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de-myelination

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815809/prevalence-of-thoracic-spine-lesions-masquerading-as-cauda-equina-syndrome-yield-of-a-novel-magnetic-resonance-imaging-protocol
#1
Katherine Stolper, James Clark Haug, Chad Todd Christensen, Kathleen Michelle Samsey, Michael David April
Our objective was to describe the yield of actionable thoracic spine lesions for a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol including evaluation of the thoracic spine among patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with symptoms consistent with epidural compression syndrome. Our ED and Department of Radiology together designed a novel rapid MRI protocol entailing 3D volumetric T2 weighted sequences through both the thoracic and lumbar spine obtained in the sagittal plane to assess for both lumbar and thoracic spine lesions...
November 4, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26658258/clobetasol-and-halcinonide-act-as-smoothened-agonists-to-promote-myelin-gene-expression-and-rxr%C3%AE-receptor-activation
#2
Giampiero Porcu, Eliseo Serone, Velia De Nardis, Daniele Di Giandomenico, Giuseppe Lucisano, Marco Scardapane, Anna Poma, Antonella Ragnini-Wilson
One of the causes of permanent disability in chronic multiple sclerosis patients is the inability of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to terminate their maturation program at lesions. To identify key regulators of myelin gene expression acting at the last stages of OPC maturation we developed a drug repositioning strategy based on the mouse immortalized oligodendrocyte (OL) cell line Oli-neu brought to the premyelination stage by stably expressing a key factor regulating the last stages of OL maturation...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25998127/hyperglycemia-promotes-schwann-cell-de-differentiation-and-de-myelination-via-sorbitol-accumulation-and-igf1-protein-down-regulation
#3
Wu Hao, Syoichi Tashiro, Tomoka Hasegawa, Yuiko Sato, Tami Kobayashi, Toshimi Tando, Eri Katsuyama, Atsuhiro Fujie, Ryuichi Watanabe, Mayu Morita, Kana Miyamoto, Hideo Morioka, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Norio Amizuka, Yoshiaki Toyama, Takeshi Miyamoto
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently accompanied by complications, such as peripheral nerve neuropathy. Schwann cells play a pivotal role in regulating peripheral nerve function and conduction velocity; however, changes in Schwann cell differentiation status in DM are not fully understood. Here, we report that Schwann cells de-differentiate into immature cells under hyperglycemic conditions as a result of sorbitol accumulation and decreased Igf1 expression in those cells. We found that de-differentiated Schwann cells could be re-differentiated in vitro into mature cells by treatment with an aldose reductase inhibitor, to reduce sorbitol levels, or with vitamin D3, to elevate Igf1 expression...
July 10, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25328848/structural-covariance-of-superficial-white-matter-in-mild-alzheimer-s-disease-compared-to-normal-aging
#4
Cristian Carmeli, Eleonora Fornari, Mahdi Jalili, Reto Meuli, Maria G Knyazeva
INTRODUCTION: Interindividual variations in regional structural properties covary across the brain, thus forming networks that change as a result of aging and accompanying neurological conditions. The alterations of superficial white matter (SWM) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are of special interest, since they follow the AD-specific pattern characterized by the strongest neurodegeneration of the medial temporal lobe and association cortices. METHODS: Here, we present an SWM network analysis in comparison with SWM topography based on the myelin content quantified with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) for 39 areas in each hemisphere in 15 AD patients and 15 controls...
September 2014: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24930935/cxcr3-modulates-glial-accumulation-and-activation-in-cuprizone-induced-demyelination-of-the-central-nervous-system
#5
Marius Krauthausen, Simon Saxe, Julian Zimmermann, Michael Emrich, Michael T Heneka, Marcus Müller
BACKGROUND: The functional state of glial cells, like astrocytes and microglia, critically modulates the course of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases and can have both detrimental and beneficial effects. Glial cell function is tightly controlled by cellular interactions in which cytokines are important messengers. Recent studies provide evidence that in particular chemokines are important modulators of glial cell function. During the course of CNS diseases like multiple sclerosis or Alzheimer's disease, and in the corresponding animal models, the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 are abundantly expressed at sites of glial activation, arguing for an important role of these chemokines and their corresponding receptor CXCR3 in glial activation...
