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Women and low estrogen

H Zhao, J Wang, D Fang, O Lee, R T Chatterton, V Stearns, S A Khan, S E Bulun
Obesity is associated with increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal but not in premenopausal women. Many factors may be responsible for this difference. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which the genes related to the AMPK pathway, inflammation, and estrogen actions are affected by adiposity in breast tissue with the objective of identifying differences that may explain the different breast cancer risk in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Random fine needle aspirates (rFNAs) of breast tissue were collected from 57 premenopausal and 55 postmenopausal women and were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese...
March 15, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
Stefania Lamon-Fava, Margaret R Diffenderfer, P Hugh R Barrett, Wing Yee Wan, Borbala Postfai, Chorthip Nartsupha, Gregory G Dolnikowski, Ernst J Schaefer
The distinct effects of the estrogen and progestin components of hormonal therapy on the metabolism of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins have not been studied. We enrolled eight healthy postmenopausal women in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind crossover study. Each subject received placebo, conjugated equine estrogen (CEE, 0.625 mg/day) and CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/day) for 8 weeks in a randomized order, with a 4-week washout between phases. Main outcomes were the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) and production rate (PR) of apo B100 in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) and low -density lipoprotein (LDL) and of apo B48 in TRL...
March 14, 2018: Lipids
Stephanie Wang Zuo, Harold Wu, Wen Shen
OBJECTIVE: To examine mammographic density before and after at least 1 year of vaginal estrogen use in a small cohort of healthy postmenopausal women and women with a personal history of breast cancer. METHODS: We extracted data via chart review of patients from a single practitioner's menopause specialty clinic in Baltimore, MD. Mammographic change was primarily determined via the Bi-RADS scoring system, including the Bi-RADS density score. In addition, we conduct a narrative review of the current literature on the usage of local estrogen therapy, and systemic and local alternatives in the treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) in breast cancer survivors...
March 12, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Shabaz Majid, Lisa Rydén, Jonas Manjer
BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine predictive factors for metastasis to sentinel node (SN) in primary invasive breast cancer. METHOD: This is a study of 3979 patients with primary breast cancer during 2008-2013 in Malmö and Lund scheduled for surgery and included in the information retrieved from Information Network for Cancer Care (INCA). The final study population included 2552 patients with primary invasive breast cancer...
March 12, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Patricia Barrionuevo, Mohammed Nabhan, Osama Altayar, Zhen Wang, Patricia J Erwin, Noor Asi, Kathryn A Martin, M Hassan Murad
Background: Several pharmacologic treatments for hirsutism are used in practice; however, their relative efficacy is unclear. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL through January 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with follow-up of at least 6 months that evaluated antiandrogens, insulin sensitizers, and oral contraceptives in women with hirsutism. Independent pairs of reviewers selected and appraised trials. Random-effects network meta-analysis was used to compare individual drugs and classes...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
V A Levin, X Jiang, R Kagan
Menopause predisposes women to osteoporosis due to declining estrogen levels. This results in a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and an increase in fractures. Osteoporotic fractures lead to substantial morbidity and mortality, and are considered one of the largest public health priorities by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is therefore essential for menopausal women to receive appropriate guidance for the prevention and management of osteoporosis. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trial first proved hormonal therapy (HT) reduces the incidence of all osteoporosis-related fractures in postmenopausal women...
March 8, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Chris Steffi, Dong Wang, Chee Hoe Kong, Zuyong Wang, Poon Nian Lim, Zhilong Shi, Eng San Thian, Wilson Wang
Estrogen, a steroid hormone, plays an important role in modulating osteoclast proliferation and development. Estrogen deficiency boosts osteoclast activity, leading to osteoporosis in elderly women. In this study, 17-ß estradiol (E2) loaded poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/silk fibroin (SF) electrospun microfibers was developed as a proposed localized E2 delivery system to treat osteoporotic fractures. PCL is a synthetic polymer known for its biocompatibility and excellent mechanical properties. The bioactivity of PCL was enhanced by mixing it with natural silk fibroin (SF) polymer that has low immunogenicity and inherent bioactivity...
