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Sport speed

Sijie Tan, Cheng Chen, Mingyang Sui, Lunan Xue, Jianxiong Wang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of exercise training on body composition, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness in 5-year-old obese and lean children. METHODS: 42 obese and 62 lean children were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups separately. Body composition, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness were measured at baseline and the end of the intervention. The exercise groups participated in 10 weeks of supervised moderate intensity exercise training (at 50% of heart rate reserve), 50 training sessions in total...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Myosotis Massidda, Valeria Bachis, Laura Corrias, Francesco Piras, Marco Scorcu, Claudia Culigioni, Daniele Masala, Carla M Calò
BACKGROUND: The ACTN3 gene may influence performance in team sports, in which sprint action and high-speed movements, regulated by the anaerobic energy system, are crucial to the ultimate success of a match. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism and elite team sport athletic status in Italian male athletes. METHODS: We compared the genotype and allele frequency of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism between team sport athletes (n = 75), endurance athletes (n = 40), sprint/power athletes (n = 64), and non-athletic healthy controls (n = 192) from Italy...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
M Schapschröer, S Lemez, J Baker, J Schorer
BACKGROUND: Many researchers have considered the impact of physical exercise on perceptual-cognitive performance. There have also been a substantial number of studies that have examined how perceptual-cognitive skills differ between elite athletes and non-athletes. However, the knowledge on how physical exercise interacts with perceptual-cognitive skill is limited. This systematic review aims to provide detailed information on how athletes' perceptual-cognitive performance is influenced by acute physical exercise load and whether these effects differ between elite athletes and lesser skilled groups...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Ryan M Gardner, Aaron Yengo-Kahn, Christopher M Bonfield, Gary S Solomon
OBJECTIVES: Baseline and post-concussion neurocognitive testing is useful in managing concussed athletes. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and stimulant medications are recognized as potential modifiers of performance on neurocognitive testing by the Concussion in Sport Group. Our goal was to assess whether individuals with ADHD perform differently on post-concussion testing and if this difference is related to the use of stimulants. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study in which 4373 athletes underwent baseline and post-concussion testing using the ImPACT battery...
October 13, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
James J Malone, Ric Lovell, Matthew C Varley, Aaron J Coutts
Athlete tracking devices that include global positioning system (GPS) and micro electrical mechanical system (MEMS) components are now commonplace in sport research and practice. These devices provide large amounts of data that are used to inform decision-making on athlete training and performance. However, the data obtained from these devices are often provided without clear explanation of how these metrics are obtained. At present, there is no clear consensus regarding how these data should be handled and reported in a sport context...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Remko van Lieshout, Mirelle J Stukstette, Rob A de Bie, Benedicte Vanwanseele, Martijn F Pisters
Study Design Controlled laboratory study to assess criterion-related validity, with a cross-sectional within-subject design. Background Patients with orthopaedic conditions have difficulties complying with partial weight-bearing instructions. Technological advances have resulted in biofeedback devices that offer real-time feedback. However, the accuracy of these devices is mostly unknown. Inaccurate feedback can result in incorrect lower-limb loading and may lead to delayed healing. Objectives To investigate validity of peak force measurements obtained using 3 different biofeedback devices under varying levels of partial weight-bearing categories...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
S Manderoos, N Wasenius, M K Laine, U M Kujala, E Mälkiä, J Kaprio, S Sarna, H M Bäckmand, J A Kettunen, O J Heinonen, A M Jula, S Aunola, J G Eriksson
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare mobility and muscle strength in male former elite endurance and power athletes aged 66-91 years (n = 150; 50 men in both former elite athlete groups and in their control group). Agility, dynamic balance, walking speed, chair stand, self-rated balance confidence (ABC-scale), jumping height, and handgrip strength were assessed. Former elite power athletes had better agility performance time than the controls (age- and body mass index, BMI-adjusted mean difference -3...
October 5, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Dariusz Gierczuk, Vladimir Lyakh, Jerzy Sadowski, Zbigniew Bujak
The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in simple reaction time and to define correlations between simple reaction time and technical and tactical actions performed by elite Greco-Roman wrestlers during a match. Twenty Greco-Roman wrestlers (M age = 19.5 years, SD = 1.8) from the Wrestling Sports Centre in Radom participated in the study. Simple reaction time (including reaction time and movement time) before a match and after the first, the second, and the third round was analyzed. The wrestlers' reaction time and movement time changed in the course of performance...
October 4, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Akinori Nagano, Masahiro Fujimoto, Shoma Kudo, Ryosuke Akaguma
Walking and running speed is a fundamental parameter studied in a wide range of areas such as sport biomechanics, rehabilitation, health promotion of the elderly, etc. Given that walking or running speed is not constant even within a stride, instantaneous changes in the body motion need to be evaluated to better understand one's performance. In this study, a new cost- and time- efficient methodology to determine instantaneous horizontal walking and running speed was developed. The newly developed method processes the movies taken with a (high-speed) camera...
