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Wallerian degeneration

Puneet Mittal, Ranjana Gupta, Amit Mittal, Kapish Mittal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Yuya Yamagishi, Marc Tessier-Lavigne
Axon degeneration is a tightly regulated, self-destructive program that is a critical feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this program remain poorly understood. Here, we identify S-phase kinase-associated protein 1A (Skp1a), a core component of a Skp/Cullin/F-box (SCF)-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, as a critical regulator of axon degeneration after injury in mammalian neurons. Depletion of Skp1a prolongs survival of injured axons in vitro and in the optic nerve in vivo...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Peter Štrafela, Alenka Vizjak, Jerica Mraz, Jernej Mlakar, Jože Pižem, Nataša Tul, Tatjana Avšič Županc, Mara Popović
CONTEXT: -The 2015 outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil resulted in a 20-times increased prevalence of congenital microcephaly in stillborns and neonates and was instrumental in raising the suspicion of a causal association between Zika virus and microcephaly. OBJECTIVE: -To provide a comprehensive description of the neuropathologic features of congenital Zika virus infection. DESIGN: -Autopsy evaluation of the brain from a fetus of 32 weeks and 6 days of gestation, with a prenatal diagnosis of microcephaly associated with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed, fetal, Zika virus infection...
October 11, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Izumi Kawachi, Hans Lassmann
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are autoimmune demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), having distinct immunological and pathological features. They have two pathogenic components, 'inflammation' and 'neurodegeneration', with different degrees of severity and pathogenetic mechanisms. The target antigen of autoimmunity in NMO is the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4), and antibodies directed against this antigen result in astrocyte damage. MS is a disease primarily affecting myelin and oligodendrocytes, but thus far, no MS-specific autoantigen has been identified...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Daniel W Summers, Daniel A Gibson, Aaron DiAntonio, Jeffrey Milbrandt
Axon injury in response to trauma or disease stimulates a self-destruction program that promotes the localized clearance of damaged axon segments. Sterile alpha and Toll/interleukin receptor (TIR) motif-containing protein 1 (SARM1) is an evolutionarily conserved executioner of this degeneration cascade, also known as Wallerian degeneration; however, the mechanism of SARM1-dependent neuronal destruction is still obscure. SARM1 possesses a TIR domain that is necessary for SARM1 activity. In other proteins, dimerized TIR domains serve as scaffolds for innate immune signaling...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
R Barigye, S Davis, R Hunt, N Hunt, S Walsh, N Elliott, C Burnup, S Aumann, C Day, K Dyrting, R Weir, L F Melville
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the neurotropism of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus (BEFV) and described histomorphological abnormalities of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves that may causally contribute to paresis or paralysis in BEF. METHODS: Four paralysed and six asymptomatic but virus-infected cattle were monitored, and blood and serum samples screened by qRT-PCR, virus isolation and neutralisation tests. Fresh brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerve and other tissues were qRT-PCR-tested for viral RNA, while formalin-fixed specimens were processed routinely and immunohistochemically evaluated for histomorphological abnormalities and viral antigen distribution, respectively...
October 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
Thomas Bartels, Kerstin Wäse, Martin Heinrichs, Manuela Stolte, Nigel Roome, Petra Scherer, Klaus Lindauer
The toxicological profile of insulins is exclusively due to exaggerated pharmacology resulting in hypoglycemic findings. Insulin analogues displaying modifications and aimed at improving pharmacokinetics do not induce different toxicity. The main target is the brain displaying neuronal necrosis. Wallerian degeneration of nerves occurs rarely after severe hypoglycemia. These findings are of potential human relevance; nevertheless, these changes are induced in normoglycemic animals whereas diabetic patients suffer from hyperglycemia...
October 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Elham Memari, Mohammad-Ali Hosseinian, Ali Mirkheshti, Ali Arhami-Dolatabadi, Mojtaba Mirabotalebi, Mohsen Khandaghy, Yahya Daneshbod, Leila Alizadeh, Sadegh Shirian
Injection of a variety of drugs such as local anesthetics (LAs) for peripheral nerve block has been shown to cause damage to peripheral nerves. Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic widely used in surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neurotoxicity of LAs including Bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine (DEX)-Bupivacaine on sciatic nerve tissue at histopathological level. In addition, we investigated whether perineural administration of DEX can attenuate Bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty adult Sprague Dawley rats received unilateral sciatic nerve blocks with either 0...
September 17, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
Maria D Purice, Sean D Speese, Mary A Logan
Advanced age is the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, but the mechanisms that render the senescent brain vulnerable to disease are unclear. Glial immune responses provide neuroprotection in a variety of contexts. Thus, we explored how glial responses to neurodegeneration are altered with age. Here we show that glia-axon phagocytic interactions change dramatically in the aged Drosophila brain. Aged glia clear degenerating axons slowly due to low phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling and, subsequently, reduced expression of the conserved phagocytic receptor Draper/MEGF10...
September 20, 2016: Nature Communications
George D Bittner, Christopher S Spaeth, Andrew D Poon, Zachary S Burgess, Christopher H McGill
The repair (sealing) of plasmalemmal damage, consisting of small holes to complete transections, is critical for cell survival, especially for neurons that rarely regenerate cell bodies. We first describe and evaluate different measures of cell sealing. Some measures, including morphological/ultra-structural observations, membrane potential, and input resistance, provide very ambiguous assessments of plasmalemmal sealing. In contrast, measures of ionic current flow and dye barriers can, if appropriately used, provide more accurate assessments...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
John C Bramley, Samantha V A Collins, Karen B Clark, William J Buchser
The integrity of long axons is essential for neural communication. Unfortunately, relatively minor stress to a neuron can cause extensive loss of this integrity. Axon degeneration is the cell-intrinsic program that actively deconstructs an axon after injury or damage. Although ultrastructural examination has revealed signs of axon degeneration in vivo, the occurrence and progression of axon degeneration in avian species have not yet been documented in vitro. Here, we use a novel cell culture system with primary embryonic zebra finch retinal ganglion cells to interrogate the properties of avian axon degeneration...