March 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Per Kempe, Daniel Eklund, Agnes Hallin, Mats Hammar, Tomas Olsson, Jan Brynhildsen, Jan Ernerudh
To prospectively study systemic in vivo immunological effects of sex hormones, using different phases of oral combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC), and the natural menstrual cycles in both healthy women and in women with multiple sclerosis (MS), blood samples from sixty female MS patients and healthy controls with and without CHC were drawn in high and low estrogenic/progestogenic phases. Expression of Th-associated genes in blood cells was determined by qPCR and a panel of cytokines and chemokines was measured in plasma...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Daniela Angerame Yela, Patricia Magda Soares, Cristina Laguna Benetti-Pinto
OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate the impact of sexual function (SF) in the quality of life (QoL) of women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). METHODS:  Case-control study in which 80 women with POI were evaluated using estrogen plus progestogen therapy, compared with 80 women matched by age (±2 years) and presenting preserved gonadal function. Sexual function was evaluated using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the QoL was evaluated using the World Health Organization's (WHO) QoL assessment instrument (WHOQoL-BREF)...
February 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Wen-Ling Kuo, Shir-Hwa Ueng, Chun-Hsing Wu, Li-Yu Lee, Yun-Shien Lee, Ming-Chin Yu, Shin-Cheh Chen, Chi-Chang Yu, Chi-Neu Tsai
The research of carcinogenetic mechanisms of breast cancer in different ethnic backgrounds is an interesting field, as clinical features of breast cancers vary among races. High premenopausal incidence is distinctive in East-Asian breast cancer. However, human cell lines derived from Asian primary breast tumor are rare. To provide alternative cell line models with a relevant genetic background, we aimed to establish breast cancer cell lines from Taiwanese patients of Han-Chinese ethnicity. Fresh tissue from mammary tumors were digested into organoids, plated and grown in basal serum-free medium of human mammary epithelial cells (HuMEC) with supplements...
February 26, 2018: Human Cell
Tatiane Fernandes, Adriana O Pedro, Luiz F Baccaro, Lucia H Costa-Paiva
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the laboratory and endometrial safety of topical testosterone versus topical estrogen for the treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. METHODS: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 60 postmenopausal women aged 40 to 70 years at the Menopause Clinic of CAISM UNICAMP. Women were randomized into three vaginal treatment groups: estrogen, testosterone, or placebo. The treatment was applied 3 times a week for 12 weeks...
February 16, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
T E van Mens, L M van der Pol, N van Es, I M Bistervels, A T A Mairuhu, T van der Hulle, F A Klok, M V Huisman, S Middeldorp
BACKGROUND: In patients suspected of pulmonary embolism (PE), clinical decision rules are combined with D-dimer testing to rule out PE, avoiding the need for imaging in those at low risk. Despite sex-differences in several disease aspects including its diagnosis, these algorithms are used indiscriminately in women and men. OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance, defined as efficiency and failure rate, of three pre-imaging diagnostic algorithms for PE between women and men: the Wells rule with fixed or with age adjusted D-dimer cutoff, and a recently validated algorithm (YEARS)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Davinia White, Kate Hardy, Suzannah Lovelock, Stephen Franks
Low-dose, step-up gonadotropin is the treatment of choice for women with PCOS who have not conceived after anti-estrogen treatment, and as an effective alternative to pulsatile GnRH in women with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). There has been, however, no large-scale, comparative study between the two groups using low-dose gonadotropins. Here we performed a retrospective, comparative analysis, in a single clinic database, of efficacy and safety of induction of ovulation using low-dose gonadotropins in 364 Women with PCOS and 80 women with HH...
