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Wallerian degeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800078/functional-and-anatomical-outcomes-of-facial-nerve-injury-with-application-of-polyethylene-glycol-in-a-rat-model
#1
Brandon L Brown, Tony Asante, Haley R Welch, Morgan M Sandelski, Sarah M Drejet, Kishan Shah, Elizabeth M Runge, Taha Z Shipchandler, Kathryn J Jones, Chandler L Walker
Importance: Functional and anatomical outcomes after surgical repair of facial nerve injury may be improved with the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to direct suture neurorrhaphy. The application of PEG has shown promise in treating spinal nerve injuries, but its efficacy has not been evaluated in treatment of cranial nerve injuries. Objective: To determine whether PEG in addition to neurorrhaphy can improve functional outcomes and synkinesis after facial nerve injury...
May 17, 2018: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710422/minocycline-does-not-reduce-the-regenerative-capacity-of-peripheral-motor-and-sensory-neurons-after-a-conditioning-injury-in-mice
#2
I Sanchez-Brualla, A Calls-Cobos, E Udina
Minocycline has been reported to be both beneficial and detrimental for nerve regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. By reducing the inflammatory response, minocycline administration reduces pain and has neuroprotective effects, but it also inhibits Wallerian degeneration in the distal stump, and reduces microglia and macrophages activity on motor and sensory neurons, which could reduce their intrinsic regenerative capacity. The aim of this study was to determine if the administration of minocycline after nerve injury inhibits the regenerative capacity of motoneurons and sensory neurons after a conditioning lesion...
April 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701915/complete-adult-neurogenesis-within-a-wallerian-degenerating-nerve-expressed-as-an-ectopic-ganglion
#3
Tomonori Nakano, Shigeru Kurimoto, Shuichi Kato, Kenichi Asano, Takuma Hirata, Hiroshi Kiyama, Hitoshi Hirata
Neurogenesis in the adult peripheral nervous system remains to be demonstrated. We transplanted embryonic neural stem cells into a Wallerian degenerating nerve graft and observed development of a nodular structure consisting of neurons, glia, and Schwann cells. Histological analysis revealed a structure loosely resembling the spinal cord, including a synaptic network that formed along the neuron. Furthermore, the new axons reinnervated the paralysed muscle, forming both de novo and revived neuromuscular junctions...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688489/protective-role-of-the-lipid-phosphatase-fig4-in-the-adult-nervous-system
#4
Yevgeniya A Mironova, Jing-Ping Lin, Ashley Kalinski, Lucas Huffman, Guy M Lenk, Leif A Havton, Miriam H Meisler, Roman J Giger
The signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, PI(3,5)P2, functions in vesicular trafficking through the endo-lysosomal compartment. Cellular levels of PI(3,5)P2 are regulated by an enzyme complex comprised of the kinase PIKFYVE, the phosphatase FIG4, and the scaffold protein VAC14. Mutations of human FIG4 cause inherited disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J, polymicrogyria with epilepsy, and Yunis-Varón syndrome. Constitutive Fig4-/- mice exhibit intention tremor, spongiform degeneration of neural tissue, hypomyelination, and juvenile lethality...
April 24, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659058/polyethylene-glycol-solutions-rapidly-restore-and-maintain-axonal-continuity-neuromuscular-structures-and-behaviors-lost-after-sciatic-nerve-transections-in-female-rats
#5
Michelle Mikesh, Cameron L Ghergherehchi, Robert Louis Hastings, Amir Ali, Sina Rahesh, Karthik Jagannath, Dale R Sengelaub, Richard C Trevino, David M Jackson, George D Bittner
Complete severance of major peripheral mixed sensory-motor nerve proximally in a mammalian limb produces immediate loss of action potential conduction and voluntary behaviors mediated by the severed distal axonal segments. These severed distal segments undergo Wallerian degeneration within days. Denervated muscles atrophy within weeks. Slowly regenerating (∼1 mm/day) outgrowths from surviving proximal stumps that often nonspecifically reinnervate denervated targets produce poor, if any, restoration of lost voluntary behaviors...
