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Wallerian degeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453733/egfp-transgene-a-useful-tool-to-track-transplanted-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cell-contribution-to-peripheral-remyelination
#1
Gonzalo Piñero, Vanina Usach, Paula A Soto, Paula V Monje, Patricia Setton-Avruj
Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) constitute a heterogeneous population with potential to promote tissue regeneration. For this reason, this cell fraction has recently become a therapeutic alternative to mesenchymal stem cells, as culture is not required and phenotypic transformations can be hence avoided. In this work, and in order to attain long-lasting cell labeling and study longer survival times, we used BMMC isolated from adult transgenic rats expressing GFP to reproduce our wild type model and evaluate their remyelination ability in a reversible model of Wallerian degeneration...
February 16, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451204/conundrums-and-confusions-regarding-how-polyethylene-glycol-fusion-produces-excellent-behavioral-recovery-after-peripheral-nerve-injuries
#2
REVIEW
George D Bittner, Dale R Sengelaub, Cameron L Ghergherehchi
Current Neuroscience dogma holds that transections or ablations of a segment of peripheral nerves produce: (1) Immediate loss of axonal continuity, sensory signaling, and motor control; (2) Wallerian rapid (1-3 days) degeneration of severed distal axons, muscle atrophy, and poor behavioral recovery after many months (if ever, after ablations) by slowly-regenerating (1 mm/d), proximal-stump outgrowths that must specifically reinnervate denervated targets; (3) Poor acceptance of microsutured nerve allografts, even if tissue-matched and immune-suppressed...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362000/determining-direction-of-axonal-flow-in-the-equine-ramus-communicans-by-ultrastructural-examination-of-the-plantar-nerves-2-months-after-transecting-the-ramus
#3
Fakhri Al-Bagdadi, Jim Schumacher, Jessi Carter, Ferenc Tóth, Robert W Henry
The ramus communicans, neural connection between medial and lateral plantar nerves of the horse, was transected to determine the degree to which medial and lateral plantar nerves contribute to the plantar ramus. After 2 months, sections of plantar nerves immediately proximal and distal to the communicating branch were collected and processed for electron microscopy. All examined nerves had undergone Wallerian degeneration and contained regenerating and mature fibers. Layers of the myelin sheath were separated by spaces and vacuoles, indicating demyelination of medial and lateral plantar nerves...
January 24, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329562/granular-cell-tumors-of-the-tongue-fibroma-or-schwannoma
#4
Atsushi Musha, Masaru Ogawa, Satoshi Yokoo
BACKGROUND: Granular cell tumors are benign lesions that typically occur in the oral cavity, but can also be found in other sites. However, the characteristics of these tumors are unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the immunohistological characteristics of these tumors of the tongue. METHODS: Seven patients were treated for granular cell tumors of the tongue at our institution during 2003-2017. Paraffin-embedded specimens were available for all cases; thus, retrospective immunohistochemical analyses were performed...
January 3, 2018: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295933/transcription-factor-pebbled-rreb1-regulates-injury-induced-axon-degeneration
#5
Jonathan E Farley, Thomas C Burdett, Romina Barria, Lukas J Neukomm, Kevin P Kenna, John E Landers, Marc R Freeman
Genetic studies of Wallerian degeneration have led to the identification of signaling molecules (e.g., dSarm/Sarm1, Axundead, and Highwire) that function locally in axons to drive degeneration. Here we identify a role for the Drosophila C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor Pebbled [Peb, Ras-responsive element binding protein 1 (RREB1) in mammals] in axon death. Loss of Peb in Drosophila glutamatergic sensory neurons results in either complete preservation of severed axons, or an axon death phenotype where axons fragment into large, continuous segments, rather than completely disintegrate...
