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Infection prevention and control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545061/microbiota-induced-peritrophic-matrix-regulates-midgut-homeostasis-and-prevents-systemic-infection-of-malaria-vector-mosquitoes
#1
Faye H Rodgers, Mathilde Gendrin, Claudia A S Wyer, George K Christophides
Manipulation of the mosquito gut microbiota can lay the foundations for novel methods for disease transmission control. Mosquito blood feeding triggers a significant, transient increase of the gut microbiota, but little is known about the mechanisms by which the mosquito controls this bacterial growth whilst limiting inflammation of the gut epithelium. Here, we investigate the gut epithelial response to the changing microbiota load upon blood feeding in the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii. We show that the synthesis and integrity of the peritrophic matrix, which physically separates the gut epithelium from its luminal contents, is microbiota dependent...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545041/effect-of-early-measles-vaccine-on-pneumococcal-colonization-a-randomized-trial-from-guinea-bissau
#2
Nadja Skadkær Hansen, Stine Byberg, Lars Hervig Jacobsen, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Aksel Karl Georg Jensen, Cesario Martins, Peter Aaby, Jørgen Skov Jensen, Christine Stabell Benn, Hilton Whittle
BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) may have non-specific beneficial effects for child health and particularly seems to prevent respiratory infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia among children worldwide, and nasopharyngeal colonization precedes infection. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether providing early MV at 18 weeks of age reduced pneumococcal colonization and/or density up to 9 months of age. METHOD: The study was conducted in 2013-2014 in Guinea-Bissau...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543702/microencapsulation-of-rifampicin-a-technique-to-preserve-the-mechanical-properties-of-bone-cement
#3
P Sanz-Ruiz, E Carbó-Laso, J C Del Real-Romero, F Arán-Ais, Y Ballesteros-Iglesias, E Paz-Jiménez, M Sánchez-Navarro, M A Pérez-Limiñana, J Vaquero-Martín
Two-stage exchange with antibiotic-loaded bone cement spacers remains the gold standard for chronic periprosthetic joint infection(PJI). Rifampicin is highly efficient on stationary-phase staphylococci in biofilm; however, its addition to PMMA to manufacture spacers prevents polymerization and reduces mechanical properties. Isolation of rifampicin during polymerization by microencapsulation could allow manufacturing rifampicin-loaded bone cement maintaining elution and mechanical properties. Microcapsules of rifampicin with alginate, polyhydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate (PHBV), ethylcellulose and stearic acid (SA) were synthesized...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542602/antimicrobial-resistance-status-of-enterococcus-from-australian-cattle-populations-at-slaughter
#4
Robert S Barlow, Kate E McMillan, Lesley L Duffy, Narelle Fegan, David Jordan, Glen E Mellor
Antimicrobial agents are used in cattle production systems for the prevention and control of bacterial associated diseases. A consequence of their use is the potential development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis that are resistant to antimicrobials are of increased concern to public health officials throughout the world as they may compromise the ability of various treatment regimens to control disease and infection in human medicine. Australia is a major exporter of beef; however it does not have an ongoing surveillance system for AMR in cattle or foods derived from these animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542175/single-sex-infection-with-female-schistosoma-mansoni-cercariae-mitigates-hepatic-fibrosis-after-secondary-infection
#5
Nicole Koslowski, Martina Sombetzki, Micha Loebermann, Robby Engelmann, Niels Grabow, Christoph H Österreicher, Michael Trauner, Brigitte Mueller-Hilke, Emil C Reisinger
BACKGROUND: Infection with Schistosoma spp. affects more than 258 million people worldwide. Current treatment strategies are mainly based on the anthelmintic Praziquantel, which is effective against adult worms but neither prevents re-infection nor cures severe liver damage. The best long-term strategy to control schistosomiasis may be to develop an immunization. Therefore, we designed a two-step Schistosoma mansoni infection model to study the immune-stimulating effect of a primary infection with either male or female cercariae, measured on the basis of TH1/TH2-response, granuloma size and hepatic fibrosis after a secondary bisexual S...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542162/carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-barbados-driving-change-in-practice-at-the-national-level
