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Leonardo Bocchi, Monia Savi, Valeria Naponelli, Rocchina Vilella, Gianluca Sgarbi, Alessandra Baracca, Giancarlo Solaini, Saverio Bettuzzi, Federica Rizzi, Donatella Stilli
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dietary polyphenols from green tea have been shown to possess cardio-protective activities in different experimental models of heart diseases and age-related ventricular dysfunction. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether long term in vivo administration of green tea extracts (GTE), can exert positive effects on the normal heart, with focus on the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The study population consisted of 20 male adult Wistar rats...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Muhammad Ashfaq, Qian Sun, Han Zhang, Yan Li, Yuwen Wang, Mingyue Li, Min Lv, Xu Liao, Chang-Ping Yu
Due to the wide use, bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected frequently in the aquatic environment. However, the information on the distribution of BPA transformation products is limited. In this study, we investigated two BPA transformation products, namely bisphenol A monomethyl ether (BPA-MME) and bisphenol A dimethyl ether (BPA-DME). This study revealed that both transformation products were widely detected in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as well as in surface water of Jiulong River and its estuary with higher detected concentrations and detection frequencies for BPA-DME...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hongyan Ma, Qi Huang, Wenshan Qu, Linyuan Li, Min Wang, Shao Li, Fujiang Chu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The dried roots of Sophora flavescens Ait. (Leguminosae) is traditionally used as antipyretic medicine to reduce inflammation. It is well known that alkaloids and flavonoids are the main constituents of S. flavescens. However, the clinical researches and applications of S. flavescens is mainly based on its water-extracted alkaloids, its flavonoids may still remain in residues and have been underused. With development and manufacturing of S. flavescens in recent years, more herb residues are being produced...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kong Heng, Mathieu Chevalier, Sovan Lek, Pascal Laffaille
Tropical lakes and their associated floodplain habitats are dynamic habitat mosaics strongly influenced by seasonal variations in hydrologic conditions. In flood-pulse systems, water level oscillations directly influence the connectivity to floodplain habitats for fish. Here, we aimed to investigate whether seasonal changes in the water level of a flood-pulse system (the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia) differentially affect diet breadth and dietary overlap of three common and commercially important fish species (Anabas testudineus, Boesemania microplepis and Notopterus notopterus) presenting important differences in their life-cycle (e...
2018: PloS One
Amy L Creekmore, Shuangsong Hong, Shengtao Zhu, Jing Xue, John W Wiley
In humans, chronic psychological stress is associated with increased intestinal paracellular permeability and visceral hyperalgesia, which is recapitulated in the chronic intermittent water avoidance stress (WAS) rat model. However, it is unknown whether enhanced visceral pain and permeability are intrinsically linked and correlate. Treatment of rats with lubiprostone during WAS significantly reduced WAS-induced changes in intestinal epithelial paracellular permeability and visceral hyperalgesia in a subpopulation of rats...
