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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098836/association-of-school-environment-and-after-school-physical-activity-with-health-related-physical-fitness-among-junior-high-school-students-in-taiwan
#1
Kai-Yang Lo, Min-Chen Wu, Shu-Chin Tung, City C Hsieh, Hsueh-Hua Yao, Chien-Chang Ho
The relationship between students' school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total) in grades seven to nine...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095083/physiological-capacity-and-training-routines-of-elite-cross-country-skiers-approaching-the-upper-limits-of-human-endurance
#2
Øyvind Sandbakk, Hans-Christer Holmberg
Cross-country skiing is one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involving protracted competitions on varying terrain employing a variety of skiing techniques that require upper- and/or lower-body work to different extents. Through more effective training and extensive improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of cross-country ski races has increased more than that of any other winter Olympic sport and, in addition, new types of racing events have been introduced. To a certain extent this has altered the optimal physiological capacity required to win and the training routines of successful skiers have evolved accordingly...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040320/semimembranosus-tenosynovitis-diagnosis-and-management-of-a-commonly-missed-cause-of-posteromedial-knee-pain
#3
Joel K Melton, Arman Memarzadeh, William H Dunbar, Mervyn J Cross
BACKGROUND: In orthopedic and sports medicine literature there is minimal information regarding accurate diagnosis and the treatment options for tenosynovitis of the distal semimembranosus tendon. After reviewing the literature, the authors question both the etiology and treatment of this condition. Previous descriptions have associated the condition primarily with the endurance athlete but we have noted multiple cases in which this is a condition common to the 'sprinter' as well. There has been very little mention of this condition in recent literature but the most recent complete description of operative treatment for this condition recommends both tendon transfer and concomitant arthroscopy...
December 28, 2016: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039429/limited-potential-of-genetic-predisposition-scores-to-predict-muscle-mass-and-strength-performance-in-flemish-caucasians-between-19-73-years-of-age
#4
Ruben Charlier, Maarten Caspers, Sara Knaeps, Evelien Mertens, Diether Lambrechts, Johan Lefevre, Martine Thomis
Since both muscle mass and strength performance are polygenic in nature, the current study compared four Genetic Predisposition Scores (GPS) in their ability to predict these phenotypes. Data were gathered within the framework of the first generation Flemish Policy Research Centre 'Sport, Physical Activity and Health' (2002-2004). Results are based on muscle characteristics data of 565 Flemish Caucasians (19-73 yr, 365 men). Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was determined using bioelectrical impedance. The Biodex dynamometer was used to measure isometric (PTstatic120°) and isokinetic strength (PTdynamic60° and PTdynamic240°), ballistic movement speed (S20%) and muscular endurance (Work) of the knee extensors...
December 30, 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039126/are-olympic-athletes-free-from-cardiovascular-diseases-systematic-investigation-in-2352-participants-from-athens-2004-to-sochi-2014
#5
Antonio Pelliccia, Paolo Emilio Adami, Filippo Quattrini, Maria Rosaria Squeo, Stefano Caselli, Luisa Verdile, Viviana Maestrini, Fernando Di Paolo, Cataldo Pisicchio, Roberto Ciardo, Antonio Spataro
CONTEXT: Olympic athletes represent model of success in our society, by enduring strenuous conditioning programmes and achieving astonishing performances. They also raise scientific and clinical interest, with regard to medical care and prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) abnormalities. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the prevalence and type of CV abnormalities in this selected athlete's cohort. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 2352 Olympic athletes, mean age 25±6, 64% men, competing in 31 summer or 15 winter sports, were examined with history, physical examination, 12-lead and exercise ECG and echocardiography...
