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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923234/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-channels-contribute-to-the-regulation-of-acid-and-base-induced-vasomotor-responses
#1
Ivan Ivic, Margit Solymar, Eszter Pakai, Zoltan Rumbus, Erika Pinter, Akos Koller, Andras Garami
pH changes can influence local blood flow, but the mechanisms of how acids and bases affect vascular tone is not fully clarified. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels are expressed in vessels and can be activated by pH alterations. Thus, we hypothesized that TRPV1 channels are involved in the mediation of vascular responses to acid-base changes. Vasomotor responses to HCl, NaOH, and capsaicin were measured in isolated murine carotid and tail skin arteries. The function of TRPV1 was blocked by either of three approaches: Trpv1 gene disruption, pharmacological blockade with a TRPV1 antagonist (BCTC), and functional impairment of mainly neural TRPV1 channels (desensitization)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923120/long-oskar-controls-mitochondrial-inheritance-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Thomas Ryan Hurd, Beate Herrmann, Julia Sauerwald, Justina Sanny, Markus Grosch, Ruth Lehmann
Inherited mtDNA mutations cause severe human disease. In most species, mitochondria are inherited maternally through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Genes that specifically control the inheritance of mitochondria in the germline are unknown. Here, we show that the long isoform of the protein Oskar regulates the maternal inheritance of mitochondria in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that, during oogenesis, mitochondria accumulate at the oocyte posterior, concurrent with the bulk streaming and churning of the oocyte cytoplasm...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923117/examining-topological-domain-influence-on-enhancer-function
#3
Robert A Beagrie, Ana Pombo
Enhancers regulate the expression of target genes across large genomic distances, but it is unclear how recently discovered topological domains affect this regulation. Reporting in this issue of Developmental Cell, Symmons et al. (2016) show that the endogenous Shh topological domain promotes functional interactions between Shh and its remote enhancer.
December 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923070/macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-derived-from-cd4-t-cells-contributes-to-control-of-a-blood-borne-infection
#4
Mary F Fontana, Gabrielly L de Melo, Chioma Anidi, Rebecca Hamburger, Chris Y Kim, So Youn Lee, Jennifer Pham, Charles C Kim
Dynamic regulation of leukocyte population size and activation state is crucial for an effective immune response. In malaria, Plasmodium parasites elicit robust host expansion of macrophages and monocytes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that myeloid expansion during P. chabaudi infection is dependent upon both CD4+ T cells and the cytokine Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF). Single-cell RNA-Seq analysis on antigen-experienced T cells revealed robust expression of Csf1, the gene encoding MCSF, in a sub-population of CD4+ T cells with distinct transcriptional and surface phenotypes...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923067/chronological-lifespan-in-yeast-is-dependent-on-the-accumulation-of-storage-carbohydrates-mediated-by-yak1-mck1-and-rim15-kinases
#5
Lu Cao, Yingzhi Tang, Zhenzhen Quan, Zhe Zhang, Stephen G Oliver, Nianshu Zhang
Upon starvation for glucose or any other macronutrient, yeast cells exit from the mitotic cell cycle and acquire a set of characteristics that are specific to quiescent cells to ensure longevity. Little is known about the molecular determinants that orchestrate quiescence entry and lifespan extension. Using starvation-specific gene reporters, we screened a subset of the yeast deletion library representing the genes encoding 'signaling' proteins. Apart from the previously characterised Rim15, Mck1 and Yak1 kinases, the SNF1/AMPK complex, the cell wall integrity pathway and a number of cell cycle regulators were shown to be necessary for proper quiescence establishment and for extension of chronological lifespan (CLS), suggesting that entry into quiescence requires the integration of starvation signals transmitted via multiple signaling pathways...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923063/control-of-gene-expression-by-rna-binding-protein-action-on-alternative-translation-initiation-sites
#6
Angela Re, Levi Waldron, Alessandro Quattrone
Transcript levels do not faithfully predict protein levels, due to post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression mediated by RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and non-coding RNAs. We developed a multivariate linear regression model integrating RBP levels and predicted RBP-mRNA regulatory interactions from matched transcript and protein datasets. RBPs significantly improved the accuracy in predicting protein abundance of a portion of the total modeled mRNAs in three panels of tissues and cells and for different methods employed in the detection of mRNA and protein...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923061/comparative-transcriptomic-and-epigenomic-analyses-reveal-new-regulators-of-murine-brown-adipogenesis
#7
Reinhard Brunmeir, Jingyi Wu, Xu Peng, Sun-Yee Kim, Sofi G Julien, Qiongyi Zhang, Wei Xie, Feng Xu
