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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750997/the-role-of-spatial-variations-of-abiotic-factors-in-mediating-intratumour-phenotypic-heterogeneity
#1
Tommaso Lorenzi, Chandrasekhar Venkataraman, Alexander Lorz, Mark A J Chaplain
We present here a space- and phenotype-structured model of selection dynamics between cancer cells within a solid tumour. In the framework of this model, we combine formal analyses with numerical simulations to investigate in silico the role played by the spatial distribution of abiotic components of the tumour microenvironment in mediating phenotypic selection of cancer cells. Numerical simulations are performed both on the 3D geometry of an in silico multicellular tumour spheroid and on the 3D geometry of an in vivo human hepatic tumour, which was imaged using computerised tomography...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747631/feasibility-acceptability-and-adaption-of-dignity-therapy-a-mixed-methods-study-achieving-360%C3%A2-feedback
#2
Sandra Stephanie Mai, Swantje Goebel, Elisabeth Jentschke, Birgitt van Oorschot, Karl-Heinz Renner, Martin Weber
BACKGROUND: Dignity Therapy (DT) is a short-term intervention to reduce psychological suffering in end-of-life care. Its strength lies in evidenced-based development and investigation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of DT at German palliative care units (PCU), as well as the acceptability and adaption of a German version of the DT question protocol (DTQP). METHOD: A clinical multicentre mixed methods study, whereby patients and relatives provided quantitative (feedback questionnaires) and qualitative (cognitive interviews) data on the DT intervention...
May 10, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716908/critical-care-nurses-experiences-with-spiritual-care-the-spirit-study
#3
Nigel Bone, Marilyn Swinton, Neala Hoad, Feli Toledo, Deborah Cook
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of chaplains on critical care nurses who are caring for critically ill patients and their families. OBJECTIVE: To understand nurses' experiences when they make a referral to the Spiritual Care Department for a patient or the family of a patient who is dying or deceased. Specific aims were to explore spiritual care's effect on nurses and how nurses understand the role of spiritual care in practice. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study using in-person, semistructured interviews in a 21-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit in a teaching hospital...
May 2018: American Journal of Critical Care: An Official Publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697351/shouldn-t-chaplains-be-handling-cases-with-miracle-language
#4
Michael McCarthy, Katherine Wasson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684230/effective-palliative-care-what-is-involved
#5
REVIEW
Mehak Swami, Amy Allen Case
It is important for oncologists who provide comprehensive cancer care to be familiar with the principles of primary palliative care and interdisciplinary team-based approaches to palliative care. Palliative care is a medical subspecialty that provides specialized care to individuals with serious illnesses, with a primary focus on providing symptom relief, pain management, and relief from psychosocial distress, regardless of diagnosis or prognosis. Ideally, palliative care is provided by a team of physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists, and chaplains...
April 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681551/-he-must-die-or-go-mad-in-this-place-prisoners-insanity-and-the-pentonville-model-prison-experiment-1842-52
#6
Catherine Cox, Hilary Marland
The relationship between prisons and mental illness has preoccupied prison administrators, physicians, and reformers from the establishment of the modern prison service in the nineteenth century to the current day. Here we take the case of Pentonville Model Prison, established in 1842 with the aim of reforming convicts through religious exhortation, rigorous discipline and training, and the imposition of separate confinement in its most extreme form. Our article demonstrates how following the introduction of separate confinement, the prison chaplains rather than the medical officers took a lead role in managing the minds of convicts...
2018: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669723/nhs-s-first-humanist-chaplain-five-minutes-with-lindsay-van-dijk
#7
Eliza Slawther
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623797/transforming-chaplaincy-requires-transforming-clinical-pastoral-education
#8
Judith R Ragsdale
Clinical Pastoral Education (CPE) is a process focused on developing students' personal integration. Outcomes for CPE need to expand to reflect current research in religion and spirituality because religion and spirituality impacts coping, meaning making, decision-making, and health care outcomes. Focusing CPE outcomes on religious/spiritual beliefs and practices used by patients will equip chaplains to provide research-informed spiritual care for families and discipline-specific information for the interdisciplinary team...
