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Infection prevention and control

Bruce Barrett, Mary S Hayney, Daniel Muller, David Rakel, Roger Brown, Aleksandra E Zgierska, Shari Barlow, Supriya Hayer, Jodi H Barnet, Elisa R Torres, Christopher L Coe
BACKGROUND: Practice of meditation or exercise may enhance health to protect against acute infectious illness. OBJECTIVE: To assess preventive effects of meditation and exercise on acute respiratory infection (ARI) illness. DESIGN: Randomized controlled prevention trial with three parallel groups. SETTING: Madison, Wisconsin, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Community-recruited adults who did not regularly exercise or meditate...
2018: PloS One
Eman M Hussein, Shahira A Ahmed, Amira B Mokhtar, Sherine M Elzagawy, Samah H Yahi, Abdalla M Hussein, Farid Al-Tantawey
Outbreaks of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection have been linked to consumption of food and water contaminated by oocysts that can survive both physical and chemical disinfectants. Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles (NPs) can be potentially used in food as bactericides. In this study, C. cayetanensis pre- and post-sporulated oocysts were exposed to MgO NPs with different doses ranging from 1.25-25 mg/ml. With comparison to control, the antiprotozoal activity of MgO NPs was evaluated by identifying the median effective concentration dose (EC50 ), lethal concentration dose (LC90 ), microscopically changes on treated oocysts and rates of sporulation...
June 19, 2018: Parasitology International
Mr Edward Jeans, Mr Richard Holleyman, Dr David Tate, Mr Mike Reed, Mr Ajay Malviya
AIMS: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a catastrophic and potentially life threatening complication following arthroplasty. In addition to the resulting impact on patient morbidity and mortality, PJI is associated with significant financial cost, which is estimated at £21,937 per case. Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) is a common isolate in PJI and colonisation is a proven risk factor for subsequent infection. The aims of this study were: 1) to determine if MSSA screening and decolonisation reduced MSSA PJI rate in primary joint replacement and 2) to determine cost effectiveness of such a screening program...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Infection
Nina Yancheva, Dimitar Strashimirov, Vasil Hrischev, Tatyana Tchervenyakova, Maria Nikolova, Ivaylo Aleksiev
HIV-associated lymphoma was first classified as an AIDS-defining disease by the American Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1985. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) are frequent malignancies in AIDS patients. The risk of NHL in the case of an underlying HIV infection is estimated to be 100 times greater than in the general population, and it increases with the progression of the retrovirus-related immunosuppression. Cases of HIV-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are widely documented in the literature...
June 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Shiyin Liu, Fei He, Nuoqiao Lin, Yumei Chen, Zhibin Liang, Lisheng Liao, Mingfa Lv, Yufan Chen, Shaohua Chen, Jianuan Zhou, Lian-Hui Zhang
Sexual mating of compatible sporida is essential for Sporisorium scitamineum to form dikaryotic mycelia and then cause infection on sugarcane. Our previous work identified a Pseudomonas sp. ST4 from a soil sample, which showed a promising biocontrol potential by inhibiting the mating of S. scitamineum sporida and hyphal growth. In this study, we set to isolate the active compounds from Pseudomonas sp. ST4 through solid fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation coupling with bioassay showed that Pseudomonas sp...
June 21, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Maria Eugênia Simões Onofre de Santi, Renato Araujo Prates, Cristiane Miranda França, Rúbia Garcia Lopes, Aline Silva Sousa, Luis Rodolfo Ferreira, Sandra Kalil Bussadori, Adjaci Uchoa Fernandes, Alessandro Melo Deana
In this work, we present the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against yeast cells in an animal model. We tested two photosensitizers, methylene blue and protoporphyrin IX. Thirty-seven female BALB-c mice with a body mass of 20-25 g were used. To achieve persistent vaginitis, estrus was induced by subcutaneous injection of 0.1 mg/mL estradiol valerate applied weekly. Three days after pseudo-estrus, intravaginal inoculation with Candida albicans was performed. Mice were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection before inoculation, and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) was performed 5 days after fungal inoculation...
June 21, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Yuan Hui, Zhiming Wu, Zhiran Qin, Li Zhu, Junhe Liang, Xujuan Li, Hanmin Fu, Shiyu Feng, Jianhai Yu, Xiaoen He, Weizhi Lu, Weiwei Xiao, Qinghua Wu, Bao Zhang, Wei Zhao
The establishment of highly sensitive diagnostic methods is critical in the early diagnosis and control of Zika virus (ZIKV) and in preventing serious neurological complications of ZIKV infection. In this study, we established micro-droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) protocols for the detection of ZIKV based on the amplification of the NS5 gene. For the ZIKV standard plasmid, the RT-qPCR results showed that the cycle threshold (Ct) value was linear from 101 to 108  copy/μL, with a standard curve R2 of 0...