July 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659046/polyethylene-glycol-treated-allografts-not-tissue-matched-nor-immunosuppressed-rapidly-repair-sciatic-nerve-gaps-maintain-neuromuscular-functions-and-restore-voluntary-behaviors-in-female-rats
#6
Michelle Mikesh, Cameron L Ghergherehchi, Sina Rahesh, Karthik Jagannath, Amir Ali, Dale R Sengelaub, Richard C Trevino, David M Jackson, Haley O Tucker, George D Bittner
Many publications report that ablations of segments of peripheral nerves produce the following unfortunate results: (1) Immediate loss of sensory signaling and motor control; (2) rapid Wallerian degeneration of severed distal axons within days; (3) muscle atrophy within weeks; (4) poor behavioral (functional) recovery after many months, if ever, by slowly-regenerating (∼1mm/d) axon outgrowths from surviving proximal nerve stumps; and (5) Nerve allografts to repair gap injuries are rejected, often even if tissue matched and immunosuppressed...
July 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627532/effector-memory-cd8-t-cells-synergize-with-co-stimulation-competent-macrophages-to-trigger-autoimmune-peripheral-neuropathy
#7
Mu Yang, Xiang Qun Shi, Corentin Peyret, Oladayo Oladiran, Sonia Wu, Julien Chambon, Sylvie Fournier, Ji Zhang
Autoimmune peripheral neuropathy (APN) such as Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) is a debilitating illness and sometimes life threatening. The molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive but exposure to environmental factors including viral/bacterial infection and injury is highly associated with disease incidence. We demonstrated previously that both male and female B7.2 (CD86) transgenic L31 and L31/CD4KO mice develop spontaneous APN. Here we further reveal that CD8+ T cells in these mice exhibit an effector/memory phenotype, which bears a resemblance to the CD8+ T cell response following persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in humans and mice, whilst CMV has been considered as one of the most relevant pathogens in APN development...
April 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627018/bilateral-wallerian-degeneration-of-the-middle-cerebellar-peduncles-secondary-to-pontine-infarction-a-case-series
#8
Yaoyao Shen, Wen Jian, Juan Li, Tingmin Dai, Bing Bao, Hongbing Nie
OBJECTIVE: Wallerian degeneration (WD) of middle cerebellar peduncles (MCPs) secondary to pontine infarction is rarely reported in the literature. Our aim in this study is to characterize its clinical and neuroradiological features. METHODS: A retrospective review of 7 patients from a single institution was conducted. Only patients with pontine infarction and subsequent degeneration of the MCPs were included in the analysis. The features of clinical presentation and neuroimaging finding were summarized by our experienced neurologists...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618564/postnatal-zika-virus-infection-is-associated-with-persistent-abnormalities-in-brain-structure-function-and-behavior-in-infant-macaques
#9
Maud Mavigner, Jessica Raper, Zsofia Kovacs-Balint, Sanjeev Gumber, Justin T O'Neal, Siddhartha K Bhaumik, Xiaodong Zhang, Jakob Habib, Cameron Mattingly, Circe E McDonald, Victoria Avanzato, Mark W Burke, Diogo M Magnani, Varian K Bailey, David I Watkins, Thomas H Vanderford, Damien Fair, Eric Earl, Eric Feczko, Martin Styner, Sherrie M Jean, Joyce K Cohen, Guido Silvestri, R Paul Johnson, David H O'Connor, Jens Wrammert, Mehul S Suthar, Mar M Sanchez, Maria C Alvarado, Ann Chahroudi
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is associated with fetal brain lesions and other serious birth defects classified as congenital ZIKV syndrome. Postnatal ZIKV infection in infants and children has been reported; however, data on brain anatomy, function, and behavioral outcomes following infection are absent. We show that postnatal ZIKV infection of infant rhesus macaques (RMs) results in persistent structural and functional alterations of the central nervous system compared to age-matched controls. We demonstrate ZIKV lymphoid tropism and neurotropism in infant RMs and histopathologic abnormalities in the peripheral and central nervous systems including inflammatory infiltrates, astrogliosis, and Wallerian degeneration...