#6
Corey Forde, Bryan Stierman, Pilar Ramon-Pardo, Thais Dos Santos, Nalini Singh
INTRODUCTION: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is of growing concern globally. The risk for transmission of antimicrobial resistant organisms across several continents to the Caribbean is a real one given its tourism industry. After a cluster of cases of CRKP were detected, several studies detailed in this report were initiated to better characterize the problem. METHODS: A hospital-wide point prevalence study and active surveillance were performed at Queen Elizabeth Hospital (QEH) in Barbados in 2013 to assess the prevalence of CRKP infection/colonization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542081/dapivirine-vaginal-ring-use-does-not-diminish-the-effectiveness-of-hormonal-contraception
#7
Jennifer E Balkus, Thesla Palanee-Phillips, Krishnaveni Reddy, Samantha Siva, Ishana Harkoo, Clemensia Nakabiito, Kenneth Kintu, Gonasangrie Nair, Catherine Chappell, Flavia Matovu Kiweewa, Samuel Kabwigu, Logashvari Naidoo, Nitesha Jeenarain, Mark Marzinke, Lydia Soto-Torres, Elizabeth R Brown, Jared M Baeten
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential for a clinically relevant drug-drug interaction with concomitant use of a dapivirine vaginal ring, a novel antiretroviral-based HIV-1 prevention strategy, and hormonal contraception by examining contraceptive efficacies with and without dapivirine ring use. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of women participating in MTN-020/ASPIRE, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV-1 prevention...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541807/surgical-site-infection-research-opportunities
#8
Kamal M F Itani, E Patchen Dellinger, John Mazuski, Joseph Solomkin, George Allen, Joan C Blanchard, Rachel Kelz, Sandra I Berríos-Torres
Much has been done to identify measures and modify risk factors to decrease the rate of surgical site infection (SSI). Development of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Core recommendations for the prevention of SSI revealed evidence gaps in six areas: Parenteral antimicrobial prophylaxis, glycemic control, normothermia, oxygenation, antiseptic prophylaxis, and non-parenteral antimicrobial prophylaxis. Using a modified Delphi process, seven SSI content experts identified nutritional status, smoking, obesity, surgical technique, and anemia as additional areas for SSI prevention research...
May 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541804/introduction-to-the-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-and-the-healthcare-infection-control-practices-advisory-committee-guideline-for-the-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections
#9
Joseph S Solomkin, John Mazuski, Joan C Blanchard, Kamal M F Itani, Philip Ricks, E Patchen Dellinger, George Allen, Rachel Kelz, Caroline E Reinke, Sandra I Berríos-Torres
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common type of health-care-associated infection (HAI) and adds considerably to the individual, social, and economic costs of surgical treatment. This document serves to introduce the updated Guideline for the Prevention of SSI from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). The Core section of the guideline addresses issues relevant to multiple surgical specialties and procedures. The second procedure-specific section focuses on a high-volume, high-burden procedure: Prosthetic joint arthroplasty...
May 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541803/surgical-perspective-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-guideline-for-the-prevention-of-surgical-site-infection-2017
#10
Selwyn O Rogers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539867/prevalence-of-periodontal-disease-its-association-with-systemic-diseases-and-prevention
#11
REVIEW
Muhammad Ashraf Nazir
Periodontal diseases are prevalent both in developed and developing countries and affect about 20-50% of global population. High prevalence of periodontal disease in adolescents, adults, and older individuals makes it a public health concern. Several risk factors such as smoking, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, medication, age, hereditary, and stress are related to periodontal diseases. Robust evidence shows the association of periodontal diseases with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes...