June 2018: Virologica Sinica
J Kobza, J S Pastuszka, E Bragoszewska
Background: Dental care professionals are exposed to aerosols from the oral cavity of patients containing several pathogenic microorganisms. Bioaerosols generated during dental treatment are a potential hazard to dental staff, and there have been growing concerns about their role in transmission of various airborne infections and about reducing the risk of contamination. Aims: To investigate qualitatively and quantitatively the bacterial and fungal aerosols before and during clinical sessions in two dental offices compared with controls...
June 20, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Iris Babion, Barbara C Snoek, Putri W Novianti, Annelieke Jaspers, Nienke van Trommel, Daniëlle A M Heideman, Chris J L M Meijer, Peter J F Snijders, Renske D M Steenbergen, Saskia M Wilting
Background: Primary testing for high-risk HPV (hrHPV) is increasingly implemented in cervical cancer screening programs. Many hrHPV-positive women, however, harbor clinically irrelevant infections, demanding additional disease markers to prevent over-referral and over-treatment. Most promising biomarkers reflect molecular events relevant to the disease process that can be measured objectively in small amounts of clinical material, such as miRNAs. We previously identified eight miRNAs with altered expression in cervical precancer and cancer due to either methylation-mediated silencing or chromosomal alterations...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Mahnaz Yadollahi, Ali Kashkooe, Monireh Feyzi, Saman Bornapour
PURPOSE: Trauma-related injuries are the leading cause of death worldwide. Some risk factors make traumatic patients susceptible to infection. Furthermore, some mortality risk factors, including length of hospitalization and increasing age, were detected in non-traumatic infected patients. This study aimed to assess mortality risk factors among nosocomial infected traumatic patients in Rajaee trauma center, Shiraz, Iran. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted during a period of 2 years since April 2015 to March 2017 in Rajaee hospital, which is the center of emergency medical services for traumatic injuries in Shiraz, Iran...
May 19, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Timothy Letsa, Charles Lwanga Noora, George Khumalo Kuma, Ernest Asiedu, Gideon Kye-Duodu, Edwin Afari, Osei Afreh Kuffour, Joseph Opare, Kofi Mensah Nyarko, Donne Kofi Ameme, Emmanuel G Bachan, Kofi Issah, Franklin Aseidu-Bekoe, Moses Aikins, Ernest Kenu
BACKGROUND: Meningitis, a disease of the Central Nervous System is described as inflammation of the covering of the brain and spinal cord (meninges). It is characterised by fever, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, photophobia, altered consciousness, convulsion/seizures and coma. In December, 2015, twelve suspected cases of meningitis were reported in Tain district in Brong Ahafo region (BAR). Subsequently, dozens of suspected cases were hospitalized in five district hospitals in BAR...
June 22, 2018: BMC Public Health
Benjamin Levy, Christina Edholm, Orou Gaoue, Roselyn Kaondera-Shava, Moatlhodi Kgosimore, Suzanne Lenhart, Benjamin Lephodisa, Edward Lungu, Theresia Marijani, Farai Nyabadza
Public involvement in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) prevention efforts is key to reducing disease outbreaks. Targeted education through practical health information to particular groups and sub-populations is crucial to controlling the disease. In this paper, we study the dynamics of Ebola virus disease in the presence of public health education with the aim of assessing the role of behavior change induced by health education to the dynamics of an outbreak. The power of behavior change is evident in two outbreaks of EVD that took place in Sudan only 3 years apart...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
Alexandre Liautaud, Prince A Adu, Annalee Yassi, Muzimkhulu Zungu, Jerry M Spiegel, Angeli Rawat, Elizabeth A Bryce, Michelle C Engelbrecht
Background: Insufficient training in infection control and occupational health among healthcare workers (HCWs) in countries with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) burdens requires attention. We examined the effectiveness of a 1-year Certificate Program in Occupational Health and Infection Control conducted in Free State Province, South Africa in an international partnership to empower HCWs to become change agents to promote workplace-based HIV and TB prevention...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Vijayakumar Velu, Geetha Mylvaganam, Chris Ibegbu, Rama Rao Amara
