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Transcriptional regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679944/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-attenuates-microcystin-lr-induced-apoptosis-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-through-activation-of-the-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#1
Jun Shi, Min Zhang, Libin Zhang, Huipin Deng
Our previous study showed that the tea extract, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), protects against microcystin-LR (MC-LR) -mediated apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs); however, the mechanism underlying MC-LR-induced HUVEC apoptosis remains incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated whether the nuclear factor erythroid-like 2 (NRF2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway, which regulates antioxidant transcriptional regulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis, is involved in this process...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679905/qing-brick-tea-qbt-aqueous-extract-protects-monosodium-glutamate-induced-obese-mice-against-metabolic-syndrome-and-involves-up-regulation-transcription-factor-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-nrf2-antioxidant-pathway
#2
Wenqi Gao, Changyi Xiao, Jun Hu, Biaoxin Chen, Chunyan Wang, Bangping Cui, Pengyi Deng, Jian Yang, Zhifang Deng
BACKGROUND: Qing brick tea (QBT), traditional and popular beverage for Chinese people, is an important post-fermentation dark tea. Our present study was performed to investigate the ameliorative effects of QBT aqueous extract on metabolic syndrome (Mets) in monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice and the potential mechanisms. METHOD: Monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice were used to evaluate the anti-Mets effects of QBT. Content levels of malonaldehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein carbonylation, antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) in the skeletal muscle were assessed by commercial kits, respectively...
April 18, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679904/tanshinone-iia-protects-murine-chondrogenic-atdc5-cells-from-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-injury-by-down-regulating-microrna-203a
#3
Luan Luan, Zhiyuan Liang
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is the most common bone-joint disease in middle and older people all over the world. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is the main lipophilic diterpenoid isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae). This study analyzed the protective effects of Tan IIA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine chondrogenic ATDC5 cell inflammatory injury model. METHODS: Cell viability was assessed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cell apoptosis was detected using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining...
April 18, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679761/expression-profiling-and-microbial-ligand-binding-analysis-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-hmgb1-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-l
#4
Xin Cai, Chengbin Gao, Baofeng Su, Fenghua Tan, Ning Yang, Guodong Wang
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved DNA-binding protein, was involved in nucleosome formation and transcriptional regulation, and can also act as an extracellular cytokine to trigger inflammation and immune responses. In this study, we identified a HMGB1 gene in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). The full-length SaHMGB1 cDNA includes an open reading frame of 615 bp which encoded a 204 amino acid polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 23.19°kDa. SaHMGB1 was most closely related to several fish HMGB1 and shared 74...
April 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679759/bax-inhibitor-1-from-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides-involved-in-viral-infection
#5
Jia Cai, Shina Wei, Yishan Lu, Zaohe Wu, Qiwei Qin, Jichang Jian
Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a conserved anti-apoptotic protein that suppresses endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death. However, the function of fish BI-1 is not quite clear. In the present study, a bi-1 homolog (Ecbi-1) from orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides was identified and its roles in viral infection were investigated. EcBI-1 encoded 237 amino acids protein, contained six transmembrane regions and a conservative C-terminus motif. Ecbi-1 predominantly expressed in kidney and spleen of healthy grouper...
April 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679717/stat-3-regulation-of-cxcr4-is-necessary-for-the-prenylflavonoid-icaritin-to-enhance-mesenchymal-stem-cell-proliferation-migration-and-osteogenic-differentiation
#6
R Z L Lim, L Li, E L Yong, N Chew
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. MSCs derived from osteoporotic subjects demonstrate significant impairment in proliferation, adhesion and chemotaxis, and osteogenic differentiation, leading to reduced functional bone-forming osteoblasts and ultimately nett bone loss and osteoporosis. Epimedium herbs and its active compound Icaritin (ICT) have been used in Chinese ethnopharmacology for the treatment of metabolic bone diseases. Using an in-vitro cell culture model, we investigated the benefits of ICT treatment in enhancing MSC proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation, and provide novel data to describe its mechanism of action...