March 2018: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598224/integrating-spiritual-care-during-interprofessional-simulation-for-baccalaureate-nursing-students
#9
Susan L Huehn, Mary Beth Kuehn, Katherine E Fick
Interprofessional educational experiences for baccalaureate nursing students are essential to prepare them for interprofessional communication and collaborative interprofessional teamwork. The aim of this descriptive qualitative study was to understand the experience of baccalaureate nursing students utilizing the hospital chaplain while caring for a suicidal patient in the emergency department during simulation. The need for interprofessional education is documented in the literature, but there are very few comprehensive, successful projects integrating spiritual care for nurse educators to use as models...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584871/religious-communities-health-and-well-being-address-to-the-us-air-force-chaplain
#10
Tyler J VanderWeele
The text is adapted from a written transcript of the address to the US Air Force Chaplain Corps Summit, delivered by Tyler J. VanderWeele, on March 28, 2017 in San Antonio, Texas. The address discussed rigorous empirical research on how religious participation and religious community are related to a number of health and well-being outcomes, along with the mechanisms behind these associations, and the implications of such religion health research to military chaplains, and to society more broadly.
March 23, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569111/the-role-of-healthcare-chaplains-in-resuscitation-a-rapid-literature-review
#11
Fiona Timmins, Nicolas Pujol
Spirituality is becoming of increasing importance in the international healthcare context. While patients' spirituality or faith is often overlooked, there is a growing awareness that understanding, addressing and supporting patients' spiritual and faith needs can influence healthcare outcomes. This review aims to illuminate this role and highlight healthcare chaplains' potential in relation to the provision of pastoral support for families during and after patient resuscitation, and the dearth of interdisciplinary education in this field...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536427/modelling-the-immune-response-to-cancer-an-individual-based-approach-accounting-for-the-difference-in-movement-between-inactive-and-activated-t-cells
#12
Fiona R Macfarlane, Tommaso Lorenzi, Mark A J Chaplain
A growing body of experimental evidence indicates that immune cells move in an unrestricted search pattern if they are in the pre-activated state, whilst they tend to stay within a more restricted area upon activation induced by the presence of tumour antigens. This change in movement is not often considered in the existing mathematical models of the interactions between immune cells and cancer cells. With the aim to fill such a gap in the existing literature, in this work we present a spatially structured individual-based model of tumour-immune competition that takes explicitly into account the difference in movement between inactive and activated immune cells...
March 13, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524441/modelling-the-effects-of-bacterial-cell-state-and-spatial-location-on-tuberculosis-treatment-insights-from-a-hybrid-multiscale-cellular-automaton-model
#13
Ruth Bowness, Mark A J Chaplain, Gibin G Powathil, Stephen H Gillespie
If improvements are to be made in tuberculosis (TB) treatment, an increased understanding of disease in the lung is needed. Studies have shown that bacteria in a less metabolically active state, associated with the presence of lipid bodies, are less susceptible to antibiotics, and recent results have highlighted the disparity in concentration of different compounds into lesions. Treatment success therefore depends critically on the responses of the individual bacteria that constitute the infection. We propose a hybrid, individual-based approach that analyses spatio-temporal dynamics at the cellular level, linking the behaviour of individual bacteria and host cells with the macroscopic behaviour of the microenvironment...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520702/the-just-war-tradition-a-model-for-healthcare-ethics
#14
Chaplain John D Connolly
Healthcare ethics committees, physicians, surgeons, nurses, families, and patients themselves are constantly under pressure to make appropriate medically ethical decisions concerning patient care. Various models for healthcare ethics decisions have been proposed throughout the years, but by and large they are focused on making the initial ethical decision. What follows is a proposed model for healthcare ethics that considers the most appropriate decisions before, during, and after any intervention. The Just War Tradition is a model that is thorough in its exploration of the ethics guiding a nation to either engage in or refuse to engage in combatant actions...