April 4, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577375/ca2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-and-dimethyl-sulfoxide-affect-the-sealing-frequencies-of-transected-hippocampal-neurons
#10
Andrew D Poon, Sarah H McGill, Solomon Raju Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Zachary S Burgess, Patrick J Dunne, Edward E Kang, George D Bittner
Traumatic injury often results in axonal severance, initiating obligatory Wallerian degeneration of distal segments, whereas proximal segments often survive. Calcium ion (Ca2+ ) influx at severed proximal axonal ends activates pathways that can induce apoptosis. However, this same Ca2+ -influx also activates multiple parallel pathways that seal the plasmalemma by inducing accumulation and fusion of vesicles at the lesion site that reduce Ca2+ -influx and enhance survival. We examined whether various inhibitors of Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), and/or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a common solvent for biologically active substances, affected the ability of a hippocampal-derived neuronal cell line (B104 cells) to seal membrane damage following axotomy...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555297/spinogenesis-in-spinal-cord-motor-neurons-following-pharmacological-lesions-to-the-rat-motor-cortex
#11
N I Martínez-Torres, D González-Tapia, M Flores-Soto, N Vázquez-Hernández, H Salgado-Ceballos, I González-Burgos
INTRODUCTION: Motor function is impaired in multiple neurological diseases associated with corticospinal tract degeneration. Motor impairment has been linked to plastic changes at both the presynaptic and postsynaptic levels. However, there is no evidence of changes in information transmission from the cortex to spinal motor neurons. METHODS: We used kainic acid to induce stereotactic lesions to the primary motor cortex of female adult rats. Fifteen days later, we evaluated motor function with the BBB scale and the rotarod and determined the density of thin, stubby, and mushroom spines of motor neurons from a thoracolumbar segment of the spinal cord...
March 16, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521288/clinical-and-radiological-features-of-wallerian-degeneration-of-the-middle-cerebellar-peduncles-secondary-to-pontine-infarction
#12
Zhi-Yong Zhang, Zhi-Qin Liu, Wei Qin, Ya-Wen Chen, Zun-Jing Liu
Background: Wallerian degeneration (WD) of bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles (MCPs) can occur following pontine infarction, but its characteristics have not yet been clarified because of the low incidence. Thus, the present study discussed the clinical and radiological features to improve the awareness of this disease. Methods: Clinical and radiological information from consecutive individuals diagnosed with WD of bilateral MCPs following pontine infarction in three hospitals over the past 4 years between October 2012 and October 2016 were retrospectively investigated and compared with a control group (patients with pontine infarction had no secondary WD)...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486067/the-fine-anatomy-of-the-perivascular-compartment-in-the-human-brain-relevance-to-dilated-perivascular-spaces-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#13
Matthew MacGregor Sharp, Diederik Bulters, Sebastian Brandner, Janice Holton, Ajay Verma, David J Werring, Roxana O Carare
Aβ, amyloid beta, CAA, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, CT, computed tomographic scanning, IPAD, intramural periarterial drainage, ISF, interstitial fluid, MRI, magnetic resonance imaging, PVS, perivascular spaces, WMH, white matter hyperintensities.Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or low attenuation on computed tomographic scanning (CT), are the most frequent brain imaging finding in patients with small vessel disease or dementia. It has been assumed that WMH are due to arteriosclerosis or blood-brain barrier breakdown, though recently it was demonstrated that WMH have distinct molecular signatures in Alzheimer's disease (AD) where markers of Wallerian degeneration are present, compared to normal ageing [1]...
February 27, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453733/egfp-transgene-a-useful-tool-to-track-transplanted-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cell-contribution-to-peripheral-remyelination
#14
Gonzalo Piñero, Vanina Usach, Paula A Soto, Paula V Monje, Patricia Setton-Avruj
Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) constitute a heterogeneous population with potential to promote tissue regeneration. For this reason, this cell fraction has recently become a therapeutic alternative to mesenchymal stem cells, as culture is not required and phenotypic transformations can be hence avoided. In this work, and in order to attain long-lasting cell labeling and study longer survival times, we used BMMC isolated from adult transgenic rats expressing GFP to reproduce our wild type model and evaluate their remyelination ability in a reversible model of Wallerian degeneration...
