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Wallerian degeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445802/nmnat-it-s-an-nad-synthase%C3%A2-it-s-a-chaperone%C3%A2-it-s-a-neuroprotector
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer M Brazill, Chong Li, Yi Zhu, R Grace Zhai
Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) are a family of highly conserved proteins indispensable for cellular homeostasis. NMNATs are classically known for their enzymatic function of catalyzing NAD(+) synthesis, but also have gained a reputation as essential neuronal maintenance factors. NMNAT deficiency has been associated with various human diseases with pronounced consequences on neural tissues, underscoring the importance of the neuronal maintenance and protective roles of these proteins...
April 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441556/death-receptor-6-promotes-wallerian-degeneration-in-peripheral-axons
#2
Kanchana K Gamage, Irene Cheng, Rachel E Park, Mardeen S Karim, Kazusa Edamura, Christopher Hughes, Anthony J Spano, Alev Erisir, Christopher D Deppmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394848/a-new-step-toward-evidence-of-in-vivo-perineural-dexamethasone-safety-an-animal-study
#3
Philippe Marty, Mehdi Bennis, Benjamin Legaillard, Etienne Cavaignac, Fabrice Ferre, Julie Lebon, Anne Brouchet, Vincent Minville
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze histological nerve toxicity of perineural dexamethasone administration in combination with ropivacaine on mice. Efficacy of perineural dexamethasone in combination with regional anesthesia is clearly demonstrated. However, the safety of this procedure is still a matter of debate. METHODS: A sciatic nerve block was performed on 90 mice. Five groups, each containing 18 mice assigned randomly, were used in these experiments: the sham group (isotonic saline solution), R group (perineural ropivacaine), D group (perineural dexamethasone), RDPN group (perineural ropivacaine and perineural dexamethasone), and the RDS group (perineural ropivacaine and systemic dexamethasone)...
April 7, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386368/diffusional-kurtosis-imaging-in-evaluating-the-secondary-change-of-corticospinal-tract-after-unilateral-cerebral-infarction
#4
Shun Zhang, Wenjie Zhu, Yan Zhang, Yihao Yao, Jingjing Shi, Cong-Yi Wang, Wenzhen Zhu
We investigated to evaluate whether diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) can early detect the microstructure change of corticospinal tract (CST) after unilateral cerebral infarction solely in middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Seventy-seven patients with MCA territory infarct consisting of 10 subjects of hyperacute phase, 22 subjects of acute phase, 28 subjects of subacute phase and 17 subjects of chronic phase were enrolled in this study. ROI method was performed to measure the mean value of the infarcted area and the areas which belongs to CST [including the posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC), cerebral peduncle (CP), pons, and medulla] in both ipsilateral and contralateral mirror side in all the DKI-derived parametric maps...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381927/the-effects-of-minocycline-on-spinal-root-avulsion-injury-in-rat-model
#5
Tan Yew Chin, Sim Sze Kiat, Hizal Ghazali Faizul, Wutian Wu, Jafri Malin Abdullah
BACKGROUND: The neuroprotective role of minocycline in the treatment of brachial plexus injury is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To study the neuroprotective effect of minocycline via different routes in adult Sprague Dawley rats with brachial plexus injury. METHODS: The C7 nerve roots of the animals were avulsed via an anterior extravertebral approach. Traction force was used to transect the ventral motor nerve roots at the preganglionic level...
March 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374239/radiological-imaging-findings-of-dyke-davidoff-masson-syndrome
#6
Erkan Gökçe, Murat Beyhan, Recep Sade
Radiological findings of Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) in patients with different etiologies are presented in our study. The study included 12 patients (seven females, five males) for whom radiological examinations were requested due to reasons such as epilepsy, mental retardation, and/or hemiplegia. CT was performed in 12, MRI in 6, MRA in 1, and DSA in 1 patient. Following imaging findings were evaluated: cerebral and cerebellar involvement (laterality, encephalomalacia), affected territories, ventricular enlargement, sulcal enlargement, calvarial thickening, and paranasal sinus enlargement hyperaeration...
