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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036999/-the-contamination-and-dietary-exposure-analysis-for-seven-mycotoxins-in-the-fifth-chinese-total-diet-study
#1
N N Qiu, B Lyu, S Zhou, Y F Zhao, Y N Wu
Objective: To investigate the contamination levels and dietary intakes of seven mycotoxins in Chinese diets. Methods: In Chinese Total Diet Study, food aggregation was based on the food consumption of local residents, thus generating the sampling scheme. According to the sampling scheme, the food items were sampled at three survey points in each province and then mixed in the same proportion. The mixed dietary samples were prepared after being cooked and processed. The samples comprised of 13 categories of food: cereals, beans, potatoes, meat, eggs, aquatic products, milk, vegetables, fruits, saccharides, beverages and drinking water, alcohol, and condiments...
October 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036926/evaluation-of-sensible-heat-flux-and-evapotranspiration-estimates-using-a-surface-layer-scintillometer-and-a-large-weighing-lysimeter
#2
Jerry E Moorhead, Gary W Marek, Paul D Colaizzi, Prasanna H Gowda, Steven R Evett, David K Brauer, Thomas H Marek, Dana O Porter
Accurate estimates of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET) are important for optimal irrigation water management, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Common ET sensing methods include Bowen Ratio, Eddy Covariance (EC), and scintillometers. Large weighing lysimeters are considered the ultimate standard for measurement of ET, however, they are expensive to install and maintain. Although EC and scintillometers are less costly and relatively portable, EC has known energy balance closure discrepancies. Previous scintillometer studies used EC for ground-truthing, but no studies considered weighing lysimeters...
October 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036725/an-international-cooperation-by-using-an-all-encompassing-passive-radon-monitor
#3
L Tommasino, J Chen, R Falcomer, M Janik, R Kanda, F DeFelice, F Cardellini, R Trevisi, F Leonardi, M Magnoni, E Chiaberto, G Agnesod, M Faure Ragani, G Espinosa, J Golzarri, K Kozak, J Mazur
The recently developed radon film-badge makes it possible to measure radon indoors, in soil, in water and/or in aqueous media (e.g. mud). As a result of its wide response linearity, this monitor has been successfully used to measure radon in-water with concentrations from 10 to ~10 000 Bq/L. By exploiting the unique characteristics of this badge, a mini-survey has been carried out by Health Canada in which radon in water was measured from 12 private wells, as well as in tap water originating from the Ottawa River...
September 19, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036694/efficient-modulation-of-photosynthetic-apparatus-confers-desiccation-tolerance-in-the-resurrection-plant-boea-hygrometrica
#4
Tinghong Tan, Yanni Sun, Shishuai Luo, Chao Zhang, Huapeng Zhou, Honghui Lin
Boea hygrometrica (B. hygrometrica) can tolerate severe desiccation and resume photosynthetic activity rapidly upon water availability. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which B. hygrometrica adapts to dehydration and resumes competence upon rehydration. Here we determined how B. hygrometrica to deal with oxidative stress, excessive excitation/electron pressures as well as photosynthetic apparatus modulation during dehydration/rehydration. By measuring ROS generation and scavenging efficiency, we found that B...
September 19, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036673/enhanced-desiccation-tolerance-in-mature-cultures-of-the-streptophytic-green-alga-zygnema-circumcarinatum-revealed-by-transcriptomics
#5
Martin Rippin, Burkhard Becker, Andreas Holzinger
Desiccation tolerance is commonly regarded as one of the key features for the colonization of terrestrial habitats by green algae and the evolution of land plants. Extensive studies, focused mostly on physiology, have been carried out assessing the desiccation tolerance and resilience of the streptophytic genera Klebsormidium and Zygnema. Here we present transcriptomic analyses of Zygnema circumcarinatum exposed to desiccation stress. Cultures of Z. circumcarinatum, grown in liquid medium or on agar plates, were desiccated at ∼86% relative air humidity until Y(II) ceased...
September 22, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036552/using-foliar-spectral-properties-to-assess-the-effects-of-drought-on-plant-water-potential
#6
Lorenzo Cotrozzi, John J Couture, Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Clayton C Kingdon, Beth Fallon, George Pilz, Elisa Pellegrini, Cristina Nali, Philip A Townsend
Drought frequency is predicted to increase in future environments. Leaf water potential (ΨLW) is commonly used to evaluate plant water status, but traditional measurements can be logistically difficult and require destructive sampling. We used reflectance spectroscopy to characterize variation in ΨLW of Quercus oleoides Schltdl. & Cham. under differential water availability and tested the ability to predict pre-dawn ΨLW (PDΨLW) using spectral data collected hours after pressure chamber measurements on dark-acclimated leaves...
September 19, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036397/polyploidy-influences-plant-environment-interactions-in-quaking-aspen-populus-tremuloides-michx
#7
Burke T Greer, Christopher Still, Grace L Cullinan, J Renée Brooks, Frederick C Meinzer
Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), a widespread and keystone tree species in North America, experienced heat and drought stress in the years 2002 and 2003 in the southwestern United States. This led to widespread aspen mortality that has altered the composition of forests, and is expected to occur again if climate change continues. Understanding interactions between aspen and its environments is essential to understanding future mortality risk in forests. Polyploidy, which is common in aspen, can modify plant structure and function and therefore plant-environment interactions, but the influence of polyploidy on aspen physiology is still not well understood...
