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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538013/update-on-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#1
Gabriella Giancane, Alessandra Alongi, Angelo Ravelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of recently published studies on pathogenesis and management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). RECENT FINDINGS: In the past year, the potential role of network analysis in the understanding of the molecular phenotype of individual JIA subgroups has been highlighted. In addition, potential new targets for pharmacologic interventions have been identified through the elucidation of mechanisms that modulate the function of cells involved in the inflammatory process...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535292/adaptive-radiation-of-p-fluorescens-sbw25-in-experimental-microcosms-provides-an-understanding-of-the-evolutionary-ecology-and-molecular-biology-of-a-l-interface-biofilm-formation
#2
Anna Koza, Anna Kusmierska, Kimberley McLaughlin, Olena Moshynets, Andrew J Spiers
Combined experimental evolutionary and molecular biology approaches have been used to investigate the adaptive radiation of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 in static microcosms leading to the colonisation of the air-liquid interface by biofilm-forming mutants such as the Wrinkly Spreader. In these microcosms, the ecosystem engineering of the early wild-type colonists establish the niche space for subsequent WS evolution and colonisation. Random WS mutations occurring in the developing population that de-regulate diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP homeostasis result in cellulose-based biofilms at the air-liquid interface...
May 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535261/recruitment-of-a-lineage-specific-virulence-regulatory-pathway-promotes-intracellular-infection-by-a-plant-pathogen-experimentally-evolved-into-a-legume-symbiont
#3
Delphine Capela, Marta Marchetti, Camille Clérissi, Anthony Perrier, Dorian Guetta, Carine Gris, Marc Valls, Alain Jauneau, Stéphane Cruveiller, Eduardo P C Rocha, Catherine Masson-Boivin
Ecological transitions between different lifestyles, such as pathogenicity, mutualism and saprophytism, have been very frequent in the course of microbial evolution, and often driven by horizontal gene transfer. Yet, how genomes achieve the ecological transition initiated by the transfer of complex biological traits remains poorly known. Here we used experimental evolution, genomics, transcriptomics and high-resolution phenotyping to analyze the evolution of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum into legume symbionts, following the transfer of a natural plasmid encoding the essential mutualistic genes...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535188/molecular-heterogeneity-at-the-network-level-high-dimensional-testing-clustering-and-a-tcga-case-study
#4
Nicolas Städler, Frank Dondelinger, Steven M Hill, Rehan Akbani, Yiling Lu, Gordon B Mills, Sach Mukherjee
Motivation: Molecular pathways and networks play a key role in basic and disease biology. An emerging notion is that networks encoding patterns of molecular interplay may themselves differ between contexts, such as cell type, tissue or disease (sub)type. However, while statistical testing of differences in mean expression levels has been extensively studied, testing of network differences remains challenging. Furthermore, since network differences could provide important and biologically interpretable information to identify molecular subgroups, there is a need to consider the unsupervised task of learning subgroups and networks that define them...
May 23, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534931/leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-3-integrative-analyses-support-its-role-in-the-cytokine-network
#5
Hyun A Kim, Nyoun Soo Kwon, Kwang Jin Baek, Dong-Seok Kim, Hye-Young Yun
Leucine-rich glioma inactivated (LGI)3 is a secreted protein member of LGI family. We previously repo-rted that LGI3 was upregulated in adipose tissues from obese mice and suppressed adipogenesis through its receptor, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 23 (ADAM23). We demonstrated that LGI3 regulated tumor necrosis factor-α and adiponectin, and proposed that LGI3 may be a pro-inflammatory adipokine involved in adipose tissue inflammation. In this study, we analyzed adipokine and cytokine profiles in LGI3 knockout mice and demonstrated that multiple factors were increased or decreased in the adipose tissues and plasma of the LGI3 knockout mice...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534781/reviving-the-two-state-markov-chain-approach
#6
Andrzej Mizera, Jun Pang, Qixia Yuan
Probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs) is a well-established computational framework for modelling biological systems. The steady-state dynamics of PBNs is of crucial importance in the study of such systems. However, for large PBNs, which often arise in systems biology, obtaining the steady-state distribution poses a significant challenge. In this paper, we revive the two-state Markov chain approach to solve this problem. This paper contributes in three aspects. First, we identify a problem of generating biased results with the approach and we propose a few heuristics to avoid such a pitfall...
May 16, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534780/katzlgo-large-scale-prediction-of-lncrna-functions-by-using-the-katz-measure-based-on-multiple-networks
#7
Zuping Zhang, Jingpu Zhang, Chao Fan, Yongjun Tang, Lei Deng
Aggregating evidences have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) generally play key roles in cellular biological processes such as epigenetic regulation, gene expression regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, cell differentiation and others. However, most lncRNAs have not been functionally characterized. There is an urgent need to develop computational approaches for function annotation of increasing available lncRNAs. In this article, we propose a global network-based method, KATZLGO, to predict the functions of human lncRNAs at large scale...
