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Wallerian degeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903814/blink-associated-contralateral-eccentric-saccades-as-a-rare-sign-of-unilateral-brain-injury
#1
Ilaria Zivi, Eugenio Bertelli, Giacinta Bilotti, Ignazio Alessandro Clemente, Leopold Saltuari, Giuseppe Frazzitta
OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare sign of unilateral brain injury as a form of unwanted blink-associated contralateral eccentric saccades. METHODS: A 62-year-old patient who underwent an ischemic stroke affecting the entire right middle cerebral artery territory came to our attention 1 year after stroke, manifesting with transient contralateral conjugate gaze deviations associated with spontaneous blinking. We complemented the regular neurologic evaluation with brain MRI, study of evoked potentials, electroneurography of the facial nerve, and infrared video-oculoscopy...
November 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894923/therapeutic-implications-of-toll-like-receptors-in-peripheral-neuropathic-pain
#2
REVIEW
Krishan K Thakur, Jyoti Saini, Kanika Mahajan, Dhyanendra Singh, Dinkar P Jaiswal, Srishti Mishra, Anupam Bishyaee, Gautam Sethi, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
Neuropathic pain is a state of chronic pain arising after peripheral or central nerve injury. These injuries can be mediated through the activation of various cells (astrocytes, microglia and Schwann cells), as well as the dissolution of distal axons. Recent studies have suggested that after nerve injury, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in Wallerian degeneration and generation of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, these TLRs are responsible for the stimulation of astrocytes and microglia that can cause induction of the proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in the spinal cord, thereby leading to the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain...
November 25, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878997/corneal-epithelial-cells-function-as-surrogate-schwann-cells-for-their-sensory-nerves
#3
REVIEW
Mary Ann Stepp, Gauri Tadvalkar, Raymond Hakh, Sonali Pal-Ghosh
The eye is innervated by neurons derived from both the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system (PNS). While much is known about retinal neurobiology and phototransduction, less attention has been paid to the innervation of the eye by the PNS and the roles it plays in maintaining a functioning visual system. The ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal ganglion contains somas of neurons that innervate the cornea. These nerves provide sensory functions for the cornea and are referred to as intraepithelial corneal nerves (ICNs) consisting of subbasal nerves and their associated intraepithelial nerve terminals...
November 23, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875622/neurographic-course-of-wallerian-degeneration-after-human-peripheral-nerve-injury
#4
Maria Eder, Wilhelm Schulte-Mattler, Peter Pöschl
INTRODUCTION: Neurographic data on Wallerian degeneration (WD) following motor nerve injury are available only from animal studies and from human case reports of 9 patients altogether. A precise knowledge of neurographic features of WD would be highly relevant for diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic, and forensic aspects of traumatic lesions. METHODS: We prospectively studied WD in patients with a peripheral nerve injury. They underwent sequential neurographic examinations beginning no later than 3 days after the injury until a plateau of the amplitude of compound muscle action potential was reached...
November 22, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833045/reciprocal-relationship-between-membrane-type-1-matrix-metalloproteinase-and-the-algesic-peptides-of-myelin-basic-protein-contributes-to-chronic-neuropathic-pain
#5
Sanghyun Hong, Albert G Remacle, Sergei A Shiryaev, Wonjun Choi, Swathi Hullugundi, Jennifer Dolkas, Mila Angert, Tasuku Nishihara, Tony L Yaksh, Alex Y Strongin, Veronica I Shubayev
Myelin basic protein (MBP) is an auto-antigen able to induce intractable pain from innocuous mechanical stimulation (mechanical allodynia). The mechanisms provoking this algesic MBP activity remain obscure. Our present study demonstrates that membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP/MMP-14) releases the algesic MBP peptides from the damaged myelin, which then reciprocally enhance the expression of MT1-MMP in nerve to sustain a state of allodynia. Specifically, MT1-MMP expression and activity in rat sciatic nerve gradually increased starting at day 3 after chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
November 7, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832912/diffusion-restriction-in-the-corticospinal-tracts-and-the-corpus-callosum-in-neonates-after-cerebral-insult
#6
Monika Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Agnieszka Duczkowska, Sylwia Szkudlinska-Pawlak, Marek Duczkowski, Jaroslaw Madzik, Astra Cabaj, Katarzyna Krupa, Pawel Peczkowski, Hanna Bragoszewska
BACKGROUND: In neonatal brains diffusion restriction, which is not limited to the region of insult, but is also found in distant locations from it seems to be a frequent finding, called pre-Wallerian degeneration. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe these findings and to estimate the frequency of their occurrence with an attempt to determine their clinical significance. METHODS: 125 brain MRI examinations of neonates with confirmed brain damage performed or consulted in our Institute were retrospectively reviewed, focusing on the presence of restricted diffusion in corticospinal tracts (CST) and corpus callosum (CC)...