Increasing energy expenditure through brown adipocyte recruitment is a promising approach to combat obesity. We report here the comprehensive profiling of the epigenome and transcriptome throughout the lineage commitment and differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell line into brown adipocytes. Through direct comparison to datasets from differentiating white adipocytes, we systematically identify stage- and lineage-specific coding genes, lncRNAs and microRNAs. Utilizing chromatin state maps, we also define stage- and lineage-specific enhancers, including super-enhancers, and their associated transcription factor binding motifs and genes...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923054/fused-regression-for-multi-source-gene-regulatory-network-inference
#8
Kari Y Lam, Zachary M Westrick, Christian L Müller, Lionel Christiaen, Richard Bonneau
Understanding gene regulatory networks is critical to understanding cellular differentiation and response to external stimuli. Methods for global network inference have been developed and applied to a variety of species. Most approaches consider the problem of network inference independently in each species, despite evidence that gene regulation can be conserved even in distantly related species. Further, network inference is often confined to single data-types (single platforms) and single cell types. We introduce a method for multi-source network inference that allows simultaneous estimation of gene regulatory networks in multiple species or biological processes through the introduction of priors based on known gene relationships such as orthology incorporated using fused regression...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923017/expression-of-microrna-328-functions-as-a-biomarker-for-recurrence-of-early-gastric-cancer-egc-after-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-esd-by-modulating-cd44
#9
Hui-Guang Xue, Ai-Hua Yang, Xue-Guo Sun, Yan-Yan Lu, Zi-Bin Tian
BACKGROUND This study investigated the molecular mechanism of the effect of CD44 on the recurrence of EGC after ESD, including the potential regulator and signaling pathways of CD44. MATERIAL AND METHODS We searched the miRNA online database (www.mirdb.org) with the "seed sequence" located within the 3'-UTR of the target gene, and performed luciferase assay to test the miRNA/mRNA relationship. We also determined the expression of CD44 in the EGC and control samples. In addition, statistical analysis was used to explore the role of miR-328 as a biomarker to predict the recurrence after ECD...
December 6, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922982/mir-21-is-overexpressed-in-hydatidiform-mole-tissues-and-promotes-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-in-choriocarcinoma-cells
#10
Ya-Xin Wang, Jiu-Ru Zhao, Yue-Ying Xu, Wei-Bin Wu, Hui-Juan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to make clear whether miR-21 was dysregulated in hydatidiform mole (HM) tissues and choriocarcinoma (CCA) cells, to elucidate whether aberrant miR-21 expression would affect the function of CCA cells, and to find out whether there was a relationship between miR-21 and AKT, PDCD4, and PTEN in CCA cells. METHODS: Fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded trophoblastic tissues (normal first trimester placentas and HMs) were retrieved from the biobank in the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922847/apolipoprotein-e-metabolism-and-functions-in-brain-and-its-role-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Fan Liao, Hyejin Yoon, Jungsu Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: APOE4 genotype is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Prevailing evidence suggests that amyloid β plays a critical role in Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this article is to review the recent findings about the metabolism of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and amyloid β and other possible mechanisms by which ApoE contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: ApoE isoforms have differential effects on amyloid β metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922823/slm35-links-mitochondrial-stress-response-and-longevity-through-tor-signaling-pathway
#12
Jose L Aguilar-Lopez, Raymond Laboy, Fabiola Jaimes-Miranda, Erika Garay, Alexander DeLuna, Soledad Funes
In most eukaryotic cells mitochondria are essential organelles involved in a great variety of cellular functions. One of the physiological processes linked to mitochondria is aging, a gradual process of damage accumulation that eventually promotes cell death. Aging depends on a balance between mitochondrial biogenesis, function and degradation. It has been previously shown that Tor1, Sch9 and Ras2 are activated in response to nutrient availability and regulate cell growth and division. A deficiency in any of these genes promotes lifespan extension and cell protection during oxidative and heat shock stress...
December 2, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922816/the-progeroid-gene-bubr1-regulates-axon-myelination-and-motor-function
#13
Chan-Il Choi, Ki Hyun Yoo, Syed Mohammed Qasim Hussaini, Byeong Tak Jeon, John Welby, Haiyun Gan, Isobel A Scarisbrick, Zhiguo Zhang, Darren J Baker, Jan M van Deursen, Moses Rodriguez, Mi-Hyeon Jang
Myelination, the process by which oligodendrocytes form the myelin sheath around axons, is key to axonal signal transduction and related motor function in the central nervous system (CNS). Aging is characterized by degenerative changes in the myelin sheath, although the molecular underpinnings of normal and aberrant myelination remain incompletely understood. Here we report that axon myelination and related motor function are dependent on BubR1, a mitotic checkpoint protein that has been linked to progeroid phenotypes when expressed at low levels and healthy lifespan when overabundant...