April 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679684/expression-profile-and-reproductive-regulation-of-apgwamide-in-pacific-abalone-haliotis-discus-hannai
#7
Kyeong Seop Kim, Tae Ha Kim, Mi Ae Kim, Jung Sick Lee, Young Chang Sohn
Neuropeptides in the central nervous system regulate reproductive activities in vertebrates. Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2 (APGWamide), a neuromediator expressed in the neural ganglia of mollusks, controls sexual maturation and reproduction. To clarify the role of APGWamide in sexual behavior regulation and gamete cell maturation in mollusks, we cloned the cDNA of APGWamide precursor (Hdh-APGWamide) and examined the spatiotemporal expression of the transcript in the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. The 222-amino acid sequence of the precursor deduced from the cDNA sequence showed typical features of gastropod APGWamide precursors...
April 18, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679643/classification-and-experimental-identification-of-plant-long-non-coding-rnas
#8
Muneeza I Rai, Maheen Alam, David A Lightfoot, Priyatansh Gurha, Ahmed J Afzal
Our understanding of gene regulation is constantly evolving. It is now clear that the majority of cellular transcripts are non-coding RNAs. The spectrum of non-coding RNAs is diverse and includes short (<200 nt) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) (>200 nt). LncRNAs regulate gene expression through diverse mechanisms. In this review, we describe the emerging roles of lncRNA mediated plant gene regulation. We discuss the current classification of lncRNAs and their role in genome organization and gene regulation...
April 18, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679612/protein-arginine-methyltransferase-5-promotes-lung-cancer-metastasis-via-the-epigenetic-regulation-of-mir-99-family-fgfr3-signaling
#9
Pengyu Jing, Nan Zhao, Mingxiang Ye, Yong Zhang, Zhipei Zhang, Jianyong Sun, Zhengxin Wang, Jian Zhang, Zhongping Gu
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) functions as a tumor initiator to regulate several cancer progressions, such as proliferation and apoptosis, by catalyzing the symmetrical dimethylation (me2s) of arginine residues within targeted molecules. However, the exact role of PRMT5-mediated metastasis in lung cancer is not fully understood. Here, we illustrated its potential effects in lung cancer metastasis in vivo and vitro. PRMT5 was frequently overexpressed in lung tumors, and its expression was positively related to tumor stages, lymphatic metastasis and poor outcome...
April 18, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679611/control-of-t-cell-effector-functions-by-mirnas
#10
Daniel P Inácio, Tiago Amado, Bruno Silva-Santos, Anita Q Gomes
The differentiation of effector T cells is a tightly regulated process that relies on the selective expression of lineage-defining master regulators that orchestrate unique transcriptional programs, including the production of distinct sets of effector cytokines. miRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators that are now viewed as critical players in these gene expression networks and help defining cell identity and function. This review summarises the role of individual miRNAs in the regulation of the differentiation of effector T cell subsets, including CD4+ T helper cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and innate-like NKT cells...
