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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911328/the-clinical-use-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-the-italian-selfie
#1
Giulia M Sancesario, Sofia Toniolo, Davide Chiasserini, Simona G Di Santo, Josh Zegeer, Gaetano Bernardi, Massimo Musicco, Carlo Caltagirone, Lucilla Parnetti, Sergio Bernardini
Although the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid β1-42 (Aβ42), tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau181) gives added diagnostic and prognostic values, the diffusion is still limited in clinical practice and only a restricted number of patients receive an integrated clinico-biological diagnosis. By a survey, we aimed to do a "selfie" of the use and diffusion of CSF biomarkers of dementia in Italy, the standardization of pre-analytical procedures, the harmonization of ranges, and the participation to Quality Control programs...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911093/dna-microarray-profiling-highlights-nrf2-mediated-chemoprevention-targeted-by-wasabi-derived-isothiocyanates-in-hepg2-cells
#2
Phoebe Zapanta Trio, Atsuyoshi Kawahara, Shunsuke Tanigawa, Kozue Sakao, De-Xing Hou
6-MSITC and 6-MTITC are sulforaphane (SFN) analogs found in Japanese Wasabi. As we reported previously, Wasabi isothiocyanates (ITCs) are activators of Nrf2-antioxidant response element pathway, and also inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2. This study is the first to assess the global changes in transcript levels by Wasabi ITCs, comparing with SFN, in HepG2 cells. We performed comparative gene expression profiling by treating HepG2 cells with ITCs, followed by DNA microarray analyses using HG-U133 plus 2...
December 2, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910940/supportive-angiogenic-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-endothelial-cells-in-monolayer-and-co-cultures
#3
Florian Böhrnsen, Henning Schliephake
Sites of implantation with compromised biology may be unable to achieve the required level of angiogenic and osteogenic regeneration. The specific function and contribution of different cell types to the formation of prevascularized, osteogenic networks in co-culture remains unclear. To determine how bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) contribute to cellular proangiogenic differentiation, we analysed the differentiation of BMSCs and ECs in standardized monolayer, Transwell and co-cultures...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910743/decoding-the-polyphyletic-flexibility-of-allosteric-modular-networks-progress-and-perspectives
#4
Yanan Yu, Zhong Wang, Yongyan Wang
Advances in identifying architecture of modules and elucidating their modes of action are gradually improving the decoding of complex relationships between phenotypic robustness and genotypic networks. However, approaches to detecting modules have largely focused on identifying modules in static graphs. In this review, we attempt to reveal the mechanism of polyphyletic architectural transformation based on modular boundary evolutions and different oscillating factors. With the rapid progress in probing into the detailed structural model of modular networks, flexible modular organization manifests a key adaptive balancing ability of allosterically regulating or reconstructing intermodular and intramodular states to uncover the novel biological alterations beyond engineering properties...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909803/evolutionary-origin-of-endochondral-ossification-the-transdifferentiation-hypothesis
#5
REVIEW
Fret Cervantes-Diaz, Pedro Contreras, Sylvain Marcellini
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing experiments demonstrating that, during mouse endochondral bone development, a subset of chondrocytes evades apoptosis and transdifferentiate into osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous junction...
December 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909395/reversal-learning-in-humans-and-gerbils-dynamic-control-network-facilitates-learning
#6
Christian Jarvers, Tobias Brosch, André Brechmann, Marie L Woldeit, Andreas L Schulz, Frank W Ohl, Marcel Lommerzheim, Heiko Neumann
Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909218/erythrocyte-survival-is-controlled-by-microrna-142
#7
Natalia Rivkin, Elik Chapnik, Alexander Mildner, Gregory Barshtein, Ziv Porat, Elena Kartvelishvily, Tali Dadosh, Yehudit Birger, Gail Amir, Saul Yedgar, Shai Izraeli, Steffen Jung, Eran Hornstein
Hematopoietic-specific miR-142 is critical regulator of various blood cell lineages, but its role in erythrocytes is unexplored. Here, we characterize miR-142 impact on erythrocyte physiology and molecular cell biology, using a mouse loss of function allele. We report that miR-142 is required for maintaining the typical erythrocyte biconcave shape and structural resilience, for normal metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and for overall lifespan. miR-142 further controls actin filament homeostasis and membrane skeleton organization...