September 16, 2016: Gait & Posture
Pascal Edouard, Pierre Samozino, Romain Slotala, Jurdan Mendiguchia, Jean-Benoit Morin
Hamstring muscle injury is the main injury related to athletics, but also other sports including acceleration and sprints, with important consequences (time loss of sport and re-injury risk). In a prevention approach, a better knowledge of risk factors and mechanisms of these lesions seem relevant, and it can pass through a better understanding of the biomechanical and muscular determinants of performance in sprint and acceleration. The ability to produce a horizontal force on the ground [i.e. orienting the total push backward (or ground force reaction forward)], and to do so despite the increase in running speed, is an important determinant of sprint performance...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Nadav Goldschmied, Mark Sheptock, Kacey Kim, Yair Galily
Two experiments were conducted to examine framing effects in sport. In Experiment 1, a conceptual replication [Loftus, E. F., & Palmer, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13(5), 585-589], participants watched a hockey collision, with the hit described later in a written format as a "contact", "bump", or "smash". This manipulation resulted in no differences in participants' report of how fast the players were skating, their intentions, and the outcome of the hit...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Shane Malone, Kieran Collins
The current study examined the effect that game design modification, goal type and player numbers on the running performance and physiological demands of small-sided hurling games (SSG). Forty-eight hurling players (age 25.5 ± 3.2 years; height 178.9 ± 3.2 cm; body mass 78.5 ± 4.5 kg) performed four types of SSG (possession (P), normal play (NP), regular Goals (RG) and small goals (SG) in four-a-side, five-a-side and six-a-side formats. Heart rate (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) and Global positioning system technology (VX Sport, 4-Hz, Lower Hutt, New Zealand) were used to analyse the physical and physiological differences between SSG...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Vincenzo Rago, António N Rebelo, Federico Pizzuto, Daniel Barreira
BACKGROUND: The use of sand has been suggested as fitness-enhancing surface in field-based team sports. However, concerns have arisen in regard whether physical responses associated to sand training are sport-specific. We compared physical and technical demands during small-sided football games (4v4 + goalkeeper; SSGs) played on artificial turf and on sand. METHODS: Movement patterns, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and technical parameters were obtained from eight adult male footballers (20...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Nasya M Sturdivant, Sean G Smith, Syed F Ali, Jeffrey C Wolchok, Kartik Balachandran
Non-penetrating or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly experienced in accidents, the battlefield and in full-contact sports. Astrocyte cellular edema is one of the major factors that leads to high morbidity post-mTBI. Various studies have reported an upregulation of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel protein, following brain injury. AZA is an antiepileptic drug that has been shown to inhibit AQP4 expression and in this study we investigate the drug as a therapeutic to mitigate the extent of mTBI induced cellular edema...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sang-Hee Woo, Kyung-Hwan Kwak, Gwi-Nam Bae, Kyung Hwan Kim, Chang Hyeok Kim, Se-Jin Yook, Sangzin Jeon, Sangil Kwon, Jeongsoo Kim, Seung-Bok Lee
The unintended influence of exhaust plumes emitted from a vehicle ahead to on-road air quality surveying data measured with a mobile laboratory (ML) at 20-40 km h(-1) in dense traffic areas was investigated by experiment and life-sized computational fluidic dynamics (CFD) simulation. The ML equipped with variable sampling inlets of five columns by four rows was used to measure the spatial distribution of CO2 and NOx concentrations when following 5-20 m behind a sport utility vehicle (SUV) as an emitter vehicle equipped with a portable emission monitoring system (PEMS)...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Annette Lohbeck, Maike Tietjens, Andreas Bund
Research on children's physical self-concept (PSC) is increasingly recognised as an important field of psychology. However, there is a lack of instruments suitable for younger children at elementary school age. In the present study, a short German 21-item Physical Self-Concept-Questionnaire for children (PSCQ-C) was tested measuring seven specific facets of elementary school children's PSC (strength, endurance, speed, flexibility, coordination, physical appearance, global sport competence). A number of 770 elementary school children aged 8-12 years completed the PSCQ-C...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
R M A van der Slikke, M A M Berger, D J J Bregman, H E J Veeger
Quantitative assessment of an athlete׳s individual wheelchair mobility performance is one prerequisite needed to evaluate game performance, improve wheelchair settings and optimize training routines. Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) based methods can be used to perform such quantitative assessment, providing a large number of kinematic data. The goal of this research was to reduce that large amount of data to a set of key features best describing wheelchair mobility performance in match play and present them in meaningful way for both scientists and athletes...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Wouter J Harmsen, Femke J Aarsen, Monique H M van der Cammen-van Zijp, Joost M van Rosmalen, Rene M H Wijnen, Dick Tibboel, Hanneke IJsselstijn
OBJECTIVE: To longitudinally evaluate motor development and predictive factors in school-age children with oesophageal atresia. DESIGN: Cohort study with prospective longitudinal follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of a tertiary university paediatric hospital. PATIENTS: Children with oesophageal atresia born between January 1999 and May 2006 were assessed at 5 and 8 years of age. INTERVENTIONS: None...
August 31, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Claire M Barnes, Cain C T Clark, Mark D Holton, Gareth Stratton, Huw D Summers
INTRODUCTION: The aim was to establish children's mechanical movement patterns during a standardised assessment of fitness by means of an accelerometer. Further to this, our objective was to use the information from the accelerometer to profile individual time courses of exercise, across the cohort. METHODS: A multi-stage fitness test study was performed with 103 children, aged 10.3 years ± 0.6y. Children wore an ankle mounted accelerometer and gait data was collected on radial acceleration traces obtained at a frequency of 40 Hz...
August 30, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Nicolas Bailly, Sanae Afquir, Jean-Dominique Laporte, Anthony Melot, Dominique Savary, Eric Seigneuret, Jean-Baptiste Delay, Thierry Donnadieu, Catherine Masson, Pierre-Jean Arnoux
PURPOSE: Mechanisms of injury and description of head impacts leading to traumatic brain injury (TBI) in skiers and snowboarders have not been extensively documented. We investigate snow-sport crashes leading to TBI in order to (1) Identify typical mechanisms leading to TBI to better target prevention measures and (2) Identify the injury mechanisms and the head impact conditions. METHODS: The subjects were skiers and snowboarders diagnosed of TBI and admitted between 2013 and 2015 to one of the 15 medical offices and 3 hospital centers involved in the study...
August 30, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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