April 30, 2018: Pain
Salvatore Magliocca, Carmen De Caro, Loretta Lazzarato, Roberto Russo, Barbara Rolando, Konstantin Chegaev, Elisabetta Marini, Maria Nieddu, Lucia Burrai, Gianpiero Boatto, Claudia Cristiano, Domenica Marabello, Elena Gazzano, Chiara Riganti, Federica Sodano, Maria Grazia Rimoli
Aceclofenac is a popular analgesic, antipyretic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used for prolonged treatment (at least three months) in musculoskeletal disorders. It is characterized by several limitations, such as poor water solubility and low oral bioavailability. The main side-effect of aceclofenac, as well as all NSAIDs, is the gastrotoxicity; among other adverse effects, there is the risk of bleeding since aceclofenac reversibly inhibits platelet aggregation. With the aim to reduce these drawbacks, we have designed, synthesized and characterized both in vitro and in vivo, an orally administrable pro-drug of aceclofenac (ACEgal)...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
José M Gatell, Lambert Assoumou, Graeme Moyle, Laura Waters, Margaret Johnson, Pere Domingo, Julie Fox, Esteban Martinez, Hans-Jürgen Stellbrink, Giovanni Guaraldi, Mar Masia, Mark Gompels, Stephane De Wit, Eric Florence, Stefan Esser, François Raffi, Christoph Stephan, Juergen Rockstroh, Andrea Giacomelli, Jaime Vera, José Ignacio Bernardino, Alan Winston, Maria Saumoy, Julien Gras, Christine Katlama, Anton L Pozniak
Background: Both immediate or deferred switching from a PI/r to DTG may improve lipid profile. Methods: NEAT022 is a European, open label, randomized, trial. HIV-infected adults ≥ 50 years or with a Framingham score ≥10% were eligible if HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL. Patients were randomized to switch the PI/r to DTG immediately (DTG-I) or to deferred switch at week 48 (DTG-D) . Week 96 end-points were: proportion of patients with HIV RNA < 50 copies/ml, percentage change of lipid fractions and adverse events...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Tianyu Yu, Yue Jiang, Sijie Lin
The zebrafish is a globally recognized fresh water organism frequently used in developmental biology, environmental toxicology, and human disease related research fields. Thanks to its unique features, including large fecundity, embryo translucency, rapid and simultaneous development, etc., zebrafish embryos are often used for large scale toxicity assessment of chemicals and drug/compound screening. A typical screening procedure involves adult zebrafish spawning, embryos selection, and arraying the embryos into multi-well plates...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hiroshi Ishimoto, Hiroko Sano
Organ-to-organ communication by endocrine signaling, for example, from the periphery to the brain, is essential for maintaining homeostasis. As a model animal for endocrine research, Drosophila melanogaster, which has sophisticated genetic tools and genome information, is being increasingly used. This article describes a method for the calcium imaging of Drosophila brain explants. This method enables the detection of the direct signaling of a hormone to the brain. It is well known that many peptide hormones act through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), whose activation causes an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
P Di Giminiani, J S Stausholm, E Viitasaari, L J Petersen, M S Herskin
Aims This study aimed to gain methodological knowledge about quantification of mechanical nociceptive thresholds in pigs stimulated on the hind legs. Methods Thirty-two castrated male pigs were used, weighing 50-60kg, 16 weeks of age and housed in standard pens (4.40m×4.40m) with ad libitum access to water and feed. Mechanical nociceptive testing (4 stimulations/pig) was done by an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer (IITC Life Science Inc., CA) with a rigid, hollow plastic tip (cut-off: 1000 gf) and an area of 0...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Ravinder Kaushik, Prince Chawla, Naveen Kumar, Sandeep Janghu, Amit Lohan
Wheat cultivars were treated by four different treatments and their flours were obtained after milling. The quality of the obtained wheat flours was determined using various quality parameters and it was observed that premilling treatments significantly affect the gluten content, wet and dry gluten yield, gluten index, and water absorption capacity of gluten, respectively. Acid-treated wheat flours of all the four wheat varieties (C-306, Raj-3765, PBW-343, and KW-11) showed lower gluten content and quality, whereas conditioning and yeast treatment improve gluten quality as well as its content...
January 1, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Mustapha Carab Ahmed, Elena Papaleo, Kresten Lindorff-Larsen
Salt bridges form between pairs of ionisable residues in close proximity and are important interactions in proteins. While salt bridges are known to be important both for protein stability, recognition and regulation, we still do not have fully accurate predictive models to assess the energetic contributions of salt bridges. Molecular dynamics simulation is one technique that may be used study the complex relationship between structure, solvation and energetics of salt bridges, but the accuracy of such simulations depends on the force field used...
2018: PeerJ
Kaiser Karamdad, James W Hindley, Guido Bolognesi, Mark S Friddin, Robert V Law, Nicholas J Brooks, Oscar Ces, Yuval Elani
Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) are a well-established tool for the study of membrane biophysics and are increasingly used as artificial cell models and functional units in biotechnology. This trend is driven by the development of emulsion-based generation methods such as Emulsion Phase Transfer (EPT), which facilitates the encapsulation of almost any water-soluble compounds (including biomolecules) regardless of size or charge, is compatible with droplet microfluidics, and allows GUVs with asymmetric bilayers to be assembled...
