui, Starlee Lively, Lyanne C Schlichter
BACKGROUND: Microglia are the "professional" phagocytes of the CNS. Phagocytosis is crucial for normal CNS development and maintenance, but it can be either beneficial or detrimental after injury or disease. For instance, white matter damage releases myelin debris that must be cleared by microglia in order for re-myelination to occur. However, phagocytosis can also produce damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, microglia can acquire pro-inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) activation states that affect cell functions...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Stephanie Dooves, Marjo S van der Knaap, Vivi M Heine
White matter disorders (WMDs) are a major source of handicap at all ages. They often lead to progressive neurological dysfunction and early death. Although causes are highly diverse, WMDs share the property that glia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) are among the cells primarily affected, and that myelin is either not formed or lost. Many WMDs might benefit from cell replacement therapies. Successful preclinical studies in rodent models have already led to the first clinical trials in humans using glial or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells aiming at (re)myelination...
July 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Hye-Lan Lee, Hye Yeong Lee, Yeomin Yun, Jinsoo Oh, Lihua Che, Minhyung Lee, Yoon Ha
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic cytokine that stimulates the differentiation and function of vascular endothelial cells. VEGF has been implicated in improving nervous system function after injury. However, uncontrolled overexpression of VEGF increases the risk of tumor formation at the site of gene delivery. For this reason, VEGF expression needs to be strictly controlled. The goal of the present study was to understand the effects of hypoxia-induced gene expression system to control VEGF gene expression in neural stem cells (NSCs) on the regeneration of neural tissue after sciatic nerve injury...
March 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Michael J E Joseph, Jayalakshmi Caliaperumal, Lyanne C Schlichter
Damage to myelinated axons contributes to neurological deficits after acute CNS injury, including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Potential treatments to promote re-myelination will require fully differentiated oligodendrocytes, but almost nothing is known about their fate following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Using a rat model of ICH in the striatum, we quantified survival, proliferation, and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) (at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days) in the peri-hematoma region, surrounding striatum, and contralateral striatum...
June 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Yin-da Tang, Xue-sheng Zheng, Ting-ting Ying, Yan Yuan, Shi-ting Li
This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of nimodipine-mediated neural repair after facial nerve crush injury in rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: healthy controls, surgery alone, and surgery plus nimodipine. A facial nerve crush injury model was constructed. Immediately after surgery, the rats in the surgery plus nimodipine group were administered nimodipine, 6 mg/kg/day, for a variable numbers of days. The animals underwent electromyography (EMG) before surgery and at 3, 10, or 20 days after surgery...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Kristina Candido, Henry Soufi, Mausumi Bandyopadhyay, Subhajit Dasgupta
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a female predominant autoimmune demyelinating disease of central nervous system. The proper etiology is not clear. The existing therapies with interferon beta (Betaseron, Rebif), glatiramer acetate (copolymer 1, copaxone) are found to be promising for MS patients. The alpha-4 integrin antagonist monoclonal antibody Natalizumab has been found to decrease brain inflammation in relapsing-remitting MS via inhibition of alpha-4 beta- 1 integrinmediated mode of action of antigen -primed T cells to enter into central nervous system through blood brain barrier...
2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Elisabeth A Kappos, Patricia E Engels, Mathias Tremp, Moritz Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Pietro di Summa, Arne Fischmann, Stefanie von Felten, Arnaud Scherberich, Dirk J Schaefer, Daniel F Kalbermatten
Tissue engineering is a popular topic in peripheral nerve repair. Combining a nerve conduit with supporting adipose-derived cells could offer an opportunity to prevent time-consuming Schwann cell culture or the use of an autograft with its donor site morbidity and eventually improve clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to provide a broad overview over promising transplantable cells under equal experimental conditions over a long-term period. A 10-mm gap in the sciatic nerve of female Sprague-Dawley rats (7 groups of 7 animals, 8 weeks old) was bridged through a biodegradable fibrin conduit filled with rat adipose-derived stem cells (rASCs), differentiated rASCs (drASCs), human (h)ASCs from the superficial and deep abdominal layer, human stromal vascular fraction (SVF), or rat Schwann cells, respectively...
