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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683084/g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipigs-in-ocular-research
#1
Stephanie M Shrader, William F Greentree
Since their development in the 1960s, Göttingen minipigs have become a popular nonrodent animal model in biomedical research, especially for ocular studies, because of their ease of handling, size, well-monitored genetics, and ocular anatomy that is similar to humans. The purpose of this mini-review is to introduce the reader to the various ways in which this animal model is currently being utilized in ocular research and to provide an overview of the diagnostic modalities that aid in this research. To date, the Göttingen minipig has been used for a variety of ocular research endeavors, including studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of ocular therapeutics, glaucoma etiopathogenesis and treatment, novel biomaterials, surgical procedures, and implantable materials/devices...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681489/video-diversion-improves-success-rate-of-fundoscopic-examination-in-children-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Michael M H Yang, Ash Singhal, Alexander R Hengel, John M Kerr, Godefroy Hardy St-Pierre, Shawn George, Katherine Muir, Paul Thiessen, Paul Enarson
BACKGROUND: Fundoscopy is an important component of the neurological examination as it can detect pathologies such as high intracranial pressure. However, the examination can be challenging in young children. This study evaluated whether playing a video during eye examination improves the success, duration, and ease of pediatric fundoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, multipractitioner, multiclinic, randomized controlled trial. Patients aged one to four years were recruited in the emergency department, neurology clinic, spinal cord clinic, and general pediatric clinic...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667428/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-characterization-of-acute-and-late-stage-purtscher-retinopathy
#3
Pedro Gil, Miguel Raimundo, João P Marques, João Póvoa, Rufino Silva
PURPOSE: To report a case of Purtscher retinopathy imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography. METHODS: Case-report. Left eye fundoscopic examination in a 21-year old male after a road traffic accident with chest compression revealed multiple peri-papillary cotton-wool spots and intra- and pre-retinal hemorrhages. A diagnosis of Purtscher retinopathy was assumed. RESULTS: In both the superficial and deep retinal plexuses, acute stage optical coherence tomography angiography identified multiple irregular areas of capillary non-perfusion that extended beyond the clinically visible peri-papillary cotton-wool spots...
April 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571629/partial-retinal-photoreceptor-loss-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-associated-with-reduced-levels-of-interphotoreceptor-retinol-binding-protein-irbp-rbp3
#4
Yi-Hsia Liu, Clare Corbett, Izabela P Klaska, Kimmo Makinen, John M Nickerson, Richard J Cornall, Lucia Kuffova, John V Forrester
Organ-specific transgenic membrane expression of hen egg lysozyme (HEL) as a "neo-self antigen" has been used in several models to study immunological tolerance. In this study we report the changes which occur in the B10.BR mouse retina when membrane-bound HEL is expressed in photoreceptors under the control of the promoter for interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP, RBP3). On direct clinical examination of the single transgenic (sTg-IRBP:HEL) mouse fundus, a low-level increase in retinal degeneration compared to non-transgenic controls was observed, presenting as drusenoid deposits and occasional small patches of atrophy...
March 20, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396063/forgetting-the-fundoscope-a-case-of-fulminant-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-causing-rapid-visual-loss
#5
Eoin Mulroy, Thiyaga Krishnan, Stephen Best, Neil E Anderson
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome of elevated intracranial pressure without evidence of intracranial mass lesion or venous thrombosis, and bland cerebrospinal fluid examination. It mostly affects overweight women of childbearing age and if left untreated, can lead to permanent visual loss. Visual decline in this condition is generally slow, over months to years. However, a small proportion of patients develop rapidly progressive visual loss within days or weeks of onset of headaches. We describe a 29 year-old patient with fulminant IIH in whom inadequate fundoscopy and assessment of vision contributed to a delay in diagnosis and poor outcome...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344064/occult-acute-macular-neuroretinopathy
#6
Michael S Vaphiades, Brendan Grondines
A 19-year-old Caucasian woman developed an upper respiratory infection, took a cold formulation containing 5 mg of phenylephrine, and developed a very rare and unusual form of acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) that could not be detected on fundoscopic examination, visual fields, nor electrophysiological testing. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) revealed a lesion limited to the fovea. This case illustrates the value of SD-OCT, in light of otherwise normal testing, in a variant of AMN the authors call "occult AMN"...