December 30, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039074/caffeine-stimulates-voluntary-wheel-running-in-mice-without-increasing-aerobic-capacity
#6
Gerald C Claghorn, Zoe Thompson, Kristianna Wi, Lindsay Van, Theodore Garland
The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031765/physical-performance-during-water-polo-matches-the-effect-of-the-players-competitive-level
#7
Petros G Botonis, Argyris G Toubekis, Theodoros I Platanou
The purpose of the study was to compare playing intensity and performance changes within a water-polo match in players of different competitive levels. High-level (n = 7) and lower-level (n = 7) players performed a progressively increasing speed test of 5 x 200 m swimming and speed corresponding to lactate concentration of 4.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol•l-1 was calculated. Repeated sprint ability (8 x 20 m) was tested at pre-, the middle and post-match and a 400 m swimming test was completed at pre and post in five water-polo matches...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030533/physical-and-physiological-profile-of-wrestler-athletes-short-review
#8
Helmi Chaabene, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Bessem Mkaouer, Emerson Franchini, Ursula Julio, Younés Hachana
Wrestling is one of the oldest combat sports, disputed since the ancient Greek Olympic Games. This combat sport discipline has caught the attention of scientists since 1943 which is the date that matches the appearance of the first scientific research dealing with wrestling. The current short review aimed to summarize and critically analyze the scientific literature related to wrestling's physical and physiological attributes and to provide practical recommendations for testing/training together with new perspective and areas of future scientific research...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018244/differences-in-muscle-oxygenation-perceived-fatigue-and-recovery-between-long-track-and-short-track-speed-skating
#9
Florentina J Hettinga, Marco J Konings, Chris E Cooper
Due to the technical nature of speed skating, that is affecting physiological mechanisms such as oxygenation and blood flow, this sport provides a unique setting allowing us to uncover novel mechanistic insights of the physiological response to exercise in elite middle-distance and endurance sports. The present study aimed to examine the influence of skating mode (short-track vs. long-track) on muscle oxygenation, perceived fatigue, and recovery in elite speed skating. Muscle oxygenation of 12 talented short-track speed skaters was continuously monitored during a long-track (LT) and a short-track (ST) skating time-trial of maximal effort using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on the m...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997264/decrease-in-ionized-and-total-magnesium-blood-concentrations-in-endurance-athletes-following-an-exercise-bout-restores-within-hours-potential-consequences-for-monitoring-and-supplementation
#10
Rieneke Terink, Michael G J Balvers, Maria T Hopman, Renger F Witkamp, Marco Mensink, Jacqueline M T Klein Gunnewiek
Magnesium is essential for optimal sport performance, generating an interest to monitor its status in athletes. However, before measuring magnesium status in blood could become routine, more insight into its diurnal fluctuations and effects of exercise itself is necessary. Therefore, we measured the effect of an acute bout of exercise on ionized (iMg) and total plasma magnesium (tMg) in blood obtained from 18 healthy well-trained endurance athletes (age, 31.1 ± 8.1 yr.; VO2max, 50.9 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min) at multiple time points, and compared this with a resting situation...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997257/solid-gel-and-liquid-carbohydrate-format-effects-on-gut-comfort-and-performance
#11
Mathilde Guillochon, David S Rowlands
Carbohydrate sports drinks produce worthwhile benefits to endurance performance compared with non-caloric controls. However, athletes now consume carbohydrate in a range of formats, including gels and bars, but the comparable performance outcomes are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the relative effects of drink, gel, bar, and mixed carbohydrate formats on intense cycling performance. In a treatment-apparent randomised crossover design, 12 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials comprising a 140-min race simulation, followed by a double-blind slow-ramp to exhaustion (0...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967263/starvation-can-result-from-inadequate-dietary-planning-for-a-50-day-rowing-expedition
#12
Hamish Ab Reid, Nicholas C Dennison, Jonathan Quayle, Tom Preston
PURPOSE: Meeting the energy demands of prolonged arduous expeditions and endurance sport may be a significant barrier to success. Expedition rowing is associated with high levels of body mass loss, reflecting the challenge of meeting energy expenditure in this exacting environment. This study used the Doubly Labelled Water (DLW) technique to calculate the Total Energy Expenditure (TEE), and body composition changes of two 28-year-old healthy male athletes during a 50-day continuous and unsupported row around Great Britain...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933516/costs-of-diabetes-medication-among-male-former-elite-athletes-in-later-life
#13
M K Laine, R Kujala, J G Eriksson, H Kautiainen, S Sarna, U M Kujala
AIMS: Regular physical activity plays a major role, in both prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Less is known whether vigorous physical activity during young adulthood is associated with costs of diabetes medication in later life. The aim of this study is to evaluate this question. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1314 former elite-class athletes and 860 matched controls. The former athletes were divided into three groups based on their active career sport: endurance, mixed and power sports...