September 12, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922676/identification-of-functional-pathways-associated-with-the-conditional-ablation-of-serum-response-factor-in-dstncorn1-mice
#14
Yanan Huo, Xin Xie, Bo Jiang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the signaling pathways associated with functional alterations in corneal tissues following the conditional ablation of serum response factor (Srf) in Dstncorn1 mice. The gene expression profiling array GSE49688, which includes 3 samples each from the wild‑type (WT), Dstncorn1 mutant (corn1) and corn1 mice following the conditional ablation of Srf from the corneal epithelium [namely rescued (res)] mouse groups, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922675/overexpression-of-sox18-promotes-prostate-cancer-progression-via-the-regulation-of-tcf1-c-myc-cyclin%C3%A2-d1-and-mmp-7
#15
Huaqi Yin, Zhengzuo Sheng, Xiaowei Zhang, Yiqing Du, Caipeng Qin, Huixin Liu, Yaojun Dun, Qi Wang, Chengyue Jin, Yanhui Zhao, Tao Xu
Sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 18 (SOX18) gene encodes transcription factors that have been recently confirmed to be overexpressed in various human types of cancer and maintain the malignant behavior of cancer cells. However, the role and its potential function in prostate cancer (PCa) has not been demonstrated and the mechanisms of SOX18 involved in tumor progression remain largely unclear. In the present study, the expression of SOX18 was analyzed in 98 PCa and 81 adjacent non-tumor tissues using immunohistochemistry...
December 2, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922663/norspermidine-changes-the-basic-structure-of-s-%C3%A2-mutans-biofilm
#16
Meizhen Ou, Junqi Ling
The factors regulating the assembly of the three-dimensional structure of Streptococcus mutans biofilms remain obscure. Polyamines are essential in biofilm formation of certain bacteria. Norspermidine, an unusual polyamine, has been a controversial polyamine that can lead to biofilm disassembly. However, the role of norspermidine in S. mutans biofilms remains unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated the impact of norspermidine on S. mutans biofilms. The different architectures of the biofilms in norspermidine and control groups indicated that the basic units, bacteria‑exopolysaccharide units (BEUs), represent the exopolysaccharide (EPS) and bacterial assembly pattern in S...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922638/enhancing-dopaminergic-signaling-and-histone-acetylation-promotes-long-term-rescue-of-deficient-fear-extinction
#17
N Whittle, V Maurer, C Murphy, J Rainer, D Bindreither, M Hauschild, A Scharinger, M Oberhauser, T Keil, C Brehm, T Valovka, J Striessnig, N Singewald
Extinction-based exposure therapy is used to treat anxiety- and trauma-related disorders; however, there is the need to improve its limited efficacy in individuals with impaired fear extinction learning and to promote greater protection against return-of-fear phenomena. Here, using 129S1/SvImJ mice, which display impaired fear extinction acquisition and extinction consolidation, we revealed that persistent and context-independent rescue of deficient fear extinction in these mice was associated with enhanced expression of dopamine-related genes, such as dopamine D1 (Drd1a) and -D2 (Drd2) receptor genes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala, but not hippocampus...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922623/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-positive-role-of-treadmill-training-in-locomotor-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Q Liu, B Zhang, C Liu, D Zhao
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the positive role of treadmill training (TMT) in locomotor recovery. METHODS: GSE52763 microarray data were downloaded from GEO database, which was collected from the lumbar spinal cord samples of three groups of mice: mice subjected to contusive injury and killed 1 week after injury (I1), mice subjected to injury and killed 3 weeks after injury (I3), and mice subjected to injury and TMT beginning at week 1 and lasting until week 3 (T3)...
December 6, 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922612/the-intricate-dance-of-post-translational-modifications-in-the-rhythm-of-life
#19
REVIEW
Arisa Hirano, Ying-Hui Fu, Louis J Ptáček
Endogenous biological rhythms with approximately 24-h periodicity are generated by the circadian clock, in which clock genes coordinate with one another and form a transcriptional-translational negative feedback loop. The precision of the circadian clock is further regulated by multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and SUMOylation. Here, we review current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of the core clock proteins by PTMs in the mammalian circadian clock...
December 6, 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922594/cacna1c-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-regulates-depression-related-behaviors-via-redd1
#20
Zeeba D Kabir, Anni S Lee, Caitlin E Burgdorf, Delaney Fischer, Aditi M Rajadhyaksha, Ethan Mok, Bryant Rizzo, Richard C Rice, Kamalpreet Singh, Kristie T Ota, Danielle M Gerhard, Kathryn C Schierberl, Michael Glass, Ronald S Duman, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
The CACNA1C gene that encodes the L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) Cav1.2 subunit has emerged as a candidate risk gene for multiple neuropsychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, all marked with depression-related symptoms. Although cacna1c heterozygous (HET) mice have been previously reported to exhibit an antidepressant-like phenotype, the molecular and circuit-level dysfunction remains unknown. Here we report that viral vector-mediated deletion of cacna1c in the adult prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mice recapitulates the antidepressant-like effect observed in cacna1c HET mice using the sucrose preference test (SPT), the forced swim test (FST), and the tail suspension test (TST)...
December 6, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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