September 26, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036222/lipid-biomarker-signatures-as-tracers-for-harmful-cyanobacterial-blooms-in-the-baltic-sea
#8
Thorsten Bauersachs, Helen M Talbot, Frances Sidgwick, Kaarina Sivonen, Lorenz Schwark
The recent proliferation of harmful cyanobacterial blooms (cyanoHABs) in the Baltic and other marginal seas poses a severe threat for the health of infested ecosystems as e.g. the massive export and decay of cyanobacterial biomass facilitates the spread of bottom water hypoxia. There is evidence that cyanoHABs occurred repeatedly in the Baltic Sea but knowledge of their spatiotemporal distribution and the cyanobacteria that contributed to them is limited. In this study, we examined representatives of the major bloom-forming heterocystous cyanobacteria (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036210/isothermal-amplification-of-environmental-dna-edna-for-direct-field-based-monitoring-and-laboratory-confirmation-of-dreissena-sp
#9
Maggie R Williams, Robert D Stedtfeld, Cathrine Engle, Paul Salach, Umama Fakher, Tiffany Stedtfeld, Erin Dreelin, R Jan Stevenson, Jo Latimore, Syed A Hashsham
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of aquatic invasive species environmental DNA (AIS eDNA) was used for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of Dreissena sp. relevant to the Great Lakes (USA) basin. The method was validated for two uses including i) direct amplification of eDNA using a hand filtration system and ii) confirmation of the results after DNA extraction using a conventional thermal cycler run at isothermal temperatures. Direct amplification eliminated the need for DNA extraction and purification and allowed detection of target invasive species in grab or concentrated surface water samples, containing both free DNA as well as larger cells and particulates, such as veligers, eggs, or seeds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036128/modeling-turbulence-in-underwater-wireless-optical-communications-based-on-monte-carlo-simulation
#10
Zahra Vali, Asghar Gholami, Zabih Ghassemlooy, David G Michelson, Masood Omoomi, Hamed Noori
Turbulence affects the performance of underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC). Although multiple scattering and absorption have been previously investigated by means of physical simulation models, still a physical simulation model is needed for UWOC with turbulence. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo simulation model for UWOC in turbulent oceanic clear water, which is far less computationally intensive than approaches based on computational fluid dynamics. The model is based on the variation of refractive index in a horizontal link...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035813/energy-loss-and-impact-of-various-stunning-devices-used-for-the-slaughtering-of-water-buffaloes
#11
Matthieu Glardon, Barbara K Schwenk, Fabiano Riva, Adrian von Holzen, Steffen G Ross, Beat P Kneubuehl, Michael H Stoffel
Stock management of the Swiss water buffalo livestock results in the slaughtering of about 350 animals per year. As the stunning of water buffaloes still is an unresolved issue, we investigated the terminal ballistics of currently used perforating stunning devices. Cartridge fired captive bolt devices, handguns and a bullet casing gun were tested in a shooting steep by firing on bisected heads, forehead plates and soap blocks. Energy loss of captive bolts confirmed their inadequacy when used for heavy water buffaloes, notably adult males...
September 28, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035767/life-cycle-energy-impacts-for-adapting-an-urban-water-supply-system-to-droughts
#12
Ka Leung Lam, Jennifer R Stokes-Draut, Arpad Horvath, Joe L Lane, Steven J Kenway, Paul A Lant
In recent years, cities in some water stressed regions have explored alternative water sources such as seawater desalination and potable water recycling in spite of concerns over increasing energy consumption. In this study, we evaluate the current and future life-cycle energy impacts of four alternative water supply strategies introduced during a decade-long drought in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. These strategies were: seawater desalination, indirect potable water recycling, network integration, and rainwater tanks...
October 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035725/alterations-to-juvenile-zebrafish-danio-rerio-swim-performance-after-acute-embryonic-exposure-to-sub-lethal-exposures-of-hydraulic-fracturing-flowback-and-produced-water
#13
Erik J Folkerts, Tamzin A Blewett, Yuhe He, Greg G Goss
Hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (FPW) is a wastewater produced during fracturing activities in an operating well which is hyper saline and chemically heterogeneous in nature, containing both anthropogenic and petrogenic chemicals. Determination of FPW associated toxicity to embryonic fish is limited, while investigation into how embryonic exposures may affect later life stages is not yet studied. Zebrafish embryos (24hrs post fertilization) were acutely exposed to 2.5% and 5% FPW fractions for either 24 or 48hrs and returned to freshwater...
