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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508083/structures-of-closed-and-open-conformations-of-dimeric-human-atm
#1
Domagoj Baretić, Hannah K Pollard, David I Fisher, Christopher M Johnson, Balaji Santhanam, Caroline M Truman, Tomas Kouba, Alan R Fersht, Christopher Phillips, Roger L Williams
ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) is a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) best known for its role in DNA damage response. ATM also functions in oxidative stress response, insulin signaling, and neurogenesis. Our electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) suggests that human ATM is in a dynamic equilibrium between closed and open dimers. In the closed state, the PIKK regulatory domain blocks the peptide substrate-binding site, suggesting that this conformation may represent an inactive or basally active enzyme...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503062/contraction-sensing-with-smart-braid-mckibben-muscles
#2
Wyatt Felt, Khai Yi Chin, C David Remy
The inherent compliance of soft fluidic actuators makes them attractive for use in wearable devices and soft robotics. Their flexible nature permits them to be used without traditional rotational or prismatic joints. Without these joints, however, measuring the motion of the actuators is challenging. Actuator-level sensors could improve the performance of continuum robots and robots with compliant or multi-degree-of-freedom joints. We make the reinforcing braid of a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM or McKibben muscle) "smart" by weaving it from conductive, insulated wires...
June 2016: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492374/a-miniaturized-wall-climbing-segment-robot-inspired-by-caterpillar-locomotion
#3
Il Whan Han, Hoon Yi, Chang-Woo Song, Hoon-Eui Jeong, Seung-Yop Lee
Caterpillars are very successful soft-bodied climbers that navigate in complex environments. This paper develops a multi-segmented robot climbing on vertical surfaces using dry adhesive pads, inspired by caterpillar locomotion. The miniaturized robot consists of four segments, and each segment uses a solenoid actuator with a permanent magnet plunger. The head and body segments adapt a novel mechanism and Scott-Russell linkages to generate a bi-directional plane motion using one solenoid actuator, resulting to reliable attaching and peeling motions of gecko pads...
May 11, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475050/development-of-a-mechanical-scanning-device-with-high-frequency-ultrasound-transducer-for-ultrasonic-capsule-endoscopy
#4
Xingying Wang, Vipin Seetohul, Ruimin Chen, Ming Qian, Congzhi Wang, Zhihong Huang, Qifa Zhou, Hairong Zheng, Sandy Cochran, Weibao Qiu
Wireless capsule endoscopy has opened a new era by enabling remote diagnostic assessment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in a painless procedure. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is currently commercially available worldwide. However, it is limited to visualization of superficial tissue. Ultrasound (US) imaging is a complementary solution as it is capable of acquiring transmural information from the tissue wall. This paper presents a mechanical scanning device incorporating a high-frequency transducer specifically as a proof of concept for ultrasound capsule endoscopy (USCE), providing information that may usefully assist future research...
May 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471691/the-evolution-of-organellar-coat-complexes-and-organization-of-the-eukaryotic-cell
#5
Michael P Rout, Mark C Field
Eukaryotic cells possess a remarkably diverse range of organelles that provide compartmentalization for distinct cellular functions and are likely responsible for the remarkable success of these organisms. The origins and subsequent elaboration of these compartments represent a key aspect in the transition between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular forms. The protein machinery required to build, maintain, and define many membranebound compartments is encoded by several paralog families, including small GTPases, coiled-bundle proteins, and proteins with β-propeller and α-solenoid secondary structures...
May 3, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463204/design-and-characterization-of-a-quasi-passive-pneumatic-foot-ankle-prosthesis
#6
Jeffrey Lee, Luke Mooney, Elliott Rouse
The majority of commercially available passive prosthetic feet are not capable of providing joint mechanics that match that of the intact human ankle. Due to their cantilever design, their stiffness characteristics contrast with what has been observed in the biological ankle; namely, an increase in stiffness during the stance phase of walking. In this study, we introduce the design and control of a pneumatic foot-ankle prosthesis that attempts to provide biomimetic mechanics. The prosthesis is comprised of a pneumatic cylinder in series with a fiberglass leaf spring, and a solenoid valve to control the flow of air between the two sides of the cylinder...
April 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436407/design-of-a-pulsatile-dc-electromagnetic-blood-pump-for-ecmo
#7
Jingjing Liu, Bin Ge, Tong Lu
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has developed rapidly and become a significant treatment for emergency. Current blood pumps for ECMO have different disadvantages. OBJECTIVE: To design a pulsatile DC electromagnetic blood pump for ECMO. METHODS: The design is presented with a driving principle which the rectilinear reciprocation of a magnet inside energized solenoids is implemented, and with a structure of solenoids with compensation coils...
