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Infection prevention and control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031090/recreational-drug-use-and-risk-of-hiv-infection-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-cross-sectional-study-in-shenzhen-china
#1
Chenlin Duan, Lan Wei, Yitian Cai, Lin Chen, Zhengrong Yang, Wei Tan, Yongxia Gan, William W Au, Jin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Recreational drug use has increased in recent years, especially among MSM, and has been found to be associated with higher risk of HIV infection. However, there is limited information about current recreational drug use among MSM in Shenzhen which is an international gateway city to China with a rapidly expanding MSM population. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among MSM in Shenzhen was conducted and was used to collected information on demographics, sexual behavior and drug use via questionnaires...
October 2, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029265/preclinical-testing-of-a-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-endotracheal-tube-coated-with-an-innate-immune-synthetic-mimic
#2
Marjan M Hashemi, John Rovig, Jordan Bateman, Brett S Holden, Tomasz Modelzelewski, Iliana Gueorguieva, Martin von Dyck, Ronald Bracken, Carl Genberg, Shenglou Deng, Paul B Savage
Background: Endotracheal tubes provide an abiotic surface on which bacteria and fungi form biofilms, and the release of endotoxins and planktonic organisms can cause damaging inflammation and infections. Objectives: Ceragenins are small molecule mimics of antimicrobial peptides with broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activity, and a ceragenin may be used to provide antimicrobial protection to the abiotic surface of an endotracheal tube. Methods: A hydrogel film, containing CSA-131, was generated on endotracheal tubes...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029247/plasmodium-falciparum-infection-early-in-pregnancy-has-profound-consequences-for-foetal-growth
#3
Christentze Schmiegelow, Sungwa Matondo, Daniel T R Minja, Mafalda Resende, Caroline Pehrson, Birgitte Bruun Nielsen, Raimos Olomi, Morten A Nielsen, Philippe Deloron, Ali Salanti, John Lusingu, Thor G Theander
Malaria during pregnancy constitutes a large health problem in endemic areas. WHO recommends that interventions are initiated at the first antenatal visit, and these improve pregnancy outcomes. This study evaluated foetal growth by ultrasound and birth outcomes in women who were infected prior to the first antenatal visit (gestational age, GA<120 days) and not later in pregnancy. Compared to uninfected controls, women with early P. falciparum exposure had retarded intrauterine growth between a GA of 212 and 253 days (mean weight gain reduction: 107g [26;188], P=0...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028970/poor-obstetric-and-infant-outcomes-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-with-tuberculosis-in-south-africa-the-tshepiso-study
#4
Nicole Salazar-Austin, Jennifer Hoffmann, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Ziyaad Waja, Sanjay Lala, Christopher Hoffmann, Kelly E Dooley, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson
Background: Prior to the wide availability of antiretroviral therapy, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV disease among pregnant women resulted in poor maternal and neonatal outcomes including high rates of mother-to-child transmission of both HIV and TB. We aimed to describe the impact of TB among HIV-infected mothers on obstetric and infant outcomes in a population with access to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed HIV-infected pregnant women with and without TB disease from January 2011 through January 2014 in Soweto, South Africa...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028938/impact-of-the-us-maternal-tetanus-diphtheria-and-acellular-pertussis-vaccination-program-on-preventing-pertussis-in-infants-2-months-of-age-a-case-control-evaluation
#5
Tami H Skoff, Amy E Blain, James Watt, Karen Scherzinger, Melissa McMahon, Shelley M Zansky, Kathy Kudish, Paul R Cieslak, Melissa Lewis, Nong Shang, Stacey W Martin
Background: Infants aged <1 year are at highest risk for pertussis-related morbidity and mortality. In 2012, Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis) vaccine was recommended for women during each pregnancy to protect infants in the first months of life; data on effectiveness of this strategy are currently limited. Methods: We conducted a case-control evaluation among pertussis cases <2 months old with cough onset between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2014 from 6 US Emerging Infection Program Network states...