April 18, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679610/mutated-mitf-e87r-in-melanoma-enhances-tumor-progression-via-s100a4
#11
Alice Nordlinger, Shani Dror, Abdel Elkahloun, Justine Del Rio, Elisa Stubbs, Tami Golan, Hagar Malcov, Todd D Pricket, Julia C Cronin, Shivang Parikh, Sapir Labes, Laetitia Thomas, Gal Yankovitz, Yuval Tabach, Carmit Levy, Yardena Samuels, Mehdi Khaled
Melanoma, a melanocyte origin neoplasm, is the most lethal type of skin cancer and incidence is increasing. Several familial and somatic mutations have been identified in the gene encoding the melanocyte lineage master regulator, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF); however, the neoplastic mechanisms of these mutant MITF variants are mostly unknown. Here, by performing unbiased analysis of the transcriptomes in cells expressing mutant MITF, we identified calcium-binding protein S100A4, as a downstream target of MITF-E87R...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679569/ddx1-regulates-alternative-splicing-and-insulin-secretion-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#12
Wen Zhong, Zonghong Li, Maoge Zhou, Tao Xu, You Wang
DEAD-box helicase 1 (DDX1) is a multifunction protein involved in diverse cellular processes including transcription, viral replication, mRNA/miRNA processing, and tRNA splicing. Here, we report a novel function of DDX1 in mRNA alternative splicing in pancreatic β cells. By performing integrated data analysis of high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), and cross-linking and immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (CLIP-Seq), we identify hundreds of alternative splicing genes that are targeted by DDX1...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679567/hdac-mediated-deacetylation-of-klf5-associates-with-its-proteasomal-degradation
#13
Ran Tao, Baotong Zhang, Yixiang Li, Jamie L King, Ruoyu Tian, Siyuan Xia, Cara Rae Schiavon, Jin-Tang Dong
Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a basic transcription factor that regulates diverse cellular processes during tumor development. Acetylation of KLF5 at lysine 369 (K369) reverses its function from promoting to suppressing cell proliferation and tumor growth. In this study, we examined the regulation of KLF5 by histone deacetylases in the prostate cancer cell line DU 145. While confirming the functions of HDAC1/2 in KLF5 deacetylation and the promotion of cell proliferation, we found that the knockdown of HDAC1/2 upregulated KLF5 protein but not KLF5 mRNA, and the increase in KLF5 protein level by silencing HDAC1/2 was at least in part due to decreased proteasomal degradation...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679497/ewsr1-patz1-gene-fusion-may-define-a-new-glioneuronal-tumor-entity
#14
Aurore Siegfried, Audrey Rousseau, Claude-Alain Maurage, Sarah Pericart, Yvan Nicaise, Frederic Escudie, David Grand, Alix Delrieu, Anne Gomez-Brouchet, Sophie Le Guellec, Camille Franchet, Sergio Boetto, Matthieu Vinchon, Jean-Christophe Sol, Franck-Emmanuel Roux, Valerie Rigau, Anne-Isabelle Bertozzi, David Tw Jones, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Emmanuelle Uro-Coste
We investigated the challenging diagnostic case of a ventricular cystic glioneuronal tumor with papillary features, by RNA sequencing using the Illumina TruSight RNA Fusion panel. We did not retrieve the SLC44A1-PRKCA fusion gene specific for papillary glioneuronal tumor, but an EWSR1-PATZ1 fusion transcript. RT-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing confirmed the EWSR1-PATZ1 fusion. It matched with canonic EWSR1 fusion oncogene, juxtaposing the entire N terminal transcriptional activation domain of EWSR1 gene and the C terminal DNA binding domain of a transcription factor gene, PATZ1...
April 21, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679495/insights-into-the-post-translational-modifications-of-archaeal-sis10b-alba-lysine-16-is-methylated-not-acetylated-and-this-does-not-regulate-transcription-or-growth
#15
Jingjing Cao, Qian Wang, Tao Liu, Nan Peng, Li Huang
Nucleic acid-binding proteins of the Sac10b family, also referred to as Alba (for acetylation lowers binding affinity), are highly conserved in Archaea. It was reported that Sso10b, a Sac10b homologue from Sulfolobus solfataricus, was acetylated at the ε-amino group of K16 and the α-amino group of the N-terminal residue. Notably, acetylation of K16 reduced the affinity of Sso10b for DNA and de-repressed transcription in vitro. Here we show that Sis10b, a Sac10b homologue from Sulfolobus islandicus, underwent a range of post-translational modifications (PTMs)...