April 14, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415195/ultrafast-probing-of-magnetic-field-growth-inside-a-laser-driven-solenoid
#8
C Goyon, B B Pollock, D P Turnbull, A Hazi, L Divol, W A Farmer, D Haberberger, J Javedani, A J Johnson, A Kemp, M C Levy, B Grant Logan, D A Mariscal, O L Landen, S Patankar, J S Ross, A M Rubenchik, G F Swadling, G J Williams, S Fujioka, K F F Law, J D Moody
We report on the detection of the time-dependent B-field amplitude and topology in a laser-driven solenoid. The B-field inferred from both proton deflectometry and Faraday rotation ramps up linearly in time reaching 210 ± 35 T at the end of a 0.75-ns laser drive with 1 TW at 351 nm. A lumped-element circuit model agrees well with the linear rise and suggests that the blow-off plasma screens the field between the plates leading to an increased plate capacitance that converts the laser-generated hot-electron current into a voltage source that drives current through the solenoid...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388497/a-size-adjustable-radiofrequency-coil-for-investigating-plants-in-a-halbach-magnet
#9
Dirk Oligschläger, Christian Rehorn, Sören Lehmkuhl, Michael Adams, Alina Adams, Bernhard Blümich
A radio-frequency coil with adjustable distance has been developed and tested for in-situ examination of growing plants. The Helmholtz-based coil design reduces laborious tuning and matching efforts encountered with solenoids wound around a growing stem or branch. Relaxation experiments were performed on tomato plants and winter wheat under controlled light irradiation. Changes in signal amplitude and in relaxation times T2 were recorded over day and night cycles. Peaks in distributions of relaxation times were attributed to different tissue components of two different plants...
May 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375255/high-magnetic-field-measurement-utilizing-faraday-rotation-in-sf11-glass-in-simplified-diagnostics
#10
Premananda Dey, Rohit Shukla, D Venkateswarlu
With the commercialization of powerful solid-state lasers as pointer lasers, it is becoming simpler nowadays for the launch and free-space reception of polarized light for polarimetric applications. Additionally, because of the high power of such laser diodes, the alignment of the received light on the small sensor area of a photo-diode with a high bandwidth response is also greatly simplified. A plastic sheet polarizer taken from spectacles of 3D television (commercially available) is simply implemented as an analyzer before the photo-receiver...
April 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372434/analog-isolated-electronic-dynamometer-based-on-a-magnetoresistive-current-sensor
#11
C Arcos Carrasco, D Ramírez Muñoz, S I Ravelo Arias, J Sánchez Moreno, E Maset Sancho, A Garrigós Sirvent
In this work, an electronic system is presented to measure the force applied by a solenoid. The originality of the work is focused on the use of a magnetoresistive current sensor to provide the isolation barrier needed in the actual industrial plant where the solenoids are working. The design of the electronic system is presented as well as experimental measurements as a result of a calibration process showing a negligible hysteresis with that specific sensor. The magnetoresistive current sensor is used to develop transmission functions rather than playing its usual sensing roles...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360455/a-feasibility-study-of-high-strength-bi-2223-conductor-for-high-field-solenoids
#12
A Godeke, D V Abraimov, E Arroyo, N Barret, M D Bird, A Francis, J Jaroszynski, D V Kurteva, W D Markiewicz, E L Marks, W S Marshall, D M McRae, P D Noyes, R C P Pereira, Y L Viouchkov, R P Walsh, J M White
We performed a feasibility study on a high-strength Bi2-x Pb x Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-x (Bi-2223) tape conductor for high-field solenoid applications. The investigated conductor, DI-BSCCO Type HT-XX, is a pre-production version of Type HT-NX, which has recently become available from Sumitomo Electric Industries (SEI). It is based on their DI-BSCCO Type H tape, but laminated with a high-strength Ni-alloy. We used stress-strain characterizations, single- and double-bend tests, easy- and hard-way bent coil-turns at various radii, straight and helical samples in up to 31...