September 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028841/efficacies-of-prevention-and-control-measures-applied-during-an-outbreak-in-southwest-madrid-spain
#6
Anaiá da Paixão Sevá, Maia Martcheva, Necibe Tuncer, Isabella Fontana, Eugenia Carrillo, Javier Moreno, James Keesling
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease of worldwide distribution, currently present in 98 countries. Since late 2010, an unusual increase of human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases has been observed in the south-western Madrid region, totaling more than 600 cases until 2015. Some hosts, such as human, domestic dog and cat, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and hare (Lepus granatensis), were found infected by the parasite of this disease in the area. Hares were described as the most important reservoir due to their higher prevalence, capacity to infect the vector, and presence of the same strains as in humans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028812/occurrence-of-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-across-the-gulf-corporation-council-countries-four-years-update
#7
Mahmoud Aly, Mohamed Elrobh, Maha Alzayer, Sameera Aljuhani, Hanan Balkhy
The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections has become a global issue of dire concerns. MERS-CoV infections have been identified in many countries all over the world whereas high level occurrences have been documented in the Middle East and Korea. MERS-CoV is mainly spreading across the geographical region of the Middle East, especially in the Arabian Peninsula, while some imported sporadic cases were reported from the Europe, North America, Africa, and lately Asia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028691/job-burnout-reduces-hand-hygiene-compliance-among-nursing-staff
#8
Georgios Manomenidis, Efharis Panagopoulou, Anthony Montgomery
OBJECTIVES: Health professional burnout has been associated with suboptimal care and reduced patient safety. However, the extent to which burnout influences hand hygiene compliance among health professionals has yet to be explored. The aim of the study was to examine whether job burnout reduces hand washing compliance among nursing staff. METHODS: A diary study was conducted. Forty registered nurses working in a general city hospital in Thessaloniki, Greece, completed a questionnaire, while they were monitored for hand hygiene compliance following the World Health Organization protocol for hand hygiene assessment...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027495/monitoring-and-managing-antibiotic-resistance-in-refugee-children
#9
Helena C Maltezou, Dana Elhadad, Daniel Glikman
The past decade the Middle East and Southeastern Europe have witnessed an enormous movement of refugees due to the Syrian war and conflicts in Asia and Africa. Although carriage of and infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in refugees have been reported, pediatric data are scarce. Areas covered: MDR bacterial carriage and infections, and MDR-tuberculosis (TB) in refugee children from 2010. Expert commentary: High MDR carriage rates in refugee children are attributed to high pre-civil war MDR rates, war-damaged infrastructure and healthcare systems, and poor hygiene conditions...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027383/immunological-prediction-of-cytomegalovirus-cmv-replication-risk-in-solid-organ-transplantation-recipients-approaches-for-regulating-the-targeted-anti-cmv-prevention-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Sang Hoon Han
The current cytomegalovirus (CMV) prevention strategies in solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipients have contributed towards overcoming the detrimental effects caused by CMV lytic infection, and improving the long-term success rate of graft survival. Although the quantification of CMV in peripheral blood is the standard method, and an excellent end-point for diagnosing CMV replication and modulating the anti-CMV prevention strategies in SOT recipients, a novel biomarker mimicking the CMV control mechanism is required...
September 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027375/vibrio-vulnificus-new-insights-into-a-deadly-opportunistic-pathogen
#11
Craig Baker-Austin, James D Oliver
Vibrio vulnificus is a Gram-negative aquatic bacterium first isolated by the United States (US) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1964. This bacterium is part of the normal microbiota of estuarine waters and occurs in high numbers in molluscan shellfish around the world, particularly in warmer months. Infections in humans are derived from consumption of seafood produce and from water exposure. V. vulnificus is a striking and enigmatic human pathogen, yet many aspects related to its biology, genomics, virulence capabilities and epidemiology remain elusive and poorly understood...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027107/viral-factors-for-hbv-mother-to-child-transmission
#12
James S Park, Calvin Q Pan
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Because chronic hepatitis B infection is rarely eradicated, preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the most effective strategy to eliminate HBV globally. Although immunoprophylaxis strategy is widely available and effective for infants born to mothers with chronic hepatitis B infection, postnatal immunoprophylaxis fails in approximately 5-10 % of infants, and this failure rate goes up to 30 % in infants born to highly viremic mothers...
October 12, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027067/human-heterologous-liver-cells-transiently-improve-hyperammonemia-and-ureagenesis-in-individuals-with-severe-urea-cycle-disorders
#13
Jochen Meyburg, Thomas Opladen, Ute Spiekerkötter, Andrea Schlune, Jens-Peter Schenk, Jan Schmidt, Jürgen Weitz, Jürgen Okun, Friederike Bürger, Tawfeg Ben Omran, Ghassan Abdoh, Hilal Al Rifai, Ahmad Monavari, Vassiliki Konstantopoulou, Stefan Kölker, Marc Yudkoff, Georg F Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) still have a poor prognosis despite several therapeutic advancements. As liver transplantation can provide a cure, liver cell therapy (LCT) might be a new therapeutic option in these patients. METHODS: Twelve patients with severe UCDs were included in this prospective clinical trial. Patients received up to six infusions of cryopreserved human heterologous liver cells via a surgically placed catheter in the portal vein. Portal vein pressure, portal vein flow, and vital signs were monitored continuously...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026394/quorum-sensing-inhibitory-activity-of-sub-inhibitory-concentrations-of-%C3%AE-lactams