T follicular helper CD4 cells (Tfh) are essential for the development and maintenance of germinal center (GC) reactions, a critical process that promotes the generation of long-lived high affinity humoral immunity. It is becoming increasingly evident that GC-Tfh cells are heterogeneous in nature with some cellular characteristics associated with a Th1, Th2, and Th17 phenotype. Emerging studies suggest that GC-Tfh cells are directed to differentiate into distinct phenotypes during chronic HIV/SIV infection and these changes in GC-Tfh cells can greatly impact the B cell response and subclass of antibodies generated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yuki Kinjo, Shogo Takatsuka, Naoki Kitano, Shun Kawakubo, Masahiro Abe, Keigo Ueno, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki
CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T ( i NKT) cells are innate-type lymphocytes that express a T-cell receptor (TCR) containing an invariant α chain encoded by the Vα14 gene in mice and Vα24 gene in humans. These i NKT cells recognize endogenous, microbial, and synthetic glycolipid antigens presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule CD1d. Upon TCR stimulation by glycolipid antigens, i NKT cells rapidly produce large amounts of cytokines, including interferon-γ (IFNγ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ashley Nadia Boustany, Shady Elmaraghi, Nneamaka Agochukwu, Benjamin Cloyd, Adam J Dugan, Brian Rinker
Background: Infection following augmentation and prosthetic-based breast reconstruction can cause significant physical and psychological distress for patients. It may delay adjuvant therapies and compromise aesthetic outcomes. The aim of this study is to identify modifiable risk factors for infection and identify common bacterial isolates to achieve optimal outcomes for patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed for patients undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction over a 2-year period...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
Motoi Uchino, Toru Mizuguchi, Hiroki Ohge, Seiji Haji, Junzo Shimizu, Yasuhiko Mohri, Chizuru Yamashita, Yuichi Kitagawa, Katsunori Suzuki, Motomu Kobayashi, Masahiro Kobayashi, Fumie Sakamoto, Masahiro Yoshida, Toshihiko Mayumi, Koichi Hirata
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial-coated sutures have recently become well known for preventing surgical site infections (SSIs). However, the evidence and recommendations from some organizations remain controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze the efficacy of antimicrobial-coated sutures for preventing SSIs in digestive surgery. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of literature published from 2000 to 2017 (registered on PROSPERO, No...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Deborah L Jones, Violeta J Rodriguez, Lissa N Mandell, Tae Kyoung Lee, Stephen M Weiss, Karl Peltzer
South African guidelines for prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV emphasize exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). This study examined the impact of a PMTCT intervention and male involvement on EBF. In a two-phase cluster-randomized trial, rural South African community health centers were randomized to offer HIV-infected pregnant women PMTCT standard of care plus either: a behavioral PMTCT intervention, or a time-equivalent attention-control condition. Phase 1 women had non-participating male partners; Phase 2 women had participating partners...
June 20, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Charles E Rupprecht, Zhiquan Xiang, Alexandre Servat, Richard Franka, Jordona Kirby, Hildegund C J Ertl
Laboratory-based surveillance is fundamental to effective rabies prevention and control. The direct fluorescent antibody (AB) test (FAT) is the gold standard for rabies diagnosis. Recently, additional tests besides the FAT have been developed, such as the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (DRIT). In this study, our objective was to further refine technical aspects of the DRIT using a combination of two monoclonal ABs (MABs), 502 and 802, conduct additional testing among rabies reference laboratories using a diversity of animal species and rabies virus (RV) variants and compare the potential utility of the DRIT for end users via proficiency testing (PT) against the FAT...
June 20, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Cuiling Xu, Katherine S Wetzel, Mackenzie L Cottrell, Benjamin B Policicchio, Kevin D Raehtz, Dongzhu Ma, Tammy Dunsmore, George S Haret-Richter, Karam Musaitif, Brandon F Keele, Angela D Kashuba, Ronald G Collman, Ivona Pandrea, Cristian Apetrei
Current approaches do not eliminate all HIV-1 maternal-to-infant transmissions (MTIT); new prevention paradigms might help avert new infections. We administered Maraviroc (MVC) to rhesus macaques (RMs) to block CCR5-mediated entry, followed by repeated oral exposure of a CCR5-dependent clone of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac251 (SIVmac766). MVC significantly blocked the CCR5 coreceptor in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tissue cells. All control animals and 60% of MVC-treated infant RMs became infected by the 6th challenge, with no significant difference between the number of exposures (p=0...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
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