March 2017: Superconductor Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356354/n-terminal-half-of-transportin-sr2-interacts-with-hiv-integrase
#13
Vicky G Tsirkone, Jolien Blokken, Flore De Wit, Jolien Breemans, Stéphanie De Houwer, Zeger Debyser, Frauke Christ, Sergei V Strelkov
The karyopherin transportin SR2 (TRN-SR2, TNPO3) is responsible for shuttling specific cargoes such as serine/arginine-rich splicing factors from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. This protein plays a key role in HIV infection by facilitating the nuclear import of the pre-integration complex (PIC) which contains the viral DNA as well as several cellular and HIV proteins including the integrase. The process of nuclear import is considered to be the bottleneck of the viral replication cycle and therefore represents a promising target for anti-HIV drug design...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340785/an-automatic-chemiluminescence-method-based-on-the-multi-pumping-flow-system-coupled-with-the-fluidized-reactor-and-direct-injection-detector-determination-of-uric-acid-in-saliva-samples
#14
Christina Vakh, Stanislawa Koronkiewicz, Slawomir Kalinowski, Leonid Moskvin, Andrey Bulatov
A novel approach for the automatic chemiluminescence (CL) analysis of the complex samples is proposed. A multi-pumping flow system was successfully combined with fluidized reactor and direct-injection CL detector. The possibility of the approach was demonstrated on the determination of uric acid in saliva samples. Uric acid is clinically important analyte and its determination in biological fluids is related to human organism dysfunctions, such as gout. For the first time, the fast luminol - N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) reaction in an alkaline medium was used for the CL determination of uric acid in saliva samples...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329017/navigating-in-foldonia-using-accelerated-molecular-dynamics-to-explore-stability-unfolding-and-self-healing-of-the-%C3%AE-solenoid-structure-formed-by-a-silk-like-polypeptide
#15
Binwu Zhao, Martien A Cohen Stuart, Carol K Hall
The β roll molecules with sequence (GAGAGAGQ)10 stack via hydrogen bonding to form fibrils which have been themselves been used to make viral capsids of DNA strands, supramolecular nanotapes and pH-responsive gels. Accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations are used to investigate the unfolding of a stack of two β roll molecules, (GAGAGAGQ)10, to shed light on the folding mechanism by which silk-inspired polypeptides form fibrils and to identify the dominant forces that keep the silk-inspired polypeptide in a β roll configuration...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323066/development-of-an-economical-autonomous-phstat-system-for-culturing-phytoplankton-under-steady-state-or-dynamic-conditions
#16
Rachel L Golda, Mark D Golda, Jacqueline A Hayes, Tawnya D Peterson, Joseph A Needoba
Laboratory investigations of physiological processes in phytoplankton require precise control of experimental conditions. Chemostats customized to control and maintain stable pH levels (pHstats) are ideally suited for investigations of the effects of pH on phytoplankton physiology, for example in context of ocean acidification. Here we designed and constructed a simple, flexible pHstat system and demonstrated its operational capabilities under laboratory culture conditions. In particular, the system is useful for simulating natural cyclic pH variability within aquatic ecosystems, such as diel fluctuations that result from metabolic activity or tidal mixing in estuaries...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319202/evolving-notch-polyq-tracts-reveal-possible-solenoid-interference-elements
#17
Albert J Erives
Polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts in regulatory proteins are extremely polymorphic. As functional elements under selection for length, triplet repeats are prone to DNA replication slippage and indel mutations. Many polyQ tracts are also embedded within intrinsically disordered domains, which are less constrained, fast evolving, and difficult to characterize. To identify structural principles underlying polyQ tracts in disordered regulatory domains, here I analyze deep evolution of metazoan Notch polyQ tracts, which can generate alleles causing developmental and neurogenic defects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263324/cryo-em-structure-of-a-metazoan-separase-securin-complex-at-near-atomic-resolution
#18
Andreas Boland, Thomas G Martin, Ziguo Zhang, Jing Yang, Xiao-Chen Bai, Leifu Chang, Sjors H W Scheres, David Barford
Separase is a caspase-family protease that initiates chromatid segregation by cleaving the kleisin subunits (Scc1 and Rec8) of cohesin, and regulates centrosome duplication and mitotic spindle function through cleavage of kendrin and Slk19. To understand the mechanisms of securin regulation of separase, we used single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to determine a near-atomic-resolution structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans separase-securin complex. Separase adopts a triangular-shaped bilobal architecture comprising an N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-like α-solenoid domain docked onto the conserved C-terminal protease domain...
April 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213252/multi-pumping-flow-system-for-the-determination-of-boron-in-eye-drops-drinking-water-and-ocean-water
#19
Pablo González, Alexandra Sixto, Moisés Knochen
A novel automated method for the determination of boron based on the use of pulsed flows was developed and applied to the determination of this element in samples of tap water, ocean water and eye drops. The method was implemented by means of a multi-pumping system consisting of three solenoid micropumps and a photometric detector and exploits the reaction of azomethine-H in the presence of boron. The system runs under control of an open-source microcontroller. The main operational parameters were optimized...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199368/secondary-structure-prediction-revisited-theoretical-%C3%AE-sheet-propensity-and-coil-propensity-represent-structures-of-amyloids-and-aid-in-elucidating-phenomena-involved-in-interspecies-transmission-of-prions
#20
Yuzuru Taguchi, Noriyuki Nishida
Prions are unique infectious agents, consisting solely of abnormally-folded prion protein (PrPSc). However, they possess virus-like features, including strain diversity, the ability to adapt to new hosts and to be altered evolutionarily. Because prions lack genetic material (DNA and RNA), these biological phenomena have been attributed to the structural properties of PrPSc. Therefore, many structural models of the structure of PrPSc have been proposed based on the limited structural information available, regardless of the incompatibility with high-resolution structural analysis...
2017: PloS One
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