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Fiona R Macfarlane, Tommaso Lorenzi, Mark A J Chaplain
A growing body of experimental evidence indicates that immune cells move in an unrestricted search pattern if they are in the pre-activated state, whilst they tend to stay within a more restricted area upon activation induced by the presence of tumour antigens. This change in movement is not often considered in the existing mathematical models of the interactions between immune cells and cancer cells. With the aim to fill such a gap in the existing literature, in this work we present a spatially structured individual-based model of tumour-immune competition that takes explicitly into account the difference in movement between inactive and activated immune cells...
March 13, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Ruth Bowness, Mark A J Chaplain, Gibin G Powathil, Stephen H Gillespie
If improvements are to be made in tuberculosis (TB) treatment, an increased understanding of disease in the lung is needed. Studies have shown that bacteria in a less metabolically active state, associated with the presence of lipid bodies, are less susceptible to antibiotics, and recent results have highlighted the disparity in concentration of different compounds into lesions. Treatment success therefore depends critically on the responses of the individual bacteria that constitute the infection. We propose a hybrid, individual-based approach that analyses spatio-temporal dynamics at the cellular level, linking the behaviour of individual bacteria and host cells with the macroscopic behaviour of the microenvironment...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Chaplain John D Connolly
Healthcare ethics committees, physicians, surgeons, nurses, families, and patients themselves are constantly under pressure to make appropriate medically ethical decisions concerning patient care. Various models for healthcare ethics decisions have been proposed throughout the years, but by and large they are focused on making the initial ethical decision. What follows is a proposed model for healthcare ethics that considers the most appropriate decisions before, during, and after any intervention. The Just War Tradition is a model that is thorough in its exploration of the ethics guiding a nation to either engage in or refuse to engage in combatant actions...
March 8, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
Chloe S Gordon, Sandra C Jones
This qualitative study aims to provide insight into the impact of chaplaincy in the Australian juvenile justice system. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with six chaplains and managers of chaplaincy services in the juvenile justice system in Victoria, Australia. Interviews were analysed thematically using deductive and inductive coding. Four themes emerged relating to the role and impact of the chaplain: to establish a safe and trusting relationship with the adolescents, to convey love and belonging, to engage the adolescents in meaning making, and to help adolescents to realise their full potential...
March 7, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Arran Hodgkinson, Mark A J Chaplain, Pia Domschke, Dumitru Trucu
Spatio-temporal models have long been used to describe biological systems of cancer, but it has not been until very recently that increased attention has been paid to structural dynamics of the interaction between cancer populations and the molecular mechanisms associated with local invasion. One system that is of particular interest is that of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) wherein uPA binds uPA receptors on the cancer cell surface, allowing plasminogen to be cleaved into plasmin, which degrades the extracellular matrix and this way leads to enhanced cancer cell migration...
March 2, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Cynthiane J Morgenweck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is increasing emphasis on medical care of the whole patient. This holistic approach encompasses supporting the spiritual or religious needs of the patient. Particularly at the end of life, spiritual concerns may come to the fore as patients recognize and accept their impending death. Physicians may also recognize this spiritual distress but may not be clear on how to provide spiritual support. RECENT FINDINGS: Tools to screen for spiritual concerns are available for physicians to use...
January 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Lyn Brierley-Jones, Rosalind Crawley, Emma Jones, Isabel Gordon, Joanne Knight, Kim Hinshaw
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the views of a range of hospital based health professionals and health care staff involved in the management of stillbirth. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative pilot study informed by grounded theory conducted in three hospital trusts in the North East of England. In total, 21 consultant obstetricians, 3 trainees (including 1 senior trainee), 29 midwives, 3 midwife sonographers and 4 chaplains took part in six focus groups and two semi-structured interviews...
March 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Vasiliki Bitsouni, Dumitru Trucu, Mark A J Chaplain, Raluca Eftimie
Cells adhere to each other and to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through protein molecules on the surface of the cells. The breaking and forming of adhesive bonds, a process critical in cancer invasion and metastasis, can be influenced by the mutation of cancer cells. In this paper, we develop a nonlocal mathematical model describing cancer cell invasion and movement as a result of integrin-controlled cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix adhesion, for two cancer cell populations with different levels of mutation...
January 15, 2018: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
S Brüningk, G Powathil, P Ziegenhein, J Ijaz, I Rivens, S Nill, M Chaplain, U Oelfke, G Ter Haar
Combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia offer great potential for the successful treatment of radio-resistant tumours through thermo-radiosensitization. Tumour response heterogeneity, due to intrinsic, or micro-environmentally induced factors, may greatly influence treatment outcome, but is difficult to account for using traditional treatment planning approaches. Systems oncology simulation, using mathematical models designed to predict tumour growth and treatment response, provides a powerful tool for analysis and optimization of combined treatments...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Aoife C Lee, Catherine E McGinness, Stacie Levine, Sean O'Mahony, George Fitchett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
(no author information available yet)
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its medical regulations by establishing in regulation the eligibility requirements that ecclesiastical endorsing organizations must meet in order to provide ecclesiastical endorsements of individuals seeking employment as VA chaplains, or of individuals who are seeking to be engaged by VA under contract or appointed as on-facility fee basis VA chaplains under the United States Code. VA considers veterans' spiritual care an integral part of their overall health care...
