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otolith circuitry

Chun-Wai Ma, Chun-Hong Lai, Billy K C Chow, Daisy K Y Shum, Ying-Shing Chan
Vestibular information arising from rotational head movement and that from translational head movement are detected respectively by the semicircular canal and otolith organ in the inner ear. Spatiotemporal cues are in turn processed by the vestibulo-olivo-cerebellar pathway for sensorimotor coordination, but the role of the inferior olive (IO) in this pathway remains unclear. To address whether rotational and translational movements are differentially represented in the IO, we studied the distribution pattern of IO neurons recruited into the circuitry following selective activation of receptor hair cells of the horizontal semicircular canal or the utricle in adult rats...
June 2013: Cerebellum
Yoshio Uchino, Keisuke Kushiro
In the last two decades, we have focused on establishing a reliable technique for focal stimulation of vestibular receptors to evaluate neural connectivity. Here, we summarize the vestibular-related neuronal circuits for the vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulocollic reflex, and vestibulospinal reflex arcs. The focal stimulating technique also uncovered some hidden neural mechanisms. In the otolith system, we identified two hidden neural mechanisms that enhance otolith receptor sensitivity. The first is commissural inhibition, which boosts sensitivity by incorporating inputs from bilateral otolith receptors, the existence of which was in contradiction to the classical understanding of the otolith system but was observed in the utricular system...
December 2011: Neuroscience Research
V J Destefino, D A Reighard, Y Sugiyama, T Suzuki, L A Cotter, M G Larson, N J Gandhi, S M Barman, B J Yates
The responses to vestibular stimulation of brain stem neurons that regulate sympathetic outflow and blood flow have been studied extensively in decerebrate preparations, but not in conscious animals. In the present study, we compared the responses of neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), a principal region of the brain stem involved in the regulation of blood pressure, to whole body rotations of conscious and decerebrate cats. In both preparations, RVLM neurons exhibited similar levels of spontaneous activity (median of ∼17 spikes/s)...
June 2011: Journal of Applied Physiology
L E Walther, K Hörmann, O Pfaar
Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) have gained in clinical significance in recent years, now forming an integral part of neurootological examinations to establish the functional status of the otolith organs. They are sensitive to low-frequency acoustic stimuli. When stimulated, receptors in the sacculus and utriculous are activated. By means of reflexive connections, myogenic potentials can be recorded when the relevant muscles are tonically activated. The vestibulocolic (sacculocollic) reflex travels from the otolith organs over the central circuitry to the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle...
October 2010: HNO
Dora E Angelaki, Tatyana A Yakusheva, Andrea M Green, J David Dickman, Pablo M Blazquez
The nodulus and uvula (lobules X and IX of the vermis) receive mossy fibers from both vestibular afferents and vestibular nuclei neurons and are thought to play a role in spatial orientation. Their properties relate to a sensory ambiguity of the vestibular periphery: otolith afferents respond identically to translational (inertial) accelerations and changes in orientation relative to gravity. Based on theoretical and behavioral evidence, this sensory ambiguity is resolved using rotational cues from the semicircular canals...
June 2010: Cerebellum
Andrea M Green, Dora E Angelaki
The vestibular system is vital for motor control and spatial self-motion perception. Afferents from the otolith organs and the semicircular canals converge with optokinetic, somatosensory and motor-related signals in the vestibular nuclei, which are reciprocally interconnected with the vestibulocerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei. Here, we review the properties of the many cell types in the vestibular nuclei, as well as some fundamental computations implemented within this brainstem-cerebellar circuitry...
January 2010: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
C Pierrot-Deseilligny
There is growing evidence that gravity markedly influences vertical eye position and movements. A new model for the organization of brainstem upgaze pathways is presented in this review. The crossing ventral tegmental tract (CVTT) could be the efferent tract of an "antigravitational" pathway terminating at the elevator muscle motoneurons in the third nerve nuclei and comprising, upstream, the superior vestibular nucleus and y-group, the flocculus, and the otoliths. This pathway functions in parallel to the medial longitudinal fasciculus pathways, which control vertical eye movements made to compensate for all vertical head movements and may also comprise the "gravitational" vestibular pathways, involved in the central reflection of the gravity effect...
May 2009: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Neal H Barmack
Three subnuclei within the inferior olive are implicated in the control of eye movement; the dorsal cap (DC), the beta-nucleus and the dorsomedial cell column (DMCC). Each of these subnuclei can be further divided into clusters of cells that encode specific parameters of optokinetic and vestibular stimulation. DC neurons respond to optokinetic stimulation in one of three planes, corresponding to the anatomical planes of the semicircular canals. Neurons in the beta-nucleus and DMCC respond to vestibular stimulation in the planes of the vertical semicircular canals and otoliths...
2006: Progress in Brain Research
Hui Meng, Andrea M Green, J David Dickman, Dora E Angelaki
Under natural conditions, the vestibular and pursuit systems work synergistically to stabilize the visual scene during movement. How translational vestibular signals [translational vestibuloocular reflex (TVOR)] are processed in the premotor pathways for slow eye movements continues to remain a challenging question. To further our understanding of how premotor neurons contribute to this processing, we recorded neural activities from the prepositus and rostral medial vestibular nuclei in macaque monkeys. Vestibular neurons were tested during 0...