September 15, 2015: Stem Cells and Development
M Marisela Sánchez-Chaparro, Iram P Rodríguez-Sánchez, Hugo A Barrera-Saldaña, Laura E Martínez-Villarreal, Diana Resendez-Pérez, Idalia A Gámez-Escobedo
INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are molecules that in the last decade have gained increased attention a key mediator of the process of gene silencing in mammals. Deregulation of miRNAs is linked to illnesses such as cancer, and autoimmunity. Different reports claim for these molecules pivotal roles in both neuronal and immune processes, as well as in prediction of diseases affecting both systems. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an example of an illness affecting myelin of axons, caused by autoimmune deregulation...
June 16, 2015: Revista de Neurologia
Delphine Meffre, Ghjuvan'Ghjacumu Shackleford, Mehdi Hichor, Victor Gorgievski, Eleni T Tzavara, Amalia Trousson, Abdel M Ghoumari, Cyrille Deboux, Brahim Nait Oumesmar, Philippe Liere, Michael Schumacher, Etienne-Emile Baulieu, Frédéric Charbonnier, Julien Grenier, Charbel Massaad
The identification of new pathways governing myelination provides innovative avenues for remyelination. Liver X receptors (LXRs) α and β are nuclear receptors activated by oxysterols that originated from the oxidation of cholesterol. They are crucial for cholesterol homeostasis, a major lipid constituent of myelin sheaths that are formed by oligodendrocytes. However, the role of LXRs in myelin generation and maintenance is poorly understood. Here, we show that LXRs are involved in myelination and remyelination processes...
June 16, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Crystal Acosta, Claudia Cortes, Khaled Altaweel, Heather MacPhee, Britta Hoogervorst, Harpreet Bhullar, Brain MacNeil, Mahmoud Torabi, Frank Burczynski, Michael Peter Namaka
Nerve growth factor (NGF) expression is augmented during neuroinflammation. However, its function in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the inflammatory model of Multiple Sclerosis, is indistinct. Thus, the role of antigenically induced NGF in Lewis rats under a state of EAE was considered. NGF mRNA and protein expression were highly increased in DRG and SC tissues in animals with EAE. Between 18 and 24 days post induction (dpi), NGF mRNA and protein were elevated in the DRG, correlating with neurological recovery...
2015: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Xin-peng Dun, David B Parkinson
Peripheral nerve trauma triggers a well characterised sequence of events both proximal and distal to the site of injury. Axons distal to the injury degenerate, Schwann cells convert to a repair supportive phenotype and macrophages enter the nerve to clear myelin and axonal debris. Following these events, axons must regrow through the distal part of the nerve, re-innervate and finally are re-myelinated by Schwann cells. For nerve crush injuries (axonotmesis), in which the integrity of the nerve is maintained, repair may be relatively effective whereas for nerve transection (neurotmesis) repair will likely be very poor as few axons may be able to cross between the two parts of the severed nerve, across the newly generated nerve bridge, to enter the distal stump and regenerate...
2015: PloS One
Tina KhorshidAhmad, Crystal Acosta, Claudia Cortes, Ted M Lakowski, Surendiran Gangadaran, Michael Namaka
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive, neurological disease characterized by the targeted immune system-mediated destruction of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Autoreactive CD4+ T helper cells have a key role in orchestrating MS-induced myelin damage. Once activated, circulating Th1-cells secrete a variety of inflammatory cytokines that foster the breakdown of blood-brain barrier (BBB) eventually infiltrating into the CNS. Inside the CNS, they become reactivated upon exposure to the myelin structural proteins and continue to produce inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) that leads to direct activation of antibodies and macrophages that are involved in the phagocytosis of myelin...
March 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
D Meffre, C Massaad, J Grenier
Deciphering the molecular pathways involved in myelin gene expression is a major point of interest to better understand re/myelination processes. In this study, we investigated the role of Lithium Chloride (LiCl), a drug largely used for the treatment of neurological disorders, on the two major central myelin gene expression (PLP and MBP) in mouse oligodendrocytes. We show that LiCl enhances the expression of both PLP and MBP, by increasing mRNA amount and promoter activities. We investigated whether Wnt/β-catenin and/or Akt/CREB pathways are modulated by LiCl to regulate myelin gene expression...
January 22, 2015: Neuroscience
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"