June 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Jiahong Wang, Fuliang Cao, Erzheng Su, Linguo Zhao, Wensheng Qin
To improve the quality of Ginkgo biloba leaves as biological feed additives, twelve Aspergillus niger strains were evaluated for their growth in the moisture ginkgo leaf meal media through solid-state fermentation . The results relating to flavor, flavonoids, enzymes, crude protein, and reducing sugars showed A. niger Gyx086 strain was capable of efficiently fermenting ginkgo leaves. The optimal cultural conditions were three loops of spores inoculation to every 75 g medium containing 60 % water, grew at 28˚C for 48 h...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Csaba Bartos, Orsolya Jójárt-Laczkovich, Gábor Katona, Mária Budai-Szűcs, Rita Ambrus, Alexandra Bocsik, Ilona Gróf, Mária Anna Deli, Piroska Szabó-Révész
Purpose: The article reports a wet milling process, where the planetary ball mill was combined with pearl milling technology to reach nanosize range of meloxicam (Mel; 100-500 nm). The main purpose was to increase the dissolution rate and extent of a poorly water-soluble Mel as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug as well as to study its permeability across cultured intestinal epithelial cell layers. Methods: Viscosity of milled dispersion and particle size distribution and zeta potential of Mel were investigated and differential scanning calorimeter and X-ray powder diffractometer were used to analyse the structure of the suspended Mel...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Jinbo Chen
Hyper-accumulator biomass, Pteris vittata L., was hydrothermally converted into bio-oils via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in sub-supercritical water. The distributions and characterizations of various products as well as energy recovery under different temperatures (250-390 °C) were investigated. The highest bio-oil yield of 16.88% was obtained at 350 °C with the hydrothermal conversion of 61.79%, where the bio-oil was dominated by alcohols, esters, phenols, ketones and acidic compounds. The higher heating values of bio-oil were in the range of 19...
June 14, 2018: Bioresource Technology
T Sowoidnich, L Gordon, C Naber, F Bellmann, J Neubauer, D Joester
The analysis of the atomic composition of the interface between tricalcium silicate (C3 S), the main compound of Ordinary Portland Cement, and surrounding solution is still a challenging task. At the same time, that knowledge is of profound importance for describing the basic processes during hydration. By means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atom Probe Tomography (APT) we combine modern techniques in order to shed light on this topic in the present study. The results of these methods are compared with conduction calorimetry as a standard technique to study the hydration kinetics of cement...
June 11, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Teresa Balbi, Michele Montagna, Rita Fabbri, Cristina Carbone, Silvia Franzellitti, Elena Fabbri, Laura Canesi
Diclofenac-DCF, one of the most widely prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is globally detected in environmental compartments. Due to its occurrence in freshwater and potential impact on aquatic organisms, it has been added to the watch list of chemicals in the EU Water Directive; consequently, research on the impact of DCF in model aquatic organisms has great regulatory implications towards ecosystem health. DCF is also detected in coastal waters at concentrations from ng/L to 1 μg/L, as well as in marine organisms, such as the mussel Mytilus...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jungsun Hong, Franz Kevin Geronimo, Hyeseon Choi, Lee-Hyung Kim
Low-impact development (LID) techniques are being applied to reduce non-point source (NPS) pollution which are generated from various land uses. Cost-effective LID design requires consideration of influent runoff properties as well as physical and ecological pollutant-removing mechanisms. However, current LID technology design has failed to reflect the different properties of influent water from various land uses, and the biological design factors in LID facilities causing low efficiency and difficulties in maintenance...
June 9, 2018: Chemosphere
María Banqueri, Marta Méndez, Jorge L Arias
Subjects' early life events will affect them later in life. When these events are stressful, such as child abuse in humans or repeated maternal separation in rodents, subjects can show some behavioral and brain alterations. This study used young adult female Wistar rats that were maternally raised (AFR), maternally separated from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND10 (MS10), or maternally separated from PND1 to PND21 (MS21), in order to assess the effects of maternal separation (MS) on spatial learning and memory, as well as cognitive flexibility, using the Morris Water Maze (MWM)...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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