November 7, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822499/acute-axonal-degeneration-drives-development-of-cognitive-motor-and-visual-deficits-after-blast-mediated-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#7
Terry C Yin, Jaymie R Voorhees, Rachel M Genova, Kevin C Davis, Ashley M Madison, Jeremiah K Britt, Coral J Cintrón-Pérez, Latisha McDaniel, Matthew M Harper, Andrew A Pieper
Axonal degeneration is a prominent feature of many forms of neurodegeneration, and also an early event in blast-mediated traumatic brain injury (TBI), the signature injury of soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan. It is not known, however, whether this axonal degeneration is what drives development of subsequent neurologic deficits after the injury. The Wallerian degeneration slow strain (WldS) of mice is resistant to some forms of axonal degeneration because of a triplicated fusion gene encoding the first 70 amino acids of Ufd2a, a ubiquitin-chain assembly factor, that is linked to the complete coding sequence of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (NMAT1)...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771719/toll-like-receptor-3-contributes-to-wallerian-degeneration-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#8
Hyunkyoung Lee, Jiyeon Baek, Hyunjung Min, Ik-Hyun Cho, Seong-Woo Yu, Sung Joong Lee
OBJECTIVE: It is well known that Schwann cells play an important role in Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve injury. Previously, we reported that toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is expressed on Schwann cells, implicating its role in Schwann cell activation during Wallerian degeneration. In this study, we tested this possibility using TLR3 knock-out mice. METHODS: Sciatic nerve-crush injury was induced in wild-type and TLR3 knock-out mice. Histological sections of the sciatic nerve were analyzed for Wallerian degeneration on days 3 and 7 after injury...
October 22, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744468/mri-findings-in-a-case-of-spinal-cord-wallerian-degeneration-following-trauma
#9
Puneet Mittal, Ranjana Gupta, Amit Mittal, Kapish Mittal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732853/an-atypical-scf-like-ubiquitin-ligase-complex-promotes-wallerian-degeneration-through-regulation-of-axonal-nmnat2
#10
Yuya Yamagishi, Marc Tessier-Lavigne
Axon degeneration is a tightly regulated, self-destructive program that is a critical feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this program remain poorly understood. Here, we identify S-phase kinase-associated protein 1A (Skp1a), a core component of a Skp/Cullin/F-box (SCF)-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, as a critical regulator of axon degeneration after injury in mammalian neurons. Depletion of Skp1a prolongs survival of injured axons in vitro and in the optic nerve in vivo...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726416/zika-virus-associated-micrencephaly-a-thorough-description-of-neuropathologic-findings-in-the-fetal-central-nervous-system
#11
Peter Štrafela, Alenka Vizjak, Jerica Mraz, Jernej Mlakar, Jože Pižem, Nataša Tul, Tatjana Avšič Županc, Mara Popović
CONTEXT: -The 2015 outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil resulted in a 20-times increased prevalence of congenital microcephaly in stillborns and neonates and was instrumental in raising the suspicion of a causal association between Zika virus and microcephaly. OBJECTIVE: -To provide a comprehensive description of the neuropathologic features of congenital Zika virus infection. DESIGN: -Autopsy evaluation of the brain from a fetus of 32 weeks and 6 days of gestation, with a prenatal diagnosis of microcephaly associated with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed, fetal, Zika virus infection...
October 11, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671902/neurodegeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-neuromyelitis-optica
#12
Izumi Kawachi, Hans Lassmann
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are autoimmune demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), having distinct immunological and pathological features. They have two pathogenic components, 'inflammation' and 'neurodegeneration', with different degrees of severity and pathogenetic mechanisms. The target antigen of autoimmunity in NMO is the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and antibodies directed against this antigen result in astrocyte damage. MS is a disease primarily affecting myelin and oligodendrocytes, but thus far, no MS-specific autoantigen has been identified...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671644/sarm1-specific-motifs-in-the-tir-domain-enable-nad-loss-and-regulate-injury-induced-sarm1-activation
#13
Daniel W Summers, Daniel A Gibson, Aaron DiAntonio, Jeffrey Milbrandt
Axon injury in response to trauma or disease stimulates a self-destruction program that promotes the localized clearance of damaged axon segments. Sterile alpha and Toll/interleukin receptor (TIR) motif-containing protein 1 (SARM1) is an evolutionarily conserved executioner of this degeneration cascade, also known as Wallerian degeneration; however, the mechanism of SARM1-dependent neuronal destruction is still obscure. SARM1 possesses a TIR domain that is necessary for SARM1 activity. In other proteins, dimerized TIR domains serve as scaffolds for innate immune signaling...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671080/viral-neurotropism-peripheral-neuropathy-and-other-morphological-abnormalities-in-bovine-ephemeral-fever-virus-infected-downer-cattle
#14
R Barigye, S Davis, R Hunt, N Hunt, S Walsh, N Elliott, C Burnup, S Aumann, C Day, K Dyrting, R Weir, L F Melville
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the neurotropism of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus (BEFV) and described histomorphological abnormalities of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves that may causally contribute to paresis or paralysis in BEF. METHODS: Four paralysed and six asymptomatic but virus-infected cattle were monitored, and blood and serum samples screened by qRT-PCR, virus isolation and neutralisation tests. Fresh brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerve and other tissues were qRT-PCR-tested for viral RNA, while formalin-fixed specimens were processed routinely and immunohistochemically evaluated for histomorphological abnormalities and viral antigen distribution, respectively...