November 8, 2017: Federal Register
Kristin Lindholm
Stereotypes of religious professionals can create barriers for those who provide spiritual/pastoral care. Through interviews and journal entries, hospice chaplains ( n = 45) identified the following stereotypes that affected their work: chaplains as people whom others try to impress, who only talk about spiritual and religious topics, who are male, and who try to convert others. Participants reported using a variety of communication strategies to counteract stereotypes and make meaningful connections with the people they serve...
December 2017: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
Lorraine Gardner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
Elissa Kozlov, Claude Eghan, Sheila Moran, Keela Herr, M Carrington Reid
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how inpatient palliative care teams nationwide currently screen for and treat psychological distress. METHODS: A web-based survey was sent to inpatient palliative care providers of all disciplines nationwide asking about their practice patterns regarding psychological assessment and treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and responses, and analysis of variance was conducted to determine whether certain disciplines were more likely to utilize specific treatment modalities...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Annelieke Damen, Allison Delaney, George Fitchett
Chaplains in the United States and around the world appear to support an evidence-based practice approach to chaplaincy. While there continues to be strong growth in spiritual care research, several spiritual care researchers have stressed the need for a research agenda for chaplaincy. This study investigated the research priorities of chaplains who completed a survey distributed at four chaplaincy conferences in 2016. A total of 193 chaplains responded, resulting in 499 comments. When compared to the findings of existing literature regarding research priorities for chaplaincy, chaplain's views of research priorities appear to be very consistent with views of chaplaincy leaders...
April 2018: Journal of Health Care Chaplaincy
Lisa A Ruth-Sahd, Carolanne B Hauck, Kaitlyn E Sahd-Brown
There are many opportunities for critical-care nurses to collaborate with chaplains in an effort to provide spiritual care for patients and their families. By recognizing the educational requirements as well as the unique roles of board-certified chaplains (BCCs), the critical-care nurse will view them as respected members of the health care team. This collaboration positively impacts the work environment and creates a holistic space for healing for patients, as well as the health care team. As nurses, we must educate and inform novice nurses about the important role of BCCs on the interdisciplinary health care team...
January 2018: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Jason A Nieuwsma, Heather A King, George L Jackson, Balmatee Bidassie, Laura W Wright, William C Cantrell, Mark J Bates, Jeffrey E Rhodes, Brandolyn S White, Shannon J L Gatewood, Keith G Meador
This column describes the development, implementation, and outcomes of a quality improvement learning collaborative that aimed to better integrate chaplaincy with mental health care services at 14 participating health care facilities evenly distributed across the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense. Teams of health care chaplains and mental health professionals from participating sites sought to improve cross-disciplinary service integration in six key domains: screening, referrals, assessment, communication and documentation, cross-disciplinary training, and role clarification...
December 1, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Taylor E Purvis, Thomas Y Crowe, Scott M Wright, Paula Teague
Spiritual care is associated with improved health outcomes and higher patient satisfaction. However, chaplains often cover many hospital units and thus may not be able to serve all patients. Involving student chaplains in patient spiritual care may allow for more patients to experience the support of spiritual care. In this study, we surveyed 93 patients hospitalized on general medical units at a tertiary care center who were visited by nine student chaplain summer interns. The results indicated that the majority of patients appreciated student chaplain visits and these encounters may have positively influenced their overall hospital experience...
February 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Alexandre Anefalos, Wilkens Aurélio Buarque E Silva, Renan Mercuri Pinto, Renée Danckwardt Ferrari, Aparecida de Fátima Boni, Cleide Borges Duarte, Rodrigo Ribas Dos Reis
Spiritist Hospital Chaplaincy in Brazil has been growing significantly in recent years, with the implementation of new services through the work of Spiritist Medical Associations (SMAs) in different regions of the country. This article describes the importance of historical interconnections from the advent of spiritism in the world and its introduction in Brazil to the emergence of Spiritist Hospital Chaplaincy in our country and presents the documented experience over 5 years of spiritist chaplain care, in the period from 2012 to 2016, guided by the SMA of Piracicaba at the Unimed Hospital of Piracicaba (São Paulo)...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
Eric Bui, Emma Chad-Friedman, Sarah Wieman, Rachel H Grasfield, Allison Rolfe, Melissa Dong, Elyse R Park, John W Denninger
BACKGROUND: Spousal bereavement in older age is a major stressor associated with an increase in both mental and physical problems. The Stress Management and Resiliency Training: Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (SMART-3RP) is an 8-week multimodal mind-body program that targets stress and has been found efficacious in decreasing the mental and physical manifestations of stress in varied populations. This qualitative study sought to investigate the relevance, credibility, and feasibility of the SMART-3RP in the community...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
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