August 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298168/incidence-of-cystoid-macular-edema-after-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty
#7
Viridiana Kocaba, Romain Mouchel, Jacques Fleury, Anne-Sophie Marty, Hélène Janin-Manificat, Delphine Maucort-Boulch, Carole Burillon
PURPOSE: The incidence of and risk factors for cystoid macular edema (CME) after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) remain uncertain. This study examines the incidence of and risk factors for CME after DMEK. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study included patients with no history of CME who had undergone DMEK. Patients were examined weekly for 1 month after surgery and at 3 and 6 months after surgery. Follow-up examinations included visual acuity (VA) assessment, pachymetry, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, and fundoscopy...
March 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283732/seroprevalence-and-manifestations-of-ocular-toxoplasmosis-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#8
Fábio Barreto Morais, Tiago Eugênio Faria E Arantes, Cristina Muccioli
PURPOSE: Recent studies have linked infectious agents such as Toxoplasma gondii to schizophrenia. We investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii and conducted ophthalmologic examinations in schizophrenia patients and controls to identify lesions suggestive of ocular toxoplasmosis. METHODS: During 2015 and 2016, 34 schizophrenia patients and 85 healthy controls underwent ophthalmologic examination and anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibody measurements by chemiluminescence...
December 28, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260122/unusual-straatsma-syndrome-how-dogmatic-is-a-bad-prognosis
#9
Ana Vide-Escada, Helena Prior Filipe
Purpose: To show that Straatsma Syndrome can have a good outcome and to highlight an unusual presentation of this disease. Observations: A four-year-old boy presents with severe right eye amblyopia in association with high myopia, esotropia, heterochromia iridum and extensive myelinated retinal fibers involving both temporal arcades and the optic nerve head. Right eye initial visual acuity was less than 20/400 for distance and less than R6W10 for near. Left eye examination was unremarkable...
December 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258533/incidental-branch-retinal-artery-occlusion-on-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-presenting-as-segmental-optic-atrophy-in-a-child-a-case-report
#10
Ji Hyung Choi, Hee Kyung Yang, Ji Eun Lee
BACKGROUND: Retinal artery occlusion is extremely rare in the pediatric population and most patients have risk factors. We report a case of a healthy child with segmental optic atrophy, complicated by incidental branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). CASE PRESENTATION: A 10-year-old boy who had a history of his mother's gestational diabetes presented with an inferonasal visual field defect in the left eye. His best-corrected visual acuities were 20/20 in both eyes (OU)...
December 19, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230338/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-punctate-inner-choroidopathy
#11
Blake M Hampton, Christopher M Aderman, Harry W Flynn, Jayanth Sridhar
Purpose: To report a case of bilateral choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) visualized utilizing optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods: Case report. Results: A 29-year-old woman presented with new visual symptoms in both eyes. Fundoscopic exam revealed bilateral multifocal, small, well-defined lesions consistent with PIC. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated subretinal fluid and retinal pigment epithelium detachments (RPEDs) in both eyes...
2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227350/tamoxifen-retinopathy-during-treatment-of-an-inoperable-desmoid-tumor
#12
Meredith Furst, Marie B Somogyi, Robert W Wong, Dejka Araujo, Clio A Harper
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical significance and rarity of tamoxifen retinopathy after a long-term tamoxifen treatment for an inoperable desmoid tumor. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: Tamoxifen retinopathy is a condition rarely observed in clinical practice. Although tamoxifen is typically a treatment for breast cancer patients, we present a 68-year-old woman taking tamoxifen for an inoperable desmoid tumor, an equally rare condition. She presented with bilaterally deteriorating vision over the course of a year...
December 8, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132486/opticard-an-inexpensive-and-portable-method-of-bedside-direct-fundoscopy
#13
Muhammad Tauseef Omer, Efra Abbas
The use of fundoscopy to observe and grade retinal changes in diabetes and hypertension is well known. Fundus screening is recommended prior to discharge of every neonate from the neonatal unit to rule out congenital cataract. However, the traditional direct fundoscopes are expensive and, therefore, not available in majority of the hospitals in developing countries. Also, fundoscopy needs special expertise to use the device. OptiCard is an inexpensive new method of direct fundoscopy that allows visualization of retina and optic disc with or without the use of cell phone...
November 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109901/posterior-polar-central-choroidal-dystrophy-a-case-report
#14
Funda Dikkaya, Mustafa Özsütçü, Merve Özbek, Sevil Karaman Erdur, Fevzi Şentürk
A 52-year-old male presented with a 25-year history of decreasing vision. Best corrected visual acuity was 0.3 in his right and 0.2 in his left eye. Fundoscopic examination showed bilateral symmetric atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris in the posterior polar areas between vascular arcades and surrounding the optic disc. On fluorescein angiography, the large choroidal vessels beneath these affected regions were easily seen. Fundus autofluorescence imaging showed clearly defined hypoautofluorescent areas that corresponded to the aforementioned lesions...