March 8, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512218/-i-see-so-much-in-them-australian-chaplains-telling-an-alternative-narrative-of-adolescents-in-the-justice-system
#15
Chloe S Gordon, Sandra C Jones
This qualitative study aims to provide insight into the impact of chaplaincy in the Australian juvenile justice system. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with six chaplains and managers of chaplaincy services in the juvenile justice system in Victoria, Australia. Interviews were analysed thematically using deductive and inductive coding. Four themes emerged relating to the role and impact of the chaplain: to establish a safe and trusting relationship with the adolescents, to convey love and belonging, to engage the adolescents in meaning making, and to help adolescents to realise their full potential...
March 7, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500719/computational-approaches-and-analysis-for-a-spatio-structural-temporal-invasive-carcinoma-model
#16
Arran Hodgkinson, Mark A J Chaplain, Pia Domschke, Dumitru Trucu
Spatio-temporal models have long been used to describe biological systems of cancer, but it has not been until very recently that increased attention has been paid to structural dynamics of the interaction between cancer populations and the molecular mechanisms associated with local invasion. One system that is of particular interest is that of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) wherein uPA binds uPA receptors on the cancer cell surface, allowing plasminogen to be cleaved into plasmin, which degrades the extracellular matrix and this way leads to enhanced cancer cell migration...
April 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369065/spirituality-at-the-end-of-life
#17
Cynthiane J Morgenweck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is increasing emphasis on medical care of the whole patient. This holistic approach encompasses supporting the spiritual or religious needs of the patient. Particularly at the end of life, spiritual concerns may come to the fore as patients recognize and accept their impending death. Physicians may also recognize this spiritual distress but may not be clear on how to provide spiritual support. RECENT FINDINGS: Tools to screen for spiritual concerns are available for physicians to use...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353132/supporting-parents-through-stillbirth-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-views-of-health-professionals-and-health-care-staff-in-three-hospitals-in-england
#18
Lyn Brierley-Jones, Rosalind Crawley, Emma Jones, Isabel Gordon, Joanne Knight, Kim Hinshaw
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the views of a range of hospital based health professionals and health care staff involved in the management of stillbirth. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative pilot study informed by grounded theory conducted in three hospital trusts in the North East of England. In total, 21 consultant obstetricians, 3 trainees (including 1 senior trainee), 29 midwives, 3 midwife sonographers and 4 chaplains took part in six focus groups and two semi-structured interviews...
March 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346560/aggregation-and-travelling-wave-dynamics-in-a-two-population-model-of-cancer-cell-growth-and-invasion
#19
Vasiliki Bitsouni, Dumitru Trucu, Mark A J Chaplain, Raluca Eftimie
Cells adhere to each other and to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through protein molecules on the surface of the cells. The breaking and forming of adhesive bonds, a process critical in cancer invasion and metastasis, can be influenced by the mutation of cancer cells. In this paper, we develop a nonlocal mathematical model describing cancer cell invasion and movement as a result of integrin-controlled cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix adhesion, for two cancer cell populations with different levels of mutation...
January 15, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343635/combining-radiation-with-hyperthermia-a-multiscale-model-informed-by-in-vitro-experiments
#20
S Brüningk, G Powathil, P Ziegenhein, J Ijaz, I Rivens, S Nill, M Chaplain, U Oelfke, G Ter Haar
Combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia offer great potential for the successful treatment of radio-resistant tumours through thermo-radiosensitization. Tumour response heterogeneity, due to intrinsic, or micro-environmentally induced factors, may greatly influence treatment outcome, but is difficult to account for using traditional treatment planning approaches. Systems oncology simulation, using mathematical models designed to predict tumour growth and treatment response, provides a powerful tool for analysis and optimization of combined treatments...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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