December 8, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918673/predictive-indicators-of-overuse-injuries-in-adolescent-endurance-athletes
#14
Daniel Martínez-Silván, Jaime Díaz-Ocejo, Andrew Murray
PURPOSE: To analyse the influence of training exposure and the utility of self-report questionnaires on predicting overuse injuries in adolescent endurance athletes. METHODS: 5 adolescent male endurance athletes (15.7 ± 1.4 yr) from a full-time sports academy answered 2 questionnaires (Recovery Cue; RC-q & Oslo Sports Trauma Research questionnaire; OSTRC-q) on a weekly basis for one season (37 wks) in order to detect (1) signs of overtraining and under-recovery (RC-q) and (2) early symptoms of lower limb injuries (OSTRC-q)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918666/quantification-of-training-and-competition-loads-in-endurance-sports-methods-and-applications
#15
Iñigo Mujika
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895542/effect-of-tart-cherry-juice-on-recovery-and-next-day-performance-in-well-trained-water-polo-players
#16
Rachel McCormick, Peter Peeling, Martyn Binnie, Brian Dawson, Marc Sim
BACKGROUND: Tart Montmorency cherries contain high concentrations of phytochemicals and anthocyanins, which have recently been linked to improved athletic recovery and subsequent performance. To date however, previous work reporting promising results has focused on land-based endurance sports, with any potential benefits to team sports remaining unknown. As such, this investigation set-out to examine the effect of supplemental tart cherry juice (CJ) on recovery and next day athletic performance in highly-trained water-based team sport athletes over seven days...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893472/correspondence-between-physical-self-concept-and-participation-in-and-fitness-change-after-bi-weekly-body-conditioning-classes-in-sedentary-women
#17
Ulrika Aasa, Johan Paulin, Guy Madison
The aims of the study were (1) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (2) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11-weeks of bi-weekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889869/left-ventricular-speckle-tracking-derived-cardiac-strain-and-cardiac-twist-mechanics-in-athletes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-studies
#18
REVIEW
Alexander Beaumont, Fergal Grace, Joanna Richards, John Hough, David Oxborough, Nicholas Sculthorpe
BACKGROUND: The athlete's heart is associated with physiological remodeling as a consequence of repetitive cardiac loading. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular (LV) cardiac strain and twist mechanics are equivocal, and no meta-analysis has been conducted to date. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the literature pertaining to the effect of different forms of athletic training on cardiac strain and twist mechanics and determine the influence of traditional and contemporary sporting classifications on cardiac strain and twist mechanics...
November 26, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878317/-what-is-currently-available-for-sport-medicine-therapy
#19
U Tegtbur
After 30 years of age physical capacity decreases with increasing age by 5-20% per decade. High physical activity in daily life as well as exercise training of endurance, strength, coordination and mobility can delay the functional and anatomical loss of muscle, bone, cartilage and connective tissue by more than 10 years. In recent years, numerous concepts have scientifically been proven in the exercise therapy of internal diseases; therefore, similar to drug treatment, cellular mechanisms of exercise training adaptation are known in detail...
December 2016: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862560/noninvasive-assessment-of-age-gender-and-exercise-effects-on-skeletal-muscle-initial-experience-with-t1-%C3%AF-mri-of-calf-muscle
#20
Xin-Gui Peng, Yuancheng Wang, Shijun Zhang, Yingying Bai, Hui Mao, Gao-Jun Teng, Shenghong Ju
PURPOSE: To prospectively investigate age- and gender-related changes in the fast-twitch (tibialis anterior, TA) and slow-twitch (soleus, SOL) skeletal muscle of healthy rats and volunteers and to compare the exercise-related difference in health volunteers with T1 ρ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 18 rats and 70 humans were involved in this study. For the animal study, T1 ρ relaxation times were measured in the TA and SOL rat muscle with a 3...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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