April 21, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679339/long-non-coding-rna-lncrna-magi2-as3-inhibits-breast-cancer-cell-growth-by-targeting-the-fas-fasl-signalling-pathway
#16
Yong Yang, Hong Yang, Miao Xu, Haibin Zhang, Mingtao Sun, Peng Mu, Tongbao Dong, Shanmei Du, Kui Liu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein-coding transcripts shown to play important roles in tumourigenesis and tumour progression. Our study aimed to examine expression of the lncRNA MAGI2-AS3 in breast cancer and to explore its function in cancer cell growth. First, MAGI2-AS3 expression levels in clinical samples and cell lines were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The functional significance of MAGI2-AS3 in cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis was then examined in vitro...
April 20, 2018: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679278/overexpression-of-modified-human-tr%C3%AE-1-suppresses-the-growth-of-hepatocarcinoma-sk-hep1-cells-in-vitro-and-in-xenograft-models
#17
Xiaoxiang Peng, Yuntao Zhou, Yanli Sun, Wei Song, Xiangying Meng, Chunling Zhao, Ronglan Zhao
Association studies suggest that TRβ1 functions as a tumor suppressor. Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) mediate transcriptional responses through a highly conserved DNA-binding domain (DBD). We previously constructed an artificially modified human TRβ1 (m-TRβ1) via the introduction of a 108-bp exon sequence into the corresponding position of the wild-type human TRβ1 (TRβ1) DBD. Studies confirmed that m-TRβ1 was functional and could inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells in vitro. To understand the role of m-TRβ1 in liver tumor development, we adopted a gain-of-function approach by stably expressing TRβ (m-TRβ1 and TRβ1) genes in a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, SK-hep1 (without endogenous TRβ), and then evaluated the effects of the expressed TRβ on cancer cell proliferation, migration, and tumor growth in cell-based studies and xenograft models...
April 20, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679263/molecular-identification-of-gapdhs-in-cassava-highlights-the-antagonism-of-megapcs-and-meatg8s-in-plant-disease-resistance-against-cassava-bacterial-blight
#18
Hongqiu Zeng, Yanwei Xie, Guoyin Liu, Daozhe Lin, Chaozu He, Haitao Shi
MeGAPCs were identified as negative regulators of plant disease resistance, and the interaction of MeGAPCs and MeATG8s was highlighted in plant defense response. As an important enzyme of glycolysis metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays important roles in plant development, abiotic stress and immune responses. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is most important tropical crop and one of the major food crops, however, no information is available about GAPDH gene family in cassava. In this study, 14 MeGAPDHs including 6 cytosol GAPDHs (MeGAPCs) were identified from cassava, and the transcripts of 14 MeGAPDHs in response to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam) indicated their possible involvement in immune responses...
April 20, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679052/differential-contribution-of-cis-and-trans-gene-transcription-regulatory-mechanisms-in-amygdala-and-prefrontal-cortex-and-modulation-by-social-stress
#19
Eli Reuveni, Dmitry Getselter, Oded Oron, Evan Elliott
While both individual transcription factors and cis-acting sites have been studied in relation to psychiatric disorders, there is little knowledge of the relative contribution of trans-acting and cis-acting factors to gene transcription in the brain. Using an RNA-seq approach in mice bred from two evolutionary-distinct mice strains, we determined the contribution of cis and trans factors to gene expression in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, two regions of the brain relevant to the stress response, and the contribution of cis and trans factors in the prefrontal cortex after Chronic Social Defeat (CSD) in mice...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679003/the-transcription-repair-coupling-factor-mfd-associates-with-rna-polymerase-in-the-absence-of-exogenous-damage
#20
Han N Ho, Antoine M van Oijen, Harshad Ghodke
During transcription elongation, bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) can pause, backtrack or stall when transcribing template DNA. Stalled transcription elongation complexes at sites of bulky lesions can be rescued by the transcription terminator Mfd. The molecular mechanisms of Mfd recruitment to transcription complexes in vivo remain to be elucidated, however. Using single-molecule live-cell imaging, we show that Mfd associates with elongation transcription complexes even in the absence of exogenous genotoxic stresses...
April 20, 2018: Nature Communications
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