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Infection prevention and control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679791/phosphorodiamidate-morpholino-targeting-the-5-untranslated-region-of-the-zikv-rna-inhibits-virus-replication
#1
Waldemar Popik, Atanu Khatua, James E K Hildreth, Benjamin Lee, Donald J Alcendor
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with microcephaly in infants. Currently there is no treatment or vaccine. Here we explore the use of a morpholino oligonucleotide targeted to the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the ZIKV RNA to prevent ZIKV replication. METHODS: Morpholino DWK-1 inhibition of ZIKV replication in human glomerular podocytes was examined by qRT-PCR, reduction in ZIKV genome copy number, western blot analysis, immunofluorescence and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression...
April 18, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678910/serotype-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-among-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-patients-at-an-equine-referral-hospital
#2
I M Leon, S D Lawhon, K N Norman, D S Threadgill, N Ohta, J Vinasco, H M Scott
Although Salmonella enterica can produce life-threatening colitis in horses, certain serotypes are more commonly associated with clinical disease. Our aim was to evaluate the proportional morbidity attributed to different serotypes, as well as phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolated from patients at an equine referral hospital in the southern United States. Two-hundred-fifty-five Salmonella isolates were obtained from clinical samples of patients admitted to the hospital between 2007 and 2015...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678711/healthcare-associated-infections-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#3
Yasser B Abulhasan, Najayeb Alabdulraheem, Ian Schiller, Susan P Rachel, Nandini Dendukuri, Mark R Angle, Charles Frenette
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are prevalent; however, data describing epidemiology of infection is limited. This study reports incidence rates, risk factors and the resulting SAH patient-related outcomes. METHODS: We studied the incidence of ICU-acquired HAIs over a 6-year period. We used Bayesian Model Averaging to identify risk factors associated with an increased risk of HAIs, particularly urinary tract infections (UTI), pneumonia and ventriculostomy-associated infections (VAI)...
April 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678690/a-strain-cow-and-herd-specific-bio-economic-simulation-model-of-intramammary-infections-in-dairy-cattle-herds
#4
Maya Gussmann, Carsten Kirkeby, Kaare Græsbøll, Michael Farre, Tariq Halasa
Intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cattle lead to economic losses for farmers, both through reduced milk production and disease control measures. We present the first strain-, cow- and herd-specific bio-economic simulation model of intramammary infections in a dairy cattle herd. The model can be used to investigate the cost-effectiveness of different prevention and control strategies against IMI. The objective of this study was to describe a transmission framework, which simulates spread of IMI causing pathogens through different transmission modes...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676630/international-approach-to-environmental-and-lung-health-a-perspective-from-the-fogarty-international-center
#5
Roger I Glass, Joshua P Rosenthal
The global burden of lung disease is substantial, accounting for an estimated 7.5 million deaths per year, approximately 14% of annual deaths worldwide. The prime illnesses include, in descending order, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, tuberculosis, acute respiratory infections, asthma, and interstitial lung fibrosis. Key risk factors include smoking, both indoor and outdoor air pollution, and occupational exposures. Although the distribution of both the diseases and the risk factors varies greatly by age, geography, and setting, the greatest burden falls on populations living in low- and middle-income countries...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676526/crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever-virus-past-present-and-future-insights-for-animal-modelling-and-medical-countermeasures
#6
REVIEW
E J Mendoza, B Warner, D Safronetz, C Ranadheera
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral zoonosis with a case-fatality rate ranging from 9% to 50% in humans. Although a licensed vaccine to prevent infection by the CCHF virus (CCHFV) exists, its ability to induce neutralizing antibodies is limited and its efficacy against CCHFV remains undetermined. In addition, controlling CCHF infections by eradication of the tick reservoir has been ineffective, both economically and logistically, and the treatment options for CCHF remain limited...
April 20, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675800/secretion-expression-of-human-neutrophil-peptide-1-hnp1-in-pichia-pastoris-and-its-functional-analysis-against-antibiotic-resistant-helicobacter-pylori
#7
Xiaolin Zhang, Anmin Jiang, Banghua Qi, Hao Yu, Youyi Xiong, Guoliang Zhou, Meisong Qin, Jinfeng Dou, Jianfei Wang
Human neutrophil peptide 1 (HNP1) is a small (3.44 kDa) cationic peptide that is a distinct member of the defensin family. HNP1 plays a crucial role in controlling bacterial infections, particularly by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, through membrane perforation patterns. The structural characteristics of HNP1's three intramolecular disulfide bridges cause difficulty in its synthesis via chemical methods. In this study, bioactive recombinant HNP1 was produced using the Pichia pastoris (P. Pichia) expression system...