January 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279307/intraneural-injection-of-atp-stimulates-regeneration-of-primary-sensory-axons-in-the-spinal-cord
#6
Dongsheng Wu, Sena Lee, Juan Luo, Haijian Xia, Svetlana Gushchina, Peter M Richardson, John Yeh, Ute Krügel, Heike Franke, Yi Zhang, Xuenong Bo
Injury to the peripheral axons of sensory neurons strongly enhances the regeneration of their central axons in the spinal cord. It remains unclear on what molecules that initiate such conditioning effect. Since ATP is released extracellularly by nerve and other tissue injury, we hypothesize that injection of ATP into a peripheral nerve might mimic the stimulatory effect of nerve injury on the regenerative state of the primary sensory neurons. We found that a single injection of 6 μl of 150 μM ATP into female rat sciatic nerve quadrupled the number of axons growing into a lesion epicenter in spinal cord after a concomitant dorsal column transection...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259719/roles-of-nitric-oxide-and-ethyl-pyruvate-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#7
REVIEW
Sandesh Panthi, Kripa Gautam
Short-lived reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species have acquired significant attention in the field of biomedical science. Nitric oxide (NO), which was thought to be an unstable gas and pollutant, is now regarded as a gas transmitter like H2S and CO. NO is synthesized inside the mammalian body by l-arginine via three different isoforms of NO synthase whereas pyruvate is a glycolysis product and substrate for TCA cycle. Due to poor solubility and stability, therapeutic potential of pyruvate is limited...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229552/caspase-6-is-a-dispensable-enabler-of-adult-mammalian-axonal-degeneration
#8
V Woo, C Cheng, A Duraikannu, A Chandrasekhar, K Purdy, J A Martinez, D W Zochodne
The progress of axonal degeneration (AxD) following injury or insult impacts both recovery from axonal transection and protection of axons from diverse insults, or axonopathy. Here we provide evidence that increases in capase-6 (Casp6) expression and action contribute to the progression of AxD. The expression of Casp6 protein and mRNA in distal branches of sensory axons undergoing AxD was confirmed. We developed and utilized a new model of axonopathy in live mice by serially visualizing the viability of cutaneous axons in the ear pinna that expressed an axonal YFP transgene, in response to capasaicin-induced AxD...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207487/diffuse-axonal-injury-and-oxidative-stress-a-comprehensive-review
#9
REVIEW
Alessandro Frati, Daniela Cerretani, Anna Ida Fiaschi, Paola Frati, Vittorio Gatto, Raffaele La Russa, Alessandro Pesce, Enrica Pinchi, Alessandro Santurro, Flavia Fraschetti, Vittorio Fineschi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the world's leading causes of morbidity and mortality among young individuals. TBI applies powerful rotational and translational forces to the brain parenchyma, which results in a traumatic diffuse axonal injury (DAI) responsible for brain swelling and neuronal death. Following TBI, axonal degeneration has been identified as a progressive process that starts with disrupted axonal transport causing axonal swelling, followed by secondary axonal disconnection and Wallerian degeneration...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154896/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-spinal-cord-parenchyma-lesion-in-rat-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Can Zhao, Jia-Sheng Rao, Xiao-Jiao Pei, Jian-Feng Lei, Zhan-Jing Wang, Wen Zhao, Rui-Han Wei, Zhao-Yang Yang, Xiao-Guang Li
PURPOSE: Adequate evaluation of spinal cord parenchyma and accurate identification of injury range are considered two premises for the research and treatment of chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides information about water diffusion in spinal cord, and thus makes it possible to realize these premises. METHOD: In this study, we conducted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for Wistar rats 84days after spinal cord contusion. DTI metrics including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) from different positions of the injured cord were collected, analyzed, and compared with the histological results and locomotor outcomes...
November 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120410/molecular-analysis-of-axonal-intrinsic-and-glial-associated-co-regulation-of-axon-degeneration
#11
Alejandra Catenaccio, Maica Llavero Hurtado, Paula Diaz, Douglas J Lamont, Thomas M Wishart, Felipe A Court
Wallerian degeneration is an active program tightly associated with axonal degeneration, required for axonal regeneration and functional recovery after nerve damage. Here we provide a functional molecular foundation for our undertstanding of the complex non-cell autonomous role of glial cells in the regulation of axonal degeneration. To shed light on the complexity of the molecular machinery governing axonal degeneration we employ a multi-model, unbiased, in vivo approach combining morphological assesment and quantitative proteomics with in silico-based higher order functional clustering to genetically uncouple the intrinsic and extrinsic processes governing Wallerian degeneration...
November 9, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110092/tracking-posttraumatic-hemianopia
#12
Thomas Decramer, Karel Van Keer, Peter Stalmans, Patrick Dupont, Stefan Sunaert, Tom Theys
Hemianopia after traumatic brain injury is not infrequent and results from retro-chiasmatic lesions. Differentiating optic pathway lesions can be challenging with classic imaging. Advanced imaging techniques as an investigational tool for posttraumatic hemianopia are discussed and their pitfalls highlighted through an illustrative case study. In a patient with posttraumatic hemianopia, MRI at 8 weeks and 2 years after trauma were analyzed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and morphometric analysis of the primary visual cortex (V1) were performed...
January 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076904/potential-use-of-18f-thk5351-pet-to-identify-wallerian-degeneration-of-the-pyramidal-tract-caused-by-cerebral-infarction
#13
Kenji Ishibashi, Masashi Kameyama, Tetsuro Tago, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishii
A 41-year-old man underwent F-THK5351 PET 2 years after a right middle cerebral artery infarction. F-THK5351 PET imaging revealed intense radioligand uptake along the ipsilateral pyramidal tract from the corona radiata to the medulla; intense uptake changed from the right side to the left side with descending axial sections at the level of the pyramidal decussation. F-THK5351 reportedly binds to monoamine oxidase B, which is highly expressed in astrocytes, suggesting that F-THK5351 concentrates in the lesion where gliosis occurs...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071033/stimulation-effect-of-low-level-laser-therapy-on-sciatic-nerve-regeneration-in-rat
#14
Mohammadreza Mashhoudi Barez, Masoud Tajziehchi, Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Atta Bushehri, Fariborz Moayer, Neda Mansouri, Niloufar Safavi Naini, Abolfazl Movafagh
Introduction: Recent studies showed that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) accelerates the regeneration process of injured peripheral nerve tissue. The objective of this study was investigate the effect of LLLT (780 nm) on regeneration of injured right sciatic nerve of male Wistar rat. Methods: In this research work, the effect of LLLT (780 nm) on the regeneration process and reconstruction of injured peripheral right side sciatic nerve was investigated. Twelve adult male Wistar rats underwent surgery in aseptic conditions under general anesthesia to induce a lesion to their right side sciatic nerve according to standard protocol...