April 3, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302146/relationship-of-acute-axonal-damage-wallerian-degeneration-and-clinical-disability-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Shailender Singh, Tobias Dallenga, Anne Winkler, Shanu Roemer, Brigitte Maruschak, Heike Siebert, Wolfgang Brück, Christine Stadelmann
BACKGROUND: Axonal damage and loss substantially contribute to the incremental accumulation of clinical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis. Here, we assessed the amount of Wallerian degeneration in brain tissue of multiple sclerosis patients in relation to demyelinating lesion activity and asked whether a transient blockade of Wallerian degeneration decreases axonal loss and clinical disability in a mouse model of inflammatory demyelination. METHODS: Wallerian degeneration and acute axonal damage were determined immunohistochemically in the periplaque white matter of multiple sclerosis patients with early actively demyelinating lesions, chronic active lesions, and inactive lesions...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285993/death-receptor-6-promotes-wallerian-degeneration-in-peripheral-axons
#8
Kanchana K Gamage, Irene Cheng, Rachel E Park, Mardeen S Karim, Kazusa Edamura, Christopher Hughes, Anthony J Spano, Alev Erisir, Christopher D Deppmann
Axon degeneration during development is required to sculpt a functional nervous system and is also a hallmark of pathological insult, such as injury [1, 2]. Despite similar morphological characteristics, very little overlap in molecular mechanisms has been reported between pathological and developmental degeneration [3-5]. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), developmental axon pruning relies on receptor-mediated extrinsic degeneration mechanisms to determine which axons are maintained or degenerated [5-7]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275163/axonal-degeneration-in-retinal-ganglion-cells-is-associated-with-a-membrane-polarity-sensitive-redox-process
#9
Mohammadali Almasieh, Maria-Magdalena Catrinescu, Loïc Binan, Santiago Costantino, Leonard A Levin
Axonal degeneration is a pathophysiological mechanism common to several neurodegenerative diseases. The slow Wallerian degeneration (Wld(S)) mutation, which results in reduced axonal degeneration in the central and peripheral nervous systems, has provided insight into a redox-dependent mechanism by which axons undergo self-destruction. We studied early molecular events in axonal degeneration with single-axon laser axotomy and time-lapse imaging, monitoring the initial changes in transected axons of purified retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from wild-type and Wld(S) rat retinas using a polarity-sensitive annexin-based biosensor (annexin B12-Cys101,Cys260-N,N'-dimethyl-N-(iodoacetyl)-N'-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) ethylenediamine)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270094/effect-of-spp1-on-nerve-degeneration-and-regeneration-after-rat-sciatic-nerve-injury
#10
Xingyu Liu, Yuhua Sun, Huaiqin Li, Yuting Li, Meiyuan Li, Ying Yuan, Shusen Cui, Dengbing Yao
BACKGROUND: Wallerian degeneration (WD) in injured peripheral nerves is associated with a large number of up- or down-regulated genes, but the effects of these changes are poorly understood. In our previous studies, we reported some key factors that are differentially expressed to activate nerve degeneration and regeneration during WD. Here, we determined the effects of secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1) on WD after rat sciatic nerve injury. RESULTS: Spp1 was upregulated from 6 h to 14 days after sciatic nerve injury...
March 7, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262487/nmn-deamidase-delays-wallerian-degeneration-and-rescues-axonal-defects-caused-by-nmnat2-deficiency-in%C3%A2-vivo
#11
Michele Di Stefano, Andrea Loreto, Giuseppe Orsomando, Valerio Mori, Federica Zamporlini, Richard P Hulse, Jamie Webster, Lucy F Donaldson, Martin Gering, Nadia Raffaelli, Michael P Coleman, Jonathan Gilley, Laura Conforti
Axons require the axonal NAD-synthesizing enzyme NMNAT2 to survive. Injury or genetically induced depletion of NMNAT2 triggers axonal degeneration or defective axon growth. We have previously proposed that axonal NMNAT2 primarily promotes axon survival by maintaining low levels of its substrate NMN rather than generating NAD; however, this is still debated. NMN deamidase, a bacterial enzyme, shares NMN-consuming activity with NMNAT2, but not NAD-synthesizing activity, and it delays axon degeneration in primary neuronal cultures...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239339/microarray-and-qpcr-analyses-of-wallerian-degeneration-in-rat-sciatic-nerves
#12
Sheng Yi, Xin Tang, Jun Yu, Jie Liu, Fei Ding, Xiaosong Gu
Wallerian degeneration occurs immediately following injury to mammal peripheral nerves. To better understand the molecular events occurring during Wallerian degeneration, a rat model of sciatic nerve transection was used to assess differentially expressed genes at 0.5, 1, 6, 12, 24 h, 4 days, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post nerve injury (PNI). Hierarchical clustering, Euclidean distance matrix, and principal component analysis (PCA) collectively suggested three distinct phases within the post-injury period of 4 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203223/impaired-axonal-regeneration-in-diabetes-perspective-on-the-underlying-mechanism-from-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-experimental-studies
#13
REVIEW
Kazunori Sango, Hiroki Mizukami, Hidenori Horie, Soroku Yagihashi
Axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury is impaired in diabetes, but its precise mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this paper, we summarize the progress of research on altered axonal regeneration in animal models of diabetes and cultured nerve tissues exposed to hyperglycemia. Impaired nerve regeneration in animal diabetes can be attributed to dysfunction of neurons and Schwann cells, unfavorable stromal environment supportive of regenerating axons, and alterations of target tissues receptive to reinnervation...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163512/t2-fluid-attenuation-inversion-recovery-hypointensity-of-corticospinal-tracts-due-to-subacute-stage-of-wallerian-degeneration
#14
Kamble Jayaprakash Harsha, K Parameswaran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139851/betacellulin-regulates-schwann-cell-proliferation-and-myelin-formation-in-the-injured-mouse-peripheral-nerve
#15
Nicolas Vallières, Benoit Barrette, Linda Xiang Wang, Erik Bélanger, Louise Thiry, Marlon R Schneider, Mohammed Filali, Daniel Côté, Frédéric Bretzner, Steve Lacroix
When a nerve fiber is cut or crushed, the axon segment that is separated from the soma degenerates distal from the injury in a process termed Wallerian degeneration (WD). C57BL/6OlaHsd-Wld(S) (Wld(S) ) mutant mice exhibit significant delays in WD. This results in considerably delayed Schwann cell and macrophage responses and thus in impaired nerve regenerations. In our previous work, thousands of genes were screened by DNA microarrays and over 700 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the injured sciatic nerve of Wld(S) compared with wild-type (WT) mice...