April 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674370/effect-of-a-single-prophylactic-preoperative-oral-antibiotic-dose-on-surgical-site-infection-following-complex-dermatological-procedures-on-the-nose-and-ear-a-prospective-randomised-controlled-double-blinded-trial
#8
Helena Rosengren, Clare F Heal, Petra G Buttner
OBJECTIVES: There is limited published research studying the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on surgical site infection (SSI) in dermatological surgery, and there is no consensus for its use in higher-risk cases. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a single oral preoperative 2 g dose of cephalexin in preventing SSI following flap and graft dermatological closures on the nose and ear. DESIGN: Prospective double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled trial testing for difference in infection rates...
April 19, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674326/risk-of-infective-endocarditis-after-invasive-dental-treatments-a-case-only-study
#9
Tzu-Ting Chen, Yi-Chun Yeh, Kuo-Liong Chien, Mei-Shu Lai, Yu-Kang Tu
Background -Invasive dental treatments (IDTs) can yield temporary bacteremia and has therefore been considered a potential risk factor of infective endocarditis (IE). It is hypothesized that, through the trauma caused by IDTs, bacteria gain entry to the bloodstream and may attach to abnormal heart valves or damaged heart tissue, giving rise to IE. However, the association between IDTs and IE remains controversial. The aim of this study is to estimate the association between IDTs and IE. Methods -The data in this study were obtained from the Health Insurance Database in Taiwan...
April 19, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673735/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-triple-drug-therapy-with-albendazole-pyrantel-pamoate-and-oxantel-pamoate-compared-with-albendazole-plus-oxantel-pamoate-pyrantel-pamoate-plus-oxantel-pamoate-and-mebendazole-plus-pyrantel-pamoate-and-oxantel-pamoate-against-hookworm
#10
Wendelin Moser, Somphou Sayasone, Syda Xayavong, Bangon Bounheuang, Maxim Puchkov, Jörg Huwyler, Jan Hattendorf, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Albendazole and mebendazole are commonly used to control hookworm, but have shortcomings in their efficacy profiles. We assessed whether triple drug therapy (TDT) with albendazole, pyrantel pamoate, and oxantel pamoate was more effective than the co-administration of two drugs for the treatment of hookworm infections. METHODS: A randomised, single-blind trial was done from Sept 27 until Nov 17, 2017, in Laos. Children (6-15 years) from six schools were invited to participate...
April 16, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673109/risk-factors-associated-with-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-subtype-h5n8-outbreaks-on-broiler-duck-farms-in-south-korea
#11
W-H Kim, J-U An, J Kim, O-K Moon, S H Bae, J B Bender, S Cho
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 outbreaks occurred in poultry farms in South Korea in 2014 resulting in significant damage to the poultry industry. Between 2014 and 2016, the pandemic disease caused significant economic loss and social disruption. To evaluate the risk factors for HPAI infection in broiler duck farms, we conducted a retrospective case-control study on broiler duck farms. Forty-three farms with confirmed laboratories on premises were selected as the case group, and 43 HPAI-negative farms were designated as the control group...
April 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672578/the-cost-effectiveness-of-three-methods-of-disseminating-information-to-improve-medical-male-circumcision-in-uganda
#12
Edward I Broughton, Esther Karamagi, Angella Kigonya, Anna Lawino, Lani Marquez, Sarah Smith Lunsford, Albert Twinomugisha
BACKGROUND: Uganda is working to increase voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) to prevent HIV infection. To support VMMC quality improvement, this study compared three methods of disseminating information to facilities on how to improve VMMC quality: M-providing a written manual; MH-providing the manual plus a handover meeting in which clinicians shared advice on implementing key changes and participated in group discussion; and MHC-manual, handover meeting, and three site visits to the facility in which a coach provided individualized guidance and mentoring on improvement...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672512/amplification-of-the-basic-reproduction-number-in-cattle-farm-networks
#13
Beatriz Vidondo
The popularly known 20-80 rule or Pareto rule states that 20% of efforts leads to 80% of results. This rule has been applied to the study of infection transmission in contact networks, and specifically, contact networks between cattle farms. Woolhouse and collaborators showed that targeting interventions for disease control and prevention to the 20% of the farms that contribute the most to the basic reproduction number (Ro), could reduce it by 80%. The rule results from the number of incoming and outgoing contacts per farm being highly heterogeneous...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672472/recommendations-of-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices-for-use-of-a-hepatitis-b-vaccine-with-a-novel-adjuvant
#14
Sarah Schillie, Aaron Harris, Ruth Link-Gelles, José Romero, John Ward, Noele Nelson
Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination is the primary means of preventing infections and complications caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). On February 21, 2018, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended Heplisav-B (HepB-CpG), a yeast-derived vaccine prepared with a novel adjuvant, administered as a 2-dose series (0, 1 month) for use in persons aged ≥18 years. The ACIP Hepatitis Vaccines Work Group conducted a systematic review of the evidence, including data from four randomized controlled trials assessing prevention of HBV infection and six randomized controlled trials assessing adverse events in adults...