November 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Vanina Usach, Mariana Malet, Margarita López, Lucía Lavalle, Gonzalo Piñero, María Saccoliti, Alicia Cueto, Pablo Brumovsky, Alicia Brusco, Patricia Setton-Avruj
BACKGROUND: Reinnervation timing after nerve injury is critical for favorable axonal regeneration, remyelination and clinical improvement. Considering bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) are easily obtained and readily available for transplant, this work analyzed the effect of BMMC systemic administration on nerve repair and pain behavior. METHODS: Adult rats with sciatic nerve crush were immediately and systemically injected BMMC through the caudal artery. Nontreated, sham and naïve rats were also included...
September 8, 2016: Transplantation
Kaspar-Josche Streitberger, Andreas Fehlner, Florence Pache, Anna Lacheta, Sebastian Papazoglou, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Klemens Ruprecht, Alexander Brandt, Jürgen Braun, Ingolf Sack, Friedemann Paul, Jens Wuerfel
OBJECTIVES: Application of multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography (MMRE) of the brain parenchyma in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) compared to age matched healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 15 NMOSD patients and 17 age- and gender-matched HC were examined using MMRE. Two three-dimensional viscoelastic parameter maps, the magnitude |G*| and phase angle φ of the complex shear modulus were reconstructed by simultaneous inversion of full wave-field data in 1...
August 29, 2016: European Radiology
Franka Messner, Johanna Grahammer, Theresa Hautz, Gerald Brandacher, Stefan Schneeberger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) in vascularized tissue allotransplantation (VCA) remain largely undefined. Because VCA is comprised of different tissues, the sensitivity towards IRI may not be uniform. We, herein, attempt to address mechanistic aspects of IRI in VCA and provide a summary on potential technologies and targets for amelioration or treatment of IRI in this novel field. RECENT FINDINGS: IRI results in a loosened architecture of musculature, hypertrophic, centrally located cell nuclei as well as a high degree of neovascularization...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Todd A Hardy, Chenyu Wang, Heidi N Beadnall, Jim Lagopoulos, Yael Barnett, Alexander Klistorner, Michael H Barnett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Juan Tao, Chengye Feng, Melissa M Rolls
After being severed from the cell body, axons initiate an active degeneration program known as Wallerian degeneration. Although dendrites also seem to have an active injury-induced degeneration program, no endogenous regulators of this process are known. Because microtubule disassembly has been proposed to play a role in both pruning and injury-induced degeneration, we used a Drosophila model to identify microtubule regulators involved in dendrite degeneration. We found that, when levels of fidgetin were reduced using mutant or RNA interference (RNAi) strategies, dendrite degeneration was delayed, but axon degeneration and dendrite pruning proceeded with normal timing...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Avraham Yaron, Oren Schuldiner
Cell death is an inherent process that is required for the proper wiring of the nervous system. Studies over the last four decades have shown that, in a parallel developmental pathway, axons and dendrites are eliminated without the death of the neuron. This developmentally regulated 'axonal death' results in neuronal remodeling, which is an essential mechanism to sculpt neuronal networks in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Studies across various organisms have demonstrated that a conserved strategy in the formation of adult neuronal circuitry often involves generating too many connections, most of which are later eliminated with high temporal and spatial resolution...
July 11, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Johanna L Hannan, Hotaka Matsui, Nikolai A Sopko, Xiaopu Liu, Emmanuel Weyne, Maarten Albersen, Joseph W Watson, Ahmet Hoke, Arthur L Burnett, Trinity J Bivalacqua
Axonal injury due to prostatectomy leads to Wallerian degeneration of the cavernous nerve (CN) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Return of potency is dependent on axonal regeneration and reinnervation of the penis. Following CN injury (CNI), RhoA and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) increase in penile endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Previous studies indicate that nerve regeneration is hampered by activation of RhoA/ROCK pathway. We evaluated the role of RhoA/ROCK pathway in CN regulation following CNI using a validated rat model...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hanna Küpper, Manfred Kudernatsch, Tom Pieper, Samuel Groeschel, Jacques-Donald Tournier, David Raffelt, Peter Winkler, Hans Holthausen, Martin Staudt
Hemidisconnections (i.e. hemispherectomies or hemispherotomies) invariably lead to contralateral hemiparesis. Many patients with a pre-existing hemiparesis, however, experience no deterioration in motor functions, and some can still grasp with their paretic hand after hemidisconnection. The scope of our study was to predict this phenomenon. Hypothesizing that preserved contralateral grasping ability after hemidisconnection can only occur in patients controlling their paretic hands via ipsilateral corticospinal projections already in the preoperative situation, we analysed the asymmetries of the brainstem (by manual magnetic resonance imaging volumetry) and of the structural connectivity of the corticospinal tracts within the brainstem (by magnetic resonance imaging diffusion tractography), assuming that marked hypoplasia or Wallerian degeneration on the lesioned side in patients who can grasp with their paretic hands indicate ipsilateral control...
September 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Shu-Wei Sun, Christopher Nishioka, Chen-Fang Chung, JoAnn Park, Hsiao-Fang Liang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize the temporospatial profile of axonal degeneration and its relation to blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Longitudinal DTI was performed in Wallerian degeneration slow (WldS) mice following retinal ischemia. In parallel, gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced T1 -weighted imaging (Gd-T1 WI) was performed to evaluate BBB permeability in white matter during axonal degeneration...
July 4, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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