May 16, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534043/familiarity-detection-is-an-intrinsic-property-of-cortical-microcircuits-with-bidirectional-synaptic-plasticity
#8
Xiaoyu Zhang, Han Ju, Trevor B Penney, Antonius M J VanDongen
Humans instantly recognize a previously seen face as "familiar." To deepen our understanding of familiarity-novelty detection, we simulated biologically plausible neural network models of generic cortical microcircuits consisting of spiking neurons with random recurrent synaptic connections. NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity was implemented to allow for unsupervised learning and bidirectional modifications. Network spiking activity evoked by sensory inputs consisting of face images altered synaptic efficacy, which resulted in the network responding more strongly to a previously seen face than a novel face...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533748/cerebral-dynamics-during-the-observation-of-point-light-displays-depicting-postural-adjustments
#9
Eduardo F Martins, Thiago Lemos, Ghislain Saunier, Thierry Pozzo, Daniel Fraiman, Claudia D Vargas
Objective: As highly social creatures, human beings rely part of their skills of identifying, interpreting, and predicting the actions of others on the ability of perceiving biological motion. In the present study, we aim to investigate the electroencephalographic (EEG) cerebral dynamics involved in the coding of postural control and examine whether upright stance would be codified through the activation of the temporal-parietal cortical network classically enrolled in the coding of biological motion. Design: We registered the EEG activity of 12 volunteers while they passively watched point light displays (PLD) depicting quiet stable (QB) and an unstable (UB) postural situations and their respective scrambled controls (QS and US)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533502/clinical-value-and-prospective-pathway-signaling-of-microrna-375-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-a-study-based-on-the-cancer-genome-atlas-tcga-gene-expression-omnibus-geo-and-bioinformatics-analysis
#10
Ting-Qing Gan, Wen-Jie Chen, Hui Qin, Su-Ning Huang, Li-Hua Yang, Ye-Ying Fang, Lin-Jiang Pan, Zu-Yun Li, Gang Chen
BACKGROUND Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most frequent lung cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to have fundamental roles in tumorigenesis of LUAD. Although miRNAs are broadly recognized in LUAD, the role of microRNA-375 in LUAD is still not fully elucidated. MATERIAL AND METHODS We evaluated the significance of miR-375 expression in LUAD by using analysis of a public dataset from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and a literature review. Furthermore, we investigated the biological function of miR-375 by gene ontology enrichment and target prediction analysis...
May 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532888/biological-effects-of-direct-and-indirect-manipulation-of-the-fascial-system-narrative-review
#11
Giovanni Parravicini, Andrea Bergna
INTRODUCTION: Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) is effective in improving function, movement and restoring pain conditions. Despite clinical results, the mechanisms of how OMT achieves its' effects remain unclear. The fascial system is described as a tensional network that envelops the human body. Direct or indirect manipulations of the fascial system are a distinctive part of OMT. OBJECTIVE: This review describes the biological effects of direct and indirect manipulation of the fascial system...