April 20, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671903/a-review-of-mycoplasma-diagnostics-in-cattle
#15
REVIEW
Alysia M Parker, Paul A Sheehy, Mark S Hazelton, Katrina L Bosward, John K House
Mycoplasma species have a global distribution causing serious diseases in cattle worldwide including mastitis, arthritis, pneumonia, otitis media and reproductive disorders. Mycoplasma species are typically highly contagious, are capable of causing severe disease, and are difficult infections to resolve requiring rapid and accurate diagnosis to prevent and control disease outbreaks. This review discusses the development and use of different diagnostic methods to identify Mycoplasma species relevant to cattle, with a particular focus on Mycoplasma bovis...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671413/non-variceal-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#16
REVIEW
Angel Lanas, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Richard H Hunt, Mitsuhiro Fujishiro, James M Scheiman, Ian M Gralnek, Helen E Campbell, Alaa Rostom, Càndid Villanueva, Joseph J Y Sung
Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is bleeding that develops in the oesophagus, stomach or proximal duodenum. Peptic ulcers, caused by Helicobacter pylori infection or use of NSAIDs and low-dose aspirin (LDA), are the most common cause. Although the incidence and mortality associated with NVUGIB have been decreasing owing to considerable advances in the prevention and management of NVUGIB over the past 20 years, it remains a common clinical problem with an annual incidence of ∼67 per 100,000 individuals in the United States in 2012...
April 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671364/infectious-complications-in-morbidly-adherent-placenta-treated-with-leaving-placenta-in-situ-a-cohort-series-and-suggested-approach
#17
Mehmet Kutuk, Aysegul Kilic, Mehmet Ak, Mahmut Ozgun
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the clinical and microbiological features of infections in patients with morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) treated by leaving placenta in situ (LPIS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of MAP cases who were treated by LPIS between 2 May, 2010 and 15 March 2017. The inclusion criteria's were: gestational age at or above 24 weeks, prenatal diagnosis elective operation, and complete data. RESULTS: Nineteen MAP cases were treated by LPIS during the study period...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670609/enhanced-replication-of-virulent-newcastle-disease-virus-in-chicken-macrophages-is-due-to-polarized-activation-of-cells-by-inhibition-of-tlr7
#18
Pingze Zhang, Zhuang Ding, Xinxin Liu, Yanyu Chen, Junjiao Li, Zhi Tao, Yidong Fei, Cong Xue, Jing Qian, Xueli Wang, Qingmei Li, Tobias Stoeger, Jianjun Chen, Yuhai Bi, Renfu Yin
Newcastle disease (ND), caused by infections with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is one of the most important infectious disease affecting wild, peridomestic, and domestic birds worldwide. Vaccines constructed from live, low-virulence (lentogenic) viruses are the most accepted prevention and control strategies for combating ND in poultry across the globe. Avian macrophages are one of the first cell lines of defense against microbial infection, responding to signals in the microenvironment...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669037/coccidioidomycosis-in-selected-immunosuppressed-hosts
#19
Janis E Blair, Neil M Ampel, Susan E Hoover
After contracting coccidioidomycosis, persons with impaired cellular immunity are more likely than healthy persons to have severe infection, disseminated infection, and higher mortality rates. In this brief review, we summarize the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of coccidioidomycosis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), recipients of solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants, and recipients of biologic response modifiers. Among individuals infected with HIV, a diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and a CD4 T-lymphocyte count <250 cells/μl were associated with more severe coccidioidomycosis, whereas less severe disease occurred among those with undetectable HIV-RNA and higher CD4 T-lymphocyte counts, indicating that controlled HIV viremia and improved cellular immune status are important in limiting disease...
April 13, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667579/intracellular-antibody-signalling-is-regulated-by-phosphorylation-of-the-fc-receptor-trim21
#20
Claire Dickson, Adam J Fletcher, Marina Vaysburd, Ji-Chun Yang, Donna L Mallery, Jingwei Zeng, Christopher M Johnson, Stephen H McLaughlin, Mark Skehel, Sarah Maslen, James Cruickshank, Nicolas Huguenin-Dezot, Jason W Chin, David Neuhaus, Leo C James
Cell surface Fc receptors activate inflammation and are tightly controlled to prevent autoimmunity. Antibodies also simulate potent immune signalling from inside the cell via the cytosolic antibody receptor TRIM21, but how this is regulated is unknown. Here we show that TRIM21 signalling is constitutively repressed by its B-Box domain and activated by phosphorylation. The B-Box occupies an E2 binding site on the catalytic RING domain by mimicking E2-E3 interactions, inhibiting TRIM21 ubiquitination and preventing immune activation...
April 18, 2018: ELife
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