#14
Somaia A El-Mowafy, Khaled H Abd El Galil, El-Sayed E Habib, Mona I Shaaban
INTRODUCTION: The virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are under the control of quorum sensing (QS) signals. Hence, interference with QS prevents its pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present research is to assess the influence of some β-lactam antibiotics on cell communication and the release of different virulence factors. METHODS: The minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftazidime, cefepime and imipenem were evaluated by microbroth dilution method...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026199/probiotic-supplementation-in-preterm-infants-does-not-affect-the-risk-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
Giacomo Cavallaro, Eduardo Villamor-Martínez, Luca Filippi, Fabio Mosca, Eduardo Villamor
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vascular disorder of the developing retina in preterm infants and is a leading cause of childhood blindness. Perinatal infection plays a pathogenic role in ROP. Probiotic supplementation reduces the risk of late onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants but it remains to be determined whether this reduction translates into a reduction of other complications. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the possible role of probiotics in altering the risk of ROP...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025851/investigating-bordetella-pertussis-colonisation-and-immunity-protocol-for-an-inpatient-controlled-human-infection-model
#16
Hans de Graaf, Diane Gbesemete, Andrew R Gorringe, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Kent E Kester, Saul N Faust, Robert C Read
INTRODUCTION: We summarise an ethically approved protocol for the development of an experimental human challenge colonisation model. Globally Bordetella pertussis is one of the leading causes of vaccine-preventable death. Many countries have replaced whole cell vaccines with acellular vaccines over the last 20 years during which pertussis appears to be resurgent in a number of countries in the developed world that boast high immunisation coverage. The acellular vaccine provides relatively short-lived immunity and, in contrast to whole cell vaccines, may be less effective against colonisation and subsequent transmission...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025633/association-between-male-circumcision-and-women-s-biomedical-health-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#17
Jonathan M Grund, Tyler S Bryant, Inimfon Jackson, Kelly Curran, Naomi Bock, Carlos Toledo, Joanna Taliano, Sheng Zhou, Jorge Martin Del Campo, Ling Yang, Apollo Kivumbi, Peizi Li, Sherri Pals, Stephanie M Davis
BACKGROUND: Male circumcision reduces men's risk of acquiring HIV and some sexually transmitted infections from heterosexual exposure, and is essential for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies have also investigated associations between male circumcision and risk of acquisition of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in women. We aimed to review all evidence on associations between male circumcision and women's health outcomes to benefit women's health programmes. METHODS: In this systematic review we searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature publications reporting associations between male circumcision and women's health outcomes up to April 11, 2016...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025064/impact-of-adding-hand-washing-and-water-disinfection-promotion-to-oral-cholera-vaccination-on-diarrhoea-associated-hospitalization-in-dhaka-bangladesh-evidence-from-a-cluster-randomized-control-trial
#18
Nusrat Najnin, Karin Leder, Firdausi Qadri, Andrew Forbes, Leanne Unicomb, Peter J Winch, Pavani K Ram, Elli Leontsini, Fosiul A Nizame, Shaila Arman, Farzana Begum, Shwapon K Biswas, John D Clemens, Mohammad Ali, Alejandro Cravioto, Stephen P Luby
Background: Information on the impact of hygiene interventions on severe outcomes is limited. As a pre-specified secondary outcome of a cluster-randomized controlled trial among >400 000 low-income residents in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we examined the impact of cholera vaccination plus a behaviour change intervention on diarrhoea-associated hospitalization. Methods: Ninety neighbourhood clusters were randomly allocated into three areas: cholera-vaccine-only; vaccine-plus-behaviour-change (promotion of hand-washing with soap plus drinking water chlorination); and control...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024644/m-%C3%A2-tuberculosis-induced-necrosis-of-infected-neutrophils-promotes-bacterial-growth-following-phagocytosis-by-macrophages
#19
Tobias Dallenga, Urska Repnik, Björn Corleis, Jacqueline Eich, Rudolph Reimer, Gareth W Griffiths, Ulrich E Schaible
Neutrophils represent the main infected cell population in the lungs of active tuberculosis patients. Efficient removal of infected and dying neutrophils is required to protect the surrounding tissue from bioactive neutrophil molecules and subsequent pathological sequelae. While the removal of apoptotic M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected cells, or efferocytosis, is considered beneficial for host defense, little is known about Mtb-infected necrotic neutrophils. We found that Mtb induces necrosis of human neutrophils in an ESX-1-dependent manner, and neutrophil-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) drive this necrosis...
October 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024643/gbps-inhibit-motility-of-shigella-flexneri-but-are-targeted-for-degradation-by-the-bacterial-ubiquitin-ligase-ipah9-8
#20
Michal P Wandel, Claudio Pathe, Emma I Werner, Cara J Ellison, Keith B Boyle, Alexander von der Malsburg, John Rohde, Felix Randow
Interferon exposure boosts cell-autonomous immunity for more efficient pathogen control. But how interferon-enhanced immunity protects the cytosol against bacteria and how professionally cytosol-dwelling bacteria avoid clearance are insufficiently understood. Here we demonstrate that the interferon-induced GTPase family of guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) coats Shigella flexneri in a hierarchical manner reliant on GBP1. GBPs inhibit actin-dependent motility and cell-to-cell spread of bacteria but are antagonized by IpaH9...
October 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
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