2017: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051083/lysophosphatidic-acid-propagates-post-injury-schwann-cell-dedifferentiation-through-lpa1-signaling
#15
Fabian Szepanowski, Leon-Phillip Szepanowski, Anne K Mausberg, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Bernd C Kieseier, Mark Stettner
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a pleiotropic signaling lipid that acts as ligand for at least six specific G-protein coupled receptors. Schwann cells (SC) are known to mainly express the LPA1 receptor subtype. An emerging body of evidence has linked LPA with injury-induced peripheral nerve demyelination as well as neuropathic pain. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its demyelinating effect have not been conclusively elucidated. We aimed to decipher the demyelinating effect in vitro as well as in vivo by studying markers of SC differentiation and dedifferentiation: Myelinated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures were treated either with LPA, LPA plus AM095 (LPA1 antagonist) or vehicle...
October 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020717/ulnar-nerve-injury-on-removal-of-a-contraceptive-implant
#16
Eva E O'Grady, Dominic M Power
The close proximity of contraceptive implant placement to the course of the ulnar nerve can result in injury. Several factors have been implicated in this complication including: low BMI, erroneous placement of the implant, implantation over the brachial groove, and migration of the implant from its original insertion. Clinicians should familiarise themselves with the vulnerable neurovascular structures in the area and refer promptly to a specialist if any neurological symptoms develop during placement or removal of these devices...
December 2016: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987187/spinal-cord
#17
Umberto de Girolami, Tejus A Bale
We first present a brief historic review of developments in the understanding of spinal cord clinical neuroanatomy and neurophysiology over the past 200 years. We then discuss the technical aspects that apply to the examination of the human spinal cord giving details on the interrelations between the spinal cord and the overlying structures, including the meninges and vertebrae. The subsequent discussion focuses on diseases of the spinal cord. Diseases that affect the spinal cord are vascular disease, diseases of spinal column, trauma, developmental abnormalities, central nervous system degenerative disease, inflammatory disease, metabolic and nutritional myelopathies, and tumors...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978465/sarm1-deletion-but-not-wld-s-confers-lifelong-rescue-in-a-mouse-model-of-severe-axonopathy
#18
Jonathan Gilley, Richard R Ribchester, Michael P Coleman
Studies with the Wld(S) mutant mouse have shown that axon and synapse pathology in several models of neurodegenerative diseases are mechanistically related to injury-induced axon degeneration (Wallerian degeneration). Crucially, an absence of SARM1 delays Wallerian degeneration as robustly as Wld(S), but their relative capacities to confer long-term protection against related, non-injury axonopathy and/or synaptopathy have not been directly compared. While Sarm1 deletion or Wld(S) can rescue perinatal lethality and widespread Wallerian-like axonopathy in young NMNAT2-deficient mice, we report that an absence of SARM1 enables these mice to survive into old age with no overt phenotype, whereas those rescued by Wld(S) invariantly develop a progressive neuromuscular defect in their hindlimbs from around 3 months of age...
October 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966637/metabolic-pathways-as-possible-therapeutic-targets-for-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Rebecca M Heidker, Mitchell R Emerson, Steven M LeVine
Unlike relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, there are very few therapeutic options for patients with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. While immune mechanisms are key participants in the pathogenesis of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, the mechanisms underlying the development of progressive multiple sclerosis are less well understood. Putative mechanisms behind progressive multiple sclerosis have been put forth: insufficient energy production via mitochondrial dysfunction, activated microglia, iron accumulation, oxidative stress, activated astrocytes, Wallerian degeneration, apoptosis, etc...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955476/periaortic-lymphoma-in-a-cat
#20
Laura Bree, Chiara Bergamino, Ronan Mullins, Pamela Kelly, Robert Shiel
CASE SUMMARY: A 14-year-old neutered male Siamese cat was presented with a 3 month history of lethargy, inappetence, dehydration, hindlimb ataxia and intermittent proprioceptive deficits in the hindlimbs. Physical examination revealed low body condition score (1.75/5), pallor and bilateral basilar grade II/VI systolic heart murmur. Neurological examination revealed hindlimb ataxia, severe atrophy of the hindlimb musculature, intermittent hindlimb proprioceptive deficits and normoreflexia...
July 2017: JFMS Open Reports
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