December 1, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908973/environmental-public-health-tracking-a-cost-effective-system-for-characterizing-the-sources-distribution-and-public-health-impacts-of-environmental-hazards
#8
P J Saunders, J D Middleton, G Rudge
BACKGROUND: The contemporary environment is a complex of interactions between physical, biological, socio-economic systems with major impacts on public health. However, gaps in our understanding of the causes, extent and distribution of these effects remain. The public health community in Sandwell West Midlands has collaborated to successfully develop, pilot and establish the first Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) programme in Europe to address this 'environmental health gap' through systematically linking data on environmental hazards, exposures and diseases...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908889/microrna-146a-induces-lineage-negative-bone-marrow-cell-apoptosis-and-senescence-by-targeting-polo-like-kinase-2-expression
#9
Shanming Deng, Huilan Wang, Chunling Jia, Shoukang Zhu, Xianming Chu, Qi Ma, Jianqin Wei, Emily Chen, Wei Zhu, Conrad J Macon, Dushyantha T Jayaweera, Derek M Dykxhoorn, Chunming Dong
OBJECTIVE: Lineage-negative bone marrow cells (lin- BMCs) are enriched in endothelial progenitor cells and mediate vascular repair. Aging-associated senescence and apoptosis result in reduced number and functionality of lin- BMCs, impairing their prorepair capacity. The molecular mechanisms underlying lin- BMC senescence and apoptosis are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate many important biological processes. The identification of miRNA-mRNA networks that modulate the health and functionality of lin- BMCs is a critical step in understanding the process of vascular repair...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908864/identification-of-candidate-genes-in-osteoporosis-by-integrated-microarray-analysis
#10
J J Li, B Q Wang, Q Fei, Y Yang, D Li
OBJECTIVES: In order to screen the altered gene expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with osteoporosis, we performed an integrated analysis of the online microarray studies of osteoporosis. METHODS: We searched the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database for microarray studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with osteoporosis. Subsequently, we integrated gene expression data sets from multiple microarray studies to obtain differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between patients with osteoporosis and normal controls...
December 2016: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908670/proteome-of-the-rete-testis-fluid-from-tropically-adapted-morada-nova-rams
#11
Mauricio Fraga van Tilburg, Solange Damasceno Sousa, Révila Bianca Ferreira de Melo, Frederico B Moreno, Ana Cristina Monteiro-Moreira, Renato A Moreira, Arlindo de Alencar Moura
The rete testis has a close relationship with sperm development and may have other functions besides serving as an intercalated channel. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the proteins of rete testis fluid (RTF) from tropically-adapted Morada Nova rams. Testicles obtained from six Morada Nova rams were dissected and the head of the epididymis was separated to access the efferent ducts. Rete testis fluid was obtained by gentle massage of the testis. The fluid was centrifuged to remove cell debris and sperm...
November 22, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908109/perturbation-of-hydration-layer-in-solvated-proteins-by-external-electric-and-electromagnetic-fields-insights-from-non-equilibrium-molecular-dynamics
#12
Prithwish K Nandi, Zdenek Futera, Niall J English
Given the fundamental role of water in governing the biochemistry of enzymes, and in regulating their wider biological activity (e.g., by local water concentration surrounding biomolecules), the influence of extraneous electric and electromagnetic (e/m) fields thereon is of central relevance to biophysics and, more widely, biology. With the increase in levels of local and atmospheric microwave-frequency radiation present in modern life, as well as other electric-field exposure, the impact upon hydration-water layers surrounding proteins, and biomolecules generally, becomes a particularly pertinent issue...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907996/probabilistic-information-transmission-in-a-network-of-coupled-oscillators-reveals-speed-accuracy-trade-off-in-responding-to-threats
#13
Amanda Chicoli, Derek A Paley
Individuals in a group may obtain information from other group members about the environment, including the location of a food source or the presence of a predator. Here, we model how information spreads in a group using a susceptible-infected-removed epidemic model. We apply this model to a simulated shoal of fish using the motion dynamics of a coupled oscillator model, in order to test the biological hypothesis that polarized or aligned shoaling leads to faster and more accurate escape responses. The contributions of this study are the (i) application of a probabilistic model of epidemics to the study of collective animal behavior; (ii) testing the biological hypothesis that group cohesion improves predator escape; (iii) quantification of the effect of social cues on startle propagation; and (iv) investigation of the variation in response based on network connectivity...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907891/analysis-of-translation-using-polysome-profiling
#14
Héloïse Chassé, Sandrine Boulben, Vlad Costache, Patrick Cormier, Julia Morales
During the past decade, there has been growing interest in the role of translational regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Polysome profiling has been developed to infer the translational status of a specific mRNA species or to analyze the translatome, i.e. the subset of mRNAs actively translated in a cell. Polysome profiling is especially suitable for emergent model organisms for which genomic data are limited. In this paper, we describe an optimized protocol for the purification of sea urchin polysomes and highlight the critical steps involved in polysome purification...