2014: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23261460/inhibition-of-the-de-myelinating-properties-of-aicardi-gouti%C3%A3-res-syndrome-lymphocytes-by-cathepsin-d-silencing
#6
A Pulliero, B Marengo, M Longobardi, E Fazzi, S Orcesi, I Olivieri, C Cereda, C Domenicotti, U Balottin, A Izzotti
Molecular mechanisms relating interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) to brain damage have recently been identified in a microarray analysis of cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytes from patients with Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome (AGS). These findings demonstrate that the inhibition of angiogenesis and the activation of neurotoxic lymphocytes are the major pathogenic mechanisms involved in the brain damage consequent to elevated interferon-alpha levels. Our previous study demonstrated that cathepsin D, a lysosomal aspartyl endopeptidase, is the primary mediator of the neurotoxicity exerted by AGS lymphocytes...
January 18, 2013: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19118550/secondary-degeneration-of-the-optic-nerve-following-partial-transection-the-benefits-of-lomerizine
#7
Melinda Fitzgerald, Carole A Bartlett, Lauren Evill, Jenny Rodger, Alan R Harvey, Sarah A Dunlop
Secondary degeneration is a form of 'bystander' damage that can affect neural tissue both nearby and remote from an initial injury. Partial optic nerve transection is an excellent model in which to unequivocally differentiate events occurring during secondary degeneration from those resulting from primary CNS injury. We analysed the primary injury site within the optic nerve (ON) and intact areas vulnerable to secondary degeneration. Areas affected by the primary injury showed morphological disruption, loss of beta-III tubulin axonal staining, reduced myelinated axon density, greater proteoglycan expression (phosphacan), increased microglia and macrophage numbers and increased oxidative stress...
March 2009: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19078096/intravenous-gamma-globulin-therapy
#8
B F Mandell
Initially used as replacement therapy in patients with hypogammaglob-ulinemia, intravenous gamma-globulin (IVIg) preparations are increasingly being used as treatment for various autoimmune disorders. Although expensive, IVIg has become first-line or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of disorders as diverse as autoimmune or post-transfusion thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Kawasaki's disease, inflammatory myositis, myasthenia gravis, pediatric acquired immune deficiency syndrome, bone marrow transplantation, and inflammatory de-myelinating polyneuropathy...
December 1996: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18726192/strategies-for-the-identification-of-loci-responsible-for-the-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Joel N H Stern, Derin B Keskin
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, debilitating disease, which manifests itself by de-myelination of the central nervous system (CNS). MS is predominantly found in Caucasians of European decent and is more prominent in females than males. MS is one of the most prevalent causes of disability of young adults in the world. The exact cause of MS is not known, however genetic susceptibility to MS is linked to the major histocompability complex (MHC). Self reactive CD4+ T cells, specific for CNS antigens, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and proteolipid protein (PLP), are detectable in MS patients along with pathogenic autoantibodies specific to these CNS antigens produced by B cells...
2008: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12468009/assessment-of-locus-and-extent-of-neurotoxic-lesions-in-monkeys-using-neuroimaging-techniques-a-replication
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sarah Nemanic, Maria C Alvarado, Roger E Price, Edward F Jackson, Jocelyne Bachevalier
In a recent study, [Hippocampus 11 (2001) 361] demonstrated that in vivo neuroimaging techniques could be used to accurately quantify the extent of neuronal damage after ibotenic acid injections in non-human primates. The present study was undertaken to replicate these findings and to further estimate whether the concentration of ibotenic acid used (10-15 mg/ml) to produce the neuronal loss did not affect the fibers coursing within or around the targeted brain area. Magnetic resonance (MR) images (T1-weighted and FLAIR) were acquired in three monkeys before and after they received neurotoxic lesions of the hippocampal formation...
December 15, 2002: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/6591891/changes-with-age-in-canine-tooth-pulp-nerve-fibres-of-the-cat
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
K Fried, G Erdélyi
Light microscopical observations have been made on teased pulpal nerve fibres from mandibular canine teeth of cats aged 3 years or more. Both internodal lengths and external fibre diameters appeared to be reduced compared to the young adult. Qualitative myelin sheath changes were commonly observed. These consisted of extremely short, smooth or distorted intercalated internodes, myelin wrinkling, nodal lengthening and formation of myelin ovoids. Features suggesting de-myelination were also present. These findings should be considered when functional aspects of pulpal axons in the ageing tooth are discussed...
1984: Archives of Oral Biology
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