April 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532357/visual-object-recognition-do-we-finally-know-more-now-than-we-did
#12
Isabel Gauthier, Michael J Tarr
How do we recognize objects despite changes in their appearance? The past three decades have been witness to intense debates regarding both whether objects are encoded invariantly with respect to viewing conditions and whether specialized, separable mechanisms are used for the recognition of different object categories. We argue that such dichotomous debates ask the wrong question. Much more important is the nature of object representations: What are features that enable invariance or differential processing between categories? Although the nature of object features is still an unanswered question, new methods for connecting data to models show significant potential for helping us to better understand neural codes for objects...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532078/enhancement-of-fibroblast-growing-on-the-mannosylated-surface-of-cellulose-membranes
#13
Simone Birkheur, Paula Cristina de Sousa Faria-Tischer, Cesar A Tischer, Elisângela Flávia Pimentel, Marcio Fronza, Denise Coutinho Endringer, Anna Paola Butera, Renato Márcio Ribeiro-Viana
Bacterial cellulose membrane is a biomaterial with high value in the biomedical field. Many groups have been making efforts to promote chemical modifications of its structure and, consequently, add new characteristics. Recently, our group has developed a methodology to insert monoester succinic acid in bacterial cellulose membrane without disrupting the microfibril network and bind a protein on it. Considering the role of carbohydrates in the molecular recognition process in biological events, we continued these studies by inserting covalently multiples copies of aryl monosaccharide to bacterial cellulose succinylated and to study the in vitro tissue compatibility using fibroblasts...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531985/enhancement-of-electro-chemical-properties-of-tio2-nanotubes-for-biological-interfacing
#14
D Khudhair, H Amani Hamedani, J Gaburro, S Shafei, S Nahavandi, H Garmestani, A Bhatti
Micro/nano electrodes employing nanotubes has attracted paramount attention in recent years due to their inherent superior mechanical and structural properties. Electrical interfaces with different geometries and sizes have been developed as electrodes for measuring action potentials and investigating neural information processing in neural networks. In this work, we investigated the possibility of using TiO2 nanotube arrays that were grown using electrochemical anodization technique, as a micro/nano electrode for neural interfacing...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531277/genome-wide-discovery-of-viral-micrornas-based-on-phylogenetic-analysis-and-structural-evolution-of-various-human-papillomavirus-subtypes
#15
Shun-Long Weng, Kai-Yao Huang, Julia Tzu-Ya Weng, Fang-Yu Hung, Tzu-Hao Chang, Tzong-Yi Lee
In mammals, microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in controlling posttranscriptional regulation through binding to the mRNAs of target genes. Recently, it was discovered that viral miRNAs may be involved in human cancers and diseases. It is likely that viral miRNAs help viruses enter the latent phase of their life cycle and become undetected by the host's immune system, while increasing the host's risk for cancer development. Cervical cancer is typically related to the infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) through sexual transmission...
May 20, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531227/different-microrna-profiles-reveal-the-diverse-outcomes-induced-by-ev71-and-ca16-infection-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#16
Jie Song, Yajie Hu, Jiaqi Li, Huiwen Zheng, Jingjing Wang, Lei Guo, Ruotong Ning, Hongzhe Li, Zening Yang, Haitao Fan, Longding Liu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) remain the predominant pathogens in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but the factors underlying the pathogenesis of EV71 and CA16 infections have not been elucidated. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. In the present study, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531167/a-role-for-the-host-dna-damage-response-in-hepatitis-b-virus-cccdna-formation-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
Sabrina Schreiner, Michael Nassal
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection puts more than 250 million people at a greatly increased risk to develop end-stage liver disease. Like all hepadnaviruses, HBV replicates via protein-primed reverse transcription of a pregenomic (pg) RNA, yielding an unusually structured, viral polymerase-linked relaxed-circular (RC) DNA as genome in infectious particles. Upon infection, RC-DNA is converted into nuclear covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA. Associating with cellular proteins into an episomal minichromosome, cccDNA acts as template for new viral RNAs, ensuring formation of progeny virions...
May 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530717/sparse-coding-with-memristor-networks
#18
Patrick M Sheridan, Fuxi Cai, Chao Du, Wen Ma, Zhengya Zhang, Wei D Lu
Sparse representation of information provides a powerful means to perform feature extraction on high-dimensional data and is of broad interest for applications in signal processing, computer vision, object recognition and neurobiology. Sparse coding is also believed to be a key mechanism by which biological neural systems can efficiently process a large amount of complex sensory data while consuming very little power. Here, we report the experimental implementation of sparse coding algorithms in a bio-inspired approach using a 32 × 32 crossbar array of analog memristors...
May 22, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529732/microarray-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-and-their-functions-in-omental-visceral-adipose-tissues-of-pregnant-women-with-vs-without-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Yuan Qian, Hao Sun, Hongli Xiao, Meirun Ma, Xue Xiao, Qinzai Qu
Increasing evidence has shown that insulin resistance in omental visceral adipose tissue (OVAT) is a characteristic of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their associated functions and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of GDM by comparing the expression profiles of OVATs obtained from pregnant Chinese women with and without GDM during caesarian section. A total of 935 DEGs were identified, including 450 downregulated and 485 upregulated genes...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529578/long-non-coding-rna-expression-profiles-in-gallbladder-carcinoma-identified-using-microarray-analysis
#20
Jiwen Wang, Han Liu, Xiaokun Shen, Yueqi Wang, Dexiang Zhang, Sheng Shen, Tao Suo, Hongtao Pan, Yue Ming, Kan Ding, Houbao Liu
Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is the most common biliary tract cancer and exhibits poor patient prognosis. Previous studies have identified that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve important regulatory roles in cancer biology. Alterations in lncRNAs are associated with several types of cancer. However, the contribution of lncRNAs to GBC remains unclear. To investigate the lncRNAs that are potentially involved in GBC, lncRNA profiles were identified in three pairs of human GBC and corresponding peri-carcinomatous tissue samples using microarray analysis...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
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