April 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451204/conundrums-and-confusions-regarding-how-polyethylene-glycol-fusion-produces-excellent-behavioral-recovery-after-peripheral-nerve-injuries
#15
REVIEW
George D Bittner, Dale R Sengelaub, Cameron L Ghergherehchi
Current Neuroscience dogma holds that transections or ablations of a segment of peripheral nerves produce: (1) Immediate loss of axonal continuity, sensory signaling, and motor control; (2) Wallerian rapid (1-3 days) degeneration of severed distal axons, muscle atrophy, and poor behavioral recovery after many months (if ever, after ablations) by slowly-regenerating (1 mm/d), proximal-stump outgrowths that must specifically reinnervate denervated targets; (3) Poor acceptance of microsutured nerve allografts, even if tissue-matched and immune-suppressed...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362000/determining-direction-of-axonal-flow-in-the-equine-ramus-communicans-by-ultrastructural-examination-of-the-plantar-nerves-2-months-after-transecting-the-ramus
#16
Fakhri Al-Bagdadi, Jim Schumacher, Jessi Carter, Ferenc Tóth, Robert W Henry
The ramus communicans, neural connection between medial and lateral plantar nerves of the horse, was transected to determine the degree to which medial and lateral plantar nerves contribute to the plantar ramus. After 2 months, sections of plantar nerves immediately proximal and distal to the communicating branch were collected and processed for electron microscopy. All examined nerves had undergone Wallerian degeneration and contained regenerating and mature fibers. Layers of the myelin sheath were separated by spaces and vacuoles, indicating demyelination of medial and lateral plantar nerves...
February 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329562/granular-cell-tumors-of-the-tongue-fibroma-or-schwannoma
#17
Atsushi Musha, Masaru Ogawa, Satoshi Yokoo
BACKGROUND: Granular cell tumors are benign lesions that typically occur in the oral cavity, but can also be found in other sites. However, the characteristics of these tumors are unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the immunohistological characteristics of these tumors of the tongue. METHODS: Seven patients were treated for granular cell tumors of the tongue at our institution during 2003-2017. Paraffin-embedded specimens were available for all cases; thus, retrospective immunohistochemical analyses were performed...
January 3, 2018: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295933/transcription-factor-pebbled-rreb1-regulates-injury-induced-axon-degeneration
#18
Jonathan E Farley, Thomas C Burdett, Romina Barria, Lukas J Neukomm, Kevin P Kenna, John E Landers, Marc R Freeman
Genetic studies of Wallerian degeneration have led to the identification of signaling molecules (e.g., dSarm/Sarm1, Axundead, and Highwire) that function locally in axons to drive degeneration. Here we identify a role for the Drosophila C2 H2 zinc finger transcription factor Pebbled [Peb, Ras-responsive element binding protein 1 (RREB1) in mammals] in axon death. Loss of Peb in Drosophila glutamatergic sensory neurons results in either complete preservation of severed axons, or an axon death phenotype where axons fragment into large, continuous segments, rather than completely disintegrate...
February 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279307/intraneural-injection-of-atp-stimulates-regeneration-of-primary-sensory-axons-in-the-spinal-cord
#19
Dongsheng Wu, Sena Lee, Juan Luo, Haijian Xia, Svetlana Gushchina, Peter M Richardson, John Yeh, Ute Krügel, Heike Franke, Yi Zhang, Xuenong Bo
Injury to the peripheral axons of sensory neurons strongly enhances the regeneration of their central axons in the spinal cord. It remains unclear on what molecules that initiate such conditioning effect. Because ATP is released extracellularly by nerve and other tissue injury, we hypothesize that injection of ATP into a peripheral nerve might mimic the stimulatory effect of nerve injury on the regenerative state of the primary sensory neurons. We found that a single injection of 6 μl of 150 μm ATP into female rat sciatic nerve quadrupled the number of axons growing into a lesion epicenter in spinal cord after a concomitant dorsal column transection...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259719/roles-of-nitric-oxide-and-ethyl-pyruvate-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#20
REVIEW
Sandesh Panthi, Kripa Gautam
Short-lived reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species have acquired significant attention in the field of biomedical science. Nitric oxide (NO), which was thought to be an unstable gas and pollutant, is now regarded as a gas transmitter like H2 S and CO. NO is synthesized inside the mammalian body by l-arginine via three different isoforms of NO synthase whereas pyruvate is a glycolysis product and substrate for TCA cycle. Due to poor solubility and stability, therapeutic potential of pyruvate is limited...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
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