October 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980066/blood-pressure-profile-is-associated-with-microalbuminuria-and-retinopathy-in-hypertensive-nondiabetic-patients
#15
Berrin Karadag, Tolga Ozyigit, Zeliha Serindag, Aysegul Ilhan, Beste Ozben
BACKGROUND: Target organ damage is important for global cardiovascular risk assessment. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the blood pressure profile and end-organ damage in a hypertensive non-diabetic cohort. METHODS: A total of 560 consecutive hypertensive nondiabetic patients (mean age: 58.2 ± 13.3 years, 221 men) were included in the study. All patients underwent thorough physical examination including fundoscopic examination. First morning urine samples were obtained from each patient and measurement of the albumin-to-creatinine ratio in first morning urine collection samples was used for diagnosis of microalbuminuria...
October 4, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971251/rabbit-model-of-ocular-indirect-photodynamic-therapy-using-a-retinoblastoma-xenograft
#16
Jonathan W Kim, Bradley Jacobsen, Emily Zolfaghari, Angela Ferrario, Patricia Chevez-Barrios, Jesse L Berry, Diana K Lee, Grecia Rico, Ingy Madi, Narsing Rao, Kevin Stachelek, Lei-Chi Wang, Charles Gomer
PURPOSE: The goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the indirect ophthalmoscope laser delivery system with the 690 nm wavelength diode laser used to perform photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of retinoblastoma. METHODS: For phase 1, a total of six pigmented rabbits were treated with the indirect laser delivery system. The laser source was provided by the Lumenis Opal 690 nm laser unit, delivered through a 810 nm Indirect ophthalmoscope headpiece and a hand-held 28-diopter indirect lens (1...
December 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928940/comparison-of-color-discrimination-in-chronic-heavy-smokers-and-healthy-subjects
#17
Thiago Monteiro de Paiva Fernandes, Natalia Leandro Almeida, Natanael Antonio Dos Santos
Background: Cigarette smoke is probably the most significant source of exposure to toxic chemicals for humans, involving health-damaging components, such as nicotine, hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of chronic heavy smoking on color discrimination (CD). Methods: All subjects were free of any neuropsychiatric disorder, identifiable ocular disease and had normal acuity. No abnormalities were detected in the fundoscopic examination and in the optical coherence tomography exam...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928087/complement-factor-h-in-amd-bridging-genetic-associations-and-pathobiology
#18
REVIEW
Christopher B Toomey, Lincoln V Johnson, Catherine Bowes Rickman
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a complex multifactorial disease characterized in its early stages by lipoprotein accumulations in Bruch's Membrane (BrM), seen on fundoscopic exam as drusen, and in its late forms by neovascularization ("wet") or geographic atrophy of the Retinal Pigmented Epithelial (RPE) cell layer ("dry"). Genetic studies have strongly supported a relationship between the alternative complement cascade, in particular the common H402 variant in Complement Factor H (CFH) and development of AMD...
January 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924482/atypical-presentation-of-central-pontine-myelinolysis-in-hyperglycemia
#19
Swapna Talluri, Raghu Charumathi, Muhammad Khan, Kerri Kissell
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) usually occurs with rapid correction of severe chronic hyponatremia. Despite the pronounced fluctuations in serum osmolality, CPM is rarely seen in diabetics. This is a case report of CPM associated with hyperglycemia. A 45-year-old non-smoking and non-alcoholic African American male with past medical history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stage V chronic kidney disease and hypothyroidism presented with a two-week history of intermittent episodes of gait imbalance, slurred speech and inappropriate laughter...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892534/utility-of-combining-a-simulation-based-method-with-a-lecture-based-method-for-fundoscopy-training-in-neurology-residency
#20
Deepak K Gupta, Namir Khandker, Kristin Stacy, Curtis M Tatsuoka, David C Preston
Importance: Fundoscopic examination is an essential component of the neurologic examination. Competence in its performance is mandated as a required clinical skill for neurology residents by the American Council of Graduate Medical Education. Government and private insurance agencies require its performance and documentation for moderate- and high-level neurologic evaluations. Traditionally, assessment and teaching of this key clinical examination technique have been difficult in neurology residency training...
October 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
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