October 7, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035713/an-overview-of-chemical-additives-present-in-plastics-migration-release-fate-and-environmental-impact-during-their-use-disposal-and-recycling
#14
REVIEW
John N Hahladakis, Costas A Velis, Roland Weber, Eleni Iacovidou, Phil Purnell
Over the last 60 years plastics production has increased manifold, owing to their inexpensive, multipurpose, durable and lightweight nature. These characteristics have raised the demand for plastic materials that will continue to grow over the coming years. However, with increased plastic materials production, comes increased plastic material wastage creating a number of challenges, as well as opportunities to the waste management industry. The present overview highlights the waste management and pollution challenges, emphasising on the various chemical substances (known as "additives") contained in all plastic products for enhancing polymer properties and prolonging their life...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035600/effect-of-the-pacing-strategies-on-the-open-water-10km-world-swimming-championships-performances
#15
Luis Rodriguez, Santiago Veiga
PURPOSE: The aim of the present research was 1) to compare the pacing strategies of different level open water swimmers during the 10km race of the FINA 2015 World Swimming Championships (WCH), and 2) to relate these pacing strategies to the race performance. METHODS: Final and intermediate split times as well as intermediate race positions from the 10-kilometer race participants (69 men and 51 women) were collected from the public domain and were divided into five groups (G1 to G5) depending on their finishing positions...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035568/triplet-state-dissolved-organic-matter-quantum-yields-and-lifetimes-from-direct-observation-of-aromatic-amine-oxidation
#16
Markus Schmitt, Paul R Erickson, Kristopher McNeill
Excited triplet state chromophoric dissolved organic matter (3CDOM*) is a short-lived mixture of excited state species that plays important roles in aquatic photochemical processes. Unlike the study of triplet states of well-defined molecules, which are amenable to transient absorbance spectroscopy, the study of 3CDOM* is hampered by it being a complex mixture and its low average intersystem crossing quantum yield (ΦISC). This study is an alternative approach to investigating 3CDOM* using transient absorption laser spectroscopy...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035566/sulfidation-of-iron-based-materials-a-review-of-processes-and-implications-for-water-treatment-and-remediation
#17
Dimin Fan, Ying Lan, Paul G Tratnyek, Richard L Johnson, Jan Filip, Denis Michael O'Carroll, Ariel Nunez Garcia, Abinash Agrawal
Iron-based materials used in water treatment and groundwater remediation-especially micro- and nano-sized zerovalent iron (nZVI)-can be more effective when modified with lower-valent forms of sulfur (i.e., "sulfidated"). Controlled sulfidation for this purpose (using sulfide, dithionite, etc.) is the main topic of this review, but insights are derived by comparison with related and comparatively well-characterized processes such as corrosion of iron in sulfidic waters and abiotic natural attenuation by iron sulfide minerals...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035499/hierarchical-self-assembly-of-cyclodextrin-and-dimethylamino-substituted-arylene-ethynylene-on-n-doped-graphene-for-synergistically-enhanced-electrochemical-sensing-of-dihydroxybenzene-isomers
#18
Juanjuan Gao, Jingkun Fang, Xuehai Ju, Weiqing Zhu, Xuezhen Lin, Shupeng Zhang, Chuang Ma, Haiou Song
An electrochemically active sensing nanomaterial (denoted as CD-MPEA-NG) has been successfully constructed by an hierarchical self-assembly of cyclodextrin (CD) and N, N-dimethyl-4-(phenylethynyl)aniline (MPEA) on N-doped graphene (NG) in a low-temperature hydrothermal process. The unique nanostructure of the high-performance CD-MPEA-NG was confirmed by utilizing the Fourier transform infrared spectra, an X-ray diffractometer, a differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), etc. In particular, the method of density functional theory with dispersion energy (DFT-D) of wB97XD/LanL2DZ was employed to optimize and describe the face-to-face packing structure of heterodimers of NG and MPEA...
October 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035420/modeling-the-secondary-structures-of-the-peptaibols-antiamoebin-i-and-zervamicin-ii-modified-with-d-amino-acids-and-proline-analogues
#19
Tarsila G Castro, Nuno M Micaêlo, Manuel Melle-Franco
Antiamoebin I (AAM-I) and zervamicin II (Zrv-IIB) are peptaibols that exert antibiotic activity through the insertion/disruption of cell membranes. In this study, we investigated how the folding of these peptaibols are affected when some of their native residues are replaced with proline analogues and asymmetrical D-α,α-dialkyl glycines (two classes of noncanonical amino acids). Systematic substitutions of native Aib, Pro, Hyp, and Iva residues were performed to elucidate the folding properties of the modified peptaibols incorporating noncanonical residues...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035303/optimization-of-bicomponent-electrospun-fibers-for-therapeutic-use-post-treatments-to-improve-chemical-and-biological-stability
#20
Antonio Papa, Vincenzo Guarino, Valentina Cirillo, Olimpia Oliviero, Luigi Ambrosio
Bicomponent electrospun nanofibers based on the combination of synthetic (i.e., aliphatic polyesters such as polycaprolactone (PCL)) and natural proteins (i.e., gelatin) have been extensively investigated as temporary platforms to instruct cells by the release of molecular/pharmaceutical signals for the regeneration of several tissues. Here, water soluble proteins (i.e., gelatin), strictly embedded to PCL, act as carriers of bioactive molecules, thus improving bioavailability and supporting cell activities during in vitro regeneration...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
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