October 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663844/regulatory-forum-opinion-piece-review-toxicological-pathology-profile-and-regulatory-expectations-for-nonclinical-development-of-insulins-and-insulin-analogues
#15
Thomas Bartels, Kerstin Wäse, Martin Heinrichs, Manuela Stolte, Nigel Roome, Petra Scherer, Klaus Lindauer
The toxicological profile of insulins is exclusively due to exaggerated pharmacology resulting in hypoglycemic findings. Insulin analogues displaying modifications and aimed at improving pharmacokinetics do not induce different toxicity. The main target is the brain displaying neuronal necrosis. Wallerian degeneration of nerves occurs rarely after severe hypoglycemia. These findings are of potential human relevance; nevertheless, these changes are induced in normoglycemic animals whereas diabetic patients suffer from hyperglycemia...
October 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650364/comparison-of-histopathological-effects-of-perineural-administration-of-bupivacaine-and-bupivacaine-dexmedetomidine-in-rat-sciatic-nerve
#16
Elham Memari, Mohammad-Ali Hosseinian, Ali Mirkheshti, Ali Arhami-Dolatabadi, Mojtaba Mirabotalebi, Mohsen Khandaghy, Yahya Daneshbod, Leila Alizadeh, Sadegh Shirian
Injection of a variety of drugs such as local anesthetics (LAs) for peripheral nerve block has been shown to cause damage to peripheral nerves. Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic widely used in surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neurotoxicity of LAs including Bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine (DEX)-Bupivacaine on sciatic nerve tissue at histopathological level. In addition, we investigated whether perineural administration of DEX can attenuate Bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty adult Sprague Dawley rats received unilateral sciatic nerve blocks with either 0...
September 17, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647497/delayed-glial-clearance-of-degenerating-axons-in-aged-drosophila-is-due-to-reduced-pi3k-draper-activity
#17
Maria D Purice, Sean D Speese, Mary A Logan
Advanced age is the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, but the mechanisms that render the senescent brain vulnerable to disease are unclear. Glial immune responses provide neuroprotection in a variety of contexts. Thus, we explored how glial responses to neurodegeneration are altered with age. Here we show that glia-axon phagocytic interactions change dramatically in the aged Drosophila brain. Aged glia clear degenerating axons slowly due to low phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling and, subsequently, reduced expression of the conserved phagocytic receptor Draper/MEGF10...
September 20, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630671/repair-of-traumatic-plasmalemmal-damage-to-neurons-and-other-eukaryotic-cells
#18
REVIEW
George D Bittner, Christopher S Spaeth, Andrew D Poon, Zachary S Burgess, Christopher H McGill
The repair (sealing) of plasmalemmal damage, consisting of small holes to complete transections, is critical for cell survival, especially for neurons that rarely regenerate cell bodies. We first describe and evaluate different measures of cell sealing. Some measures, including morphological/ultra-structural observations, membrane potential, and input resistance, provide very ambiguous assessments of plasmalemmal sealing. In contrast, measures of ionic current flow and dye barriers can, if appropriately used, provide more accurate assessments...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614771/avian-axons-undergo-wallerian-degeneration-after-injury-and-stress
#19
John C Bramley, Samantha V A Collins, Karen B Clark, William J Buchser
The integrity of long axons is essential for neural communication. Unfortunately, relatively minor stress to a neuron can cause extensive loss of this integrity. Axon degeneration is the cell-intrinsic program that actively deconstructs an axon after injury or damage. Although ultrastructural examination has revealed signs of axon degeneration in vivo, the occurrence and progression of axon degeneration in avian species have not yet been documented in vitro. Here, we use a novel cell culture system with primary embryonic zebra finch retinal ganglion cells to interrogate the properties of avian axon degeneration...
November 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607534/systemic-transplantation-of-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cells-promotes-axonal-regeneration-and-analgesia-in-a-model-of-wallerian-degeneration
#20
Vanina Usach, Mariana Malet, Margarita López, Lucía Lavalle, Gonzalo Piñero, María Saccoliti, Alicia Cueto, Pablo Brumovsky, Alicia Brusco, Patricia Setton-Avruj
BACKGROUND: Reinnervation timing after nerve injury is critical for favorable axonal regeneration, remyelination and clinical improvement. Considering bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) are easily obtained and readily available for transplant, this work analyzed the effect of BMMC systemic administration on nerve repair and pain behavior. METHODS: Adult rats with sciatic nerve crush were immediately and systemically injected BMMC through the caudal artery. Nontreated, sham and naïve rats were also included...
September 8, 2016: Transplantation
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