October 7, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907861/in-situ-time-lapse-study-of-extracellular-polymeric-substance-discharge-in-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm
#15
Bernard Haochih Liu, Li-Chieh Yu
Streptococcus mutans is one of the main pathogens that cause tooth decay. By metabolizing carbohydrates, S. mutans emits extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that adheres to the tooth surface and forms layers of biofilm. Periodontal disease occurs due to the low pH environment created by S. mutans biofilm, and such an acidic environment gradually erodes tooth enamel. Since the existence of EPS is essential in the formation of biofilm, the in-situ investigation of its generation and distribution in real time is the key to the control and suppression of S...
November 24, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906520/construction-of-the-human-forebrain
#16
REVIEW
Terry L Jernigan, Joan Stiles
The adult human brain is arguably the most complex of biological systems. It contains 86 billion neurons (the information processing cells of the brain) and many more support cells. The neurons, with the assistance of the support cells, form trillions of connections creating complex, interconnected neural networks that support all human thought, feeling, and action. A challenge for modern neuroscience is to provide a model that accounts for this exquisitely complex and dynamic system. One fundamental part of this model is an account of how the human brain develops...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905589/hydrogen-bond-dynamics-at-the-bio-water-interface-in-hydrated-proteins-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#17
Prithwish K Nandi, Niall J English, Zdenek Futera, Antonio Benedetto
Water is fundamental to the biochemistry of enzymes. It is well known that without a minimum amount of water, enzymes are not biologically active. Bare minimal solvation for biological function corresponds to about a single layer of water covering enzymes' surfaces. Many contradictory studies on protein-hydration-water-coupled dynamics have been published in recent decades. Following prevailing wisdom, a dynamical crossover in hydration water (at around 220 K for hydrated lysozymes) can trigger larger-amplitude motions of the protein, activating, in turn, biological functions...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905558/microrna-mir-34-provides-robustness-to-environmental-stress-response-via-the-daf-16-network-in-c-elegans
#18
Meltem Isik, T Keith Blackwell, Eugene Berezikov
Diverse stresses and aging alter expression levels of microRNAs, suggesting a role for these posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression in stress modulation and longevity. Earlier studies demonstrated a central role for the miR-34 family in promoting cell cycle arrest and cell death following stress in human cells. However, the biological significance of this response was unclear. Here we show that in C. elegans mir-34 upregulation is necessary for developmental arrest, correct morphogenesis, and adaptation to a lower metabolic state to protect animals against stress-related damage...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903896/img-abc-new-features-for-bacterial-secondary-metabolism-analysis-and-targeted-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-discovery-in-thousands-of-microbial-genomes
#19
Michalis Hadjithomas, I-Min A Chen, Ken Chu, Jinghua Huang, Anna Ratner, Krishna Palaniappan, Evan Andersen, Victor Markowitz, Nikos C Kyrpides, Natalia N Ivanova
Secondary metabolites produced by microbes have diverse biological functions, which makes them a great potential source of biotechnologically relevant compounds with antimicrobial, anti-cancer and other activities. The proteins needed to synthesize these natural products are often encoded by clusters of co-located genes called biosynthetic gene clusters (BCs). In order to advance the exploration of microbial secondary metabolism, we developed the largest publically available database of experimentally verified and predicted BCs, the Integrated Microbial Genomes Atlas of Biosynthetic gene Clusters (IMG-ABC) (https://img...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903825/synthetic-biology-routes-to-bio-artificial-intelligence
#20
REVIEW
Darren N Nesbeth, Alexey Zaikin, Yasushi Saka, M Carmen Romano, Claudiu V Giuraniuc, Oleg Kanakov, Tetyana Laptyeva
The design of synthetic gene networks (SGNs) has advanced to the extent that novel genetic circuits are now being tested for their ability to recapitulate archetypal learning behaviours first defined in the fields of machine and animal learning. Here, we discuss the biological implementation of a perceptron algorithm for linear classification of input data. An expansion of this biological design that encompasses cellular 'teachers' and 'students' is also examined. We also discuss implementation of Pavlovian associative learning using SGNs and present an example of such a scheme and in silico simulation of its performance...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
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