February 19, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Peter Kubatka, Pavol Zubor, Dietrich Busselberg, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Mariusz Adamek, Daniel Petrovic, Radka Opatrilova, Katarina Gazdikova, Martin Caprnda, Luis Rodrigo, Jan Danko, Peter Kruzliak
The breast cancer affects women with high mortality and morbidity worldwide. The risk is highest in the most developed world but also is markedly rising in the developing countries. It is well documented that melatonin has a significant anti-tumor activities demonstrated on various cancer types in a plethora of preclinical studies. In breast cancer, melatonin is capable to disrupt estrogen-dependent cell signaling, resulting in a reduction of estrogen-stimulated cells, moreover, it's obvious neuro-immunomodulatory effect in organism was described...
February 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Heping Zhu, Jiannong Jiang, Qiang Wang, Jun Zong, Liang Zhang, Tieliang Ma, Youjia Xu, Leiyan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported associations between estrogen receptor (ER) gene polymorphisms and postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) risk and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are controversial. The aim of the present meta-analysis is to verify the association between ERα and ERβ gene polymorphisms and osteoporosis susceptibility and BMD in postmenopausal women. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and China WeiPu Library were searched...
February 20, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
L Bouhajja, S A Rammeh, S Sayari, R Zermani, F Farah
Angiomyofibroblastoma (AMF) is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor with tendency to arise in the lower genital tract of middleaged women, predominately in the vulva. A few cases of AMF in males have been reported involving the scrotum, perineum or spermatic cord. We report a new case of AMF arising in the right inguinal region of a 27-year-old man. The tumor was well-circumscribed, myxoid and measured 30 mm in maximum dimension. On microscopic examination, the tumor was composed of spindle cells without atypia and with less than one mitosis figure per 10 high-power fields...
December 2017: Pathologica
Karen O Klein, Robert Rosenfield, Richard J Santen, Aneta Gawlik, Philippe Backeljauw, Claus H Gravholt, Theo Sas, Nelly Mauras
Context: Most girls with Turner Syndrome have hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and need hormonal replacement - for induction of puberty and later maintaining secondary sex characteristics, attaining peak bone mass, and uterine growth. The optimal estrogen replacement regimen is still being studied. Evidence Acquisition: We conducted a systematic search of PubMed for research related to TS and puberty, including key words: estrogen, growth, puberty. Evidence Synthesis: The goals of replacement are to mimic normal timing and progression of physical and social development while minimizing risks...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Anita Mamtani, Julie J Gonzalez, Dayna T Neo, Robb S Friedman, Abram Recht, Michele R Hacker, Ranjna Sharma
BACKGROUND: Octogenarians with early-stage breast cancer often have low-risk tumor biology. However, optimal treatment strategies for those with high-risk biology remain unclear. METHODS: We reviewed the records of women ages 80-89 years with biopsy-proven, Stage I-II invasive breast cancer who were referred for surgical evaluation from January 2001 through December 2010. High-risk was defined as human epidermal growth factor receptor-positive (HER2+), triple-negative (TN), or histologic grade 3 disease...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Joann V Pinkerton, Andra H James
For women at elevated risk of thrombosis, clinicians are challenged to relieve menopausal symptoms without increasing the risk of thrombosis. Oral menopausal hormone therapy increases the risk of venous thromboembolism by 2-fold to 3-fold. Observational studies suggest less thrombotic risk with transdermal therapies and with progesterone over synthetic progestogens (progestins), but the data are limited. Beneficial nonpharmacologic therapies include cognitive behavioral therapy and clinical hypnosis, whereas beneficial nonhormonal pharmacologic therapies include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Yehoda M Martei, Lydia E Pace, Jane E Brock, Lawrence N Shulman
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in developing countries. Timely and accurate histopathological diagnosis of breast cancer is critical to delivering high-quality breast cancer care to patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The most important prognostic factors in breast cancer along with tumor size and nodal status are tumor grade, estrogen receptor status, as well as HER2 status in countries where specific targeted therapies are available. In addition, detailed and complete cancer registry data are needed to assess a country's disease burden and guide disease prioritization and allocation of resources for breast cancer treatment...
March 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
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