January 31, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137843/alphab-crystallin-regulates-remyelination-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#16
Erin-Mai F Lim, Stan T Nakanishi, Vahid Hoghooghi, Shane E A Eaton, Alexandra L Palmer, Ariana Frederick, Jo A Stratton, Morgan G Stykel, Patrick J Whelan, Douglas W Zochodne, Jeffrey Biernaskie, Shalina S Ousman
AlphaB-crystallin (αBC) is a small heat shock protein that is constitutively expressed by peripheral nervous system (PNS) axons and Schwann cells. To determine what role this crystallin plays after peripheral nerve damage, we found that loss of αBC impaired remyelination, which correlated with a reduced presence of myelinating Schwann cells and increased numbers of nonmyelinating Schwann cells. The heat shock protein also seems to regulate the cross-talk between Schwann cells and axons, because expected changes in neuregulin levels and ErbB2 receptor expression after PNS injury were disrupted in the absence of αBC...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128402/an-assessment-of-the-correlation-between-early-postinfarction-pyramidal-tract-wallerian-degeneration-and-nerve-function-recovery-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#17
A H Guo, F L Hao, L F Liu, B J Wang, X F Jiang
This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the early diagnosis of pyramidal tract Wallerian degeneration (WD) and assessment of neurological recovery following cerebral infarction. This study included 23 patients with acute cerebral infarction and 10 healthy adult controls. All participants underwent both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI scans. DTI images were analyzed using the Functional MRI of the Brain Software Library to determine the regions of interest (ROI) and obtain the mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) value for each ROI...
January 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110171/long-term-usability-and-bio-integration-of-polyimide-based-intra-neural-stimulating-electrodes
#18
S Wurth, M Capogrosso, S Raspopovic, J Gandar, G Federici, N Kinany, A Cutrone, A Piersigilli, N Pavlova, R Guiet, G Taverni, J Rigosa, P Shkorbatova, X Navarro, Q Barraud, G Courtine, S Micera
Stimulation of peripheral nerves has transiently restored lost sensation and has the potential to alleviate motor deficits. However, incomplete characterization of the long-term usability and bio-integration of intra-neural implants has restricted their use for clinical applications. Here, we conducted a longitudinal assessment of the selectivity, stability, functionality, and biocompatibility of polyimide-based intra-neural implants that were inserted in the sciatic nerve of twenty-three healthy adult rats for up to six months...
January 13, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095293/mapk-signaling-promotes-axonal-degeneration-by-speeding-the-turnover-of-the-axonal-maintenance-factor-nmnat2
#19
Lauren J Walker, Daniel W Summers, Yo Sasaki, E J Brace, Jeffrey Milbrandt, Aaron DiAntonio
Injury-induced (Wallerian) axonal degeneration is regulated via the opposing actions of pro-degenerative factors such as SARM1 and a MAPK signal and pro-survival factors, the most important of which is the NAD(+) biosynthetic enzyme NMNAT2 that inhibits activation of the SARM1 pathway. Here we investigate the mechanism by which MAPK signaling facilitates axonal degeneration. We show that MAPK signaling promotes the turnover of the axonal survival factor NMNAT2 in cultured mammalian neurons as well as the Drosophila ortholog dNMNAT in motoneurons...
January 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081156/generation-of-a-stable-transgenic-swine-model-expressing-a-porcine-histone-2b-egfp-fusion-protein-for-cell-tracking-and-chromosome-dynamics-studies
#20
Renan B Sper, Sehwon Koh, Xia Zhang, Sean Simpson, Bruce Collins, Jeff Sommer, Robert M Petters, Ignacio Caballero, Jeff L Platt, Jorge A Piedrahita
Transgenic pigs have become an attractive research model in the field of translational research, regenerative medicine, and stem cell therapy due to their anatomic, genetic and physiological similarities with humans. The development of fluorescent proteins as molecular tags has allowed investigators to track cell migration and engraftment levels after transplantation. Here we describe the development of two transgenic pig models via SCNT expressing a fusion protein composed of eGFP and porcine Histone 2B (pH2B)...
2017: PloS One
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