April 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539663/modelling-farm-to-farm-disease-transmission-through-personnel-movements-from-visits-to-contacts-and-back
#12
Gianluigi Rossi, Rebecca L Smith, Stefano Pongolini, Luca Bolzoni
Infectious diseases in livestock can be transmitted through fomites: objects able to convey infectious agents. Between-farm spread of infections through fomites is mostly due to indirect contacts generated by on-farm visits of personnel that can carry pathogens on their clothes, equipment, or vehicles. However, data on farm visitors are often difficult to obtain because of the heterogeneity of their nature and privacy issues. Thus, models simulating disease spread between farms usually rely on strong assumptions about the contribution of indirect contacts on infection spread...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539442/extracellular-interactions-between-hepatitis-c-virus-and-secreted-apolipoprotein-e
#13
Zhihua Li, Yadong Li, Yanwei Bi, Hui Zhang, Yufeng Yao, Qihan Li, Wei Cun, Shaozhong Dong
Interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and lipoproteins in humans play an important role in the efficient establishment of chronic infection. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) on the HCV envelope mediates virus attachment to host cells as well as immune evasion. This interaction is thought to occur in hepatocytes, as ApoE plays dual functions in HCV assembly and maturation as well as cell attachment. In the present study, we found that secreted ApoE (sApoE) can also bind to viral particles via its C-terminal domain after HCV is released from the cell...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539413/unconditional-cash-transfers-do-not-prevent-children-s-undernutrition-in-the-moderate-acute-malnutrition-out-mam-out-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-in-rural-burkina-faso
#14
Freddy Houngbe, Audrey Tonguet-Papucci, Chiara Altare, Myriam Ait-Aissa, Jean-François Huneau, Lieven Huybregts, Patrick Kolsteren
Background: Limited evidence is available on the impact that unconditional cash transfer (UCT) programs can have on child nutrition, particularly in West Africa, where child undernutrition is still a public health challenge.Objective: This study examined the impact of a multiannual, seasonal UCT program to reduce the occurrence of wasting (weight-for-height, midupper arm circumference), stunting (height-for-age), and morbidity among children <36 mo old in Tapoa Province, in the eastern region of Burkina Faso...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538850/-infection-by-bordetella-pertussis-and-bordetella-parapertussis-in-cases-of-suspected-whooping-cough-2011-2015-in-mar-del-plata-argentina
#15
Silvina Lavayén, Claudia Zotta, Marcela Cepeda, Claudia Lara, Analia Rearte, Mabel Regueira
Objectives: . To classify the study population in the Argentinian National Health Surveillance System framework, determine the proportion of infection by Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis, and identify factors associated with the cases of suspected whooping cough attended to in the city of Mar del Plata and its outskirts during the period 2011- 2015. Materials and Methods: An observational and descriptive study was carried out. Clinical cases with suspicion of whooping cough were diagnosed by laboratory...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538846/-clinical-and-microbiological-study-of-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-in-internal-medicine-services-of-a-venezuelan-university-hospital
#16
Pedro Quijada-Martínez, Ana Flores-Carrero, Indira Labrador, María Araque
Objectives: To determine the clinical and microbiological characteristics of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTI) in patients admitted to the Internal Medicine services of the Hospital Universitario de Los Andes (HULA), Mérida, Venezuela and to establish the clonal distribution of multi-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that produce this infection. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three adult patients with bladder catheterization were studied between January and July 2015...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538386/safety-and-efficiency-of-sglt2-inhibitor-combining-with-insulin-in-subjects-with-diabetes-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Yingying Yang, Shi Chen, Hui Pan, Yun Zou, Bo Wang, Guixia Wang, Huijuan Zhu
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the safety and efficiency of the novel sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor in combinations with insulin for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM). METHODS: We searched Medline, Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Collaboration Library from January 2010 to December 2016 without restriction of language. FDA data and Clinical Trials (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) were also searched. Study selection, data extraction, and evaluation of risk of bias were performed by 2 persons independently...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538249/norovirus-and-clostridium-difficile-outbreaks-squelching-the-wildfire
#18
Ann Fisher, Louise M Dembry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal outbreaks in the healthcare setting cause increased morbidity and mortality in an already vulnerable population. Optimization of infection prevention measures can be a challenge in healthcare settings. This review describes new literature that may change the traditional infection prevention approach to such outbreaks. RECENT FINDINGS: Asymptomatic carriers of both norovirus and Clostridium difficile can pose risk of transmission to others and the environment...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538089/central-hematocrit-levels-in-fetal-malnourished-term-infants
#19
Kerem Ertaş, Özgül Salihoğlu, Emrah Can, Sami Hatipoğlu, Şahin Hamilçikan
BACKROUND: Fetal malnutrition is especially important for common chronic diseases in adult life. They could potentially be prevented by achieving optimal fetal nutrition. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate hematocrit levels of malnourished, term, appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 80 AGA neonates (between 10% and 90% percentiles interval according to birth week), born with spontaneous vaginal delivery between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation, detected by both last menstrual period and ultrasonography measurements, were included in the study...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537494/survival-from-traumatic-injury-does-not-end-at-hospital-discharge-hospital-acquired-infections-increase-post-discharge-mortality
#20
Nitasha Dhiman, Ram C Rimal, Mark Hamill, Katie M Love, Daniel Lollar, Bryan Collier
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) in trauma patients increase inpatient morbidity and mortality. However, their impact on long-term mortality is not well understood. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective trauma registry analysis of all patients admitted to an academic level I trauma center between July 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 was performed. Patients included survived to discharge and were 18 years of age or older. Age, gender, Injury Severity Score (ISS), ventilator use, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and HAI were reviewed...
May 24, 2017: Surgical Infections
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