June 2005: Journal of Neurophysiology
Yoshio Uchino
In the otolith system, there are two types of neuronal circuitry that can enhance response sensitivity during linear acceleration and tilt of the head. One produces cross-striolar inhibition and the other commissural inhibition. Cross-striolar inhibition can be observed in over 50% of saccular-activated, second-order vestibular neurons. In contrast, it is seen in less than 33% of utricular-activated, second-order vestibular neurons. The majority of vestibular neurons that receive cross-striolar inhibition have axons that project to the spinal cord...
2004: Progress in Brain Research
Hans Straka, Stefan Holler, Fumiyuki Goto, Florian P Kolb, Edwin Gilland
Activation maps of pre- and postsynaptic field potential components evoked by separate electrical stimulation of utricular, lagenar, and saccular nerve branches in the isolated frog hindbrain were recorded within a stereotactic outline of the vestibular nuclei. Utricular and lagenar nerve-evoked activation maps overlapped strongly in the lateral and descending vestibular nuclei, whereas lagenar amplitudes were greater in the superior vestibular nucleus. In contrast, the saccular nerve-evoked activation map coincided largely with the dorsal nucleus and the adjacent dorsal part of the lateral vestibular nucleus, corroborating a major auditory and lesser vestibular function of the frog saccule...
November 2003: Journal of Neurophysiology
Neal H Barmack
The vestibular nuclei and posterior cerebellum are the destination of vestibular primary afferents and the subject of this review. The vestibular nuclei include four major nuclei (medial, descending, superior and lateral). In addition, smaller vestibular nuclei include: Y-group, parasolitary nucleus, and nucleus intercalatus. Each of the major nuclei can be subdivided further based primarily on cytological and immunohistochemical histological criteria or differences in afferent and/or efferent projections. The primary afferent projections of vestibular end organs are distributed to several ipsilateral vestibular nuclei...
June 15, 2003: Brain Research Bulletin
S Sato, H Yamamoto
In vertebrates, melanins produced in specialized pigment cells are required for visual acuity, camouflage, sexual display and protection from ultra violet (UV) radiation. There are three pigment cell types that are classified based on their distinct embryonic origins. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells originate from the outer layer of the optic cup. Pigment cells of the pineal organ are formed from the developing diencephalon. Melanocytes are derived from the neural crest unique to vertebrate embryos. Some of these pigment cells also play roles that are independent of the activity of tyrosinase, the key melanogenesis enzyme, or melanin: production of substrate(s) for catecholamine synthesis, maintenance of endolymph composition in the cochlea, maintenance of photoreceptor cells in the retina and retinoid metabolism essential for the visual cycle...
December 2001: Pigment Cell Research
D E Angelaki, A M Green, J D Dickman
Rotational and translational vestibulo-ocular reflexes (RVOR and TrVOR) function to maintain stable binocular fixation during head movements. Despite similar functional roles, differences in behavioral, neuroanatomical, and sensory afferent properties suggest that the sensorimotor processing may be partially distinct for the RVOR and TrVOR. To investigate the currently poorly understood neural correlates for the TrVOR, the activities of eye movement-sensitive neurons in the rostral vestibular nuclei were examined during pure translation and rotation under both stable gaze and suppression conditions...
June 1, 2001: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
A H Bass, B J Horvath, E B Brothers
Midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, have two male reproductive morphs: type 1 males generate long duration advertisement calls ("hums") to attract females to a nest; type II males sneak-spawn and, like females, do not produce mate calls but generate short duration agonistic calls. A vocal pacemaker circuit includes: motoneurons in the caudal brain stem and rostral spinal cord that innervate vocal/sonic muscles; pacemaker neurons that are located ventrolateral to motoneurons and establish their fundamental discharge frequency; and a ventral medullary nucleus that couples the motoneuron-pacemaker circuit bilaterally...
August 1996: Journal of Neurobiology
V E Pettorossi, R Bruni, F Draicchio, P Errico, A Ferraresi, R Santarelli
In rabbits and cats vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VCR) were tested in frontal and sagittal planes. The VOR evoked by pitching the animals in side down position showed asymmetric responses with peak eye velocity higher in upward direction than in downward one. This asymmetry was abolished when pitching the animal in upright position. This indicate that the otolithic coactivation, occurring in upright position, symmetrizes canal-induced vertical responses. Vestibulo-ocular reflex evoked by rolling the animals was also symmetric, no matter the animal position was...
April 1993: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
C A McCormick, M R Braford
Physical coupling between the swimbladder and the inner ear is believed to contribute to the enhanced hearing abilities of otophysans relative to those of teleosts lacking comparable otic specializations. We hypothesized that the auditory circuitry of otophysans might also exhibit derived features [McCormick and Braford, 1988]. As a first test of this hypothesis, we examined the normal anatomy and inner ear inputs of the primary octaval nuclei in the catfish Ictalurus punctatus. From Nissl-stained sections we conclude that Ictalurus, like other teleosts, has five first-order octaval nuclei: the anterior, magnocellular, tangential, descending, and posterior octaval nuclei...
1993: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
J Baker, J Goldberg, B Peterson
Vestibulocollic reflex responses of several neck muscles in decerebrate cats were studied during angular rotations of the whole body in a large number of vertical and horizontal rotation planes, at frequencies from 0.07 to 1.6 Hz. Vestibulocollic responses were compared to eye muscle and forelimb muscle vestibular responses. Electromyographic activity was recorded by fine wires inserted in biventer cervicis, complexus, longus capitis, obliquus capitis inferior, occipitoscapularis, rectus capitis major, splenius, lateral rectus, and triceps brachii...
September 1985: Journal of Neurophysiology
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