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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651199/aberration-corrected-stem-by-means-of-diffraction-gratings
#1
Martin Linck, Peter A Ercius, Jordan S Pierce, Benjamin J McMorran
In the past 15 years, the advent of aberration correction technology in electron microscopy has enabled materials analysis on the atomic scale. This is made possible by precise arrangements of multipole electrodes and magnetic solenoids to compensate the aberrations inherent to any focusing element of an electron microscope. Here, we describe an alternative method to correct for the spherical aberration of the objective lens in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a passive, nanofabricated diffractive optical element...
June 12, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633885/characteristics-of-paraspinal-muscle-spindle-response-to-mechanically-assisted-spinal-manipulation-a-preliminary-report
#2
William R Reed, Joel G Pickar, Randall S Sozio, Michael A K Liebschner, Joshua W Little, Maruti R Gudavalli
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this preliminary study is to determine muscle spindle response characteristics related to the use of 2 solenoid powered clinical mechanically assisted manipulation (MAM) devices. METHODS: L6 muscle spindle afferents with receptive fields in paraspinal muscles were isolated in 6 cats. Neural recordings were made during L7 MAM thrusts using the Activator V (Activator Methods Int. Ltd., Phoenix, AZ) and/or Pulstar (Sense Technology Inc., Pittsburgh, PA) devices at their 3 lowest force settings...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622656/a-combined-experimental-setup-for-op-and-odnmr
#3
Erika L Sesti, Matthew M Willmering, Zayd L Ma, Dustin D Wheeler, Mark S Conradi, Sophia E Hayes
Instrumentation for optically-pumped and optically-detected nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR and ODNMR) has been developed and implemented as a single experimental apparatus to study semiconductors such as GaAs and CdTe. These two measurement schemes use many of the same components for experiments. Here we describe, in two parts, the apparatus that can record such measurements and give examples of representative data. In Part 1, the radio-frequency probe and low-temperature cryostat are described, including single-channel and two-channel static cryogenic probes that both incorporate a modified solenoid coil that permits better optical access...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622586/outerwear-through-the-ages-evolutionary-cell-biology-of-vesicle-coats
#4
REVIEW
Joel B Dacks, Margaret S Robinson
Vesicular transport was key to the evolution of eukaryotes, and is essential for eukaryotic life today. All modern eukaryotes have a set of vesicle coat proteins, which couple cargo selection to vesicle budding in the secretory and endocytic pathways. Although these coats share common features (e.g. recruitment via small GTPases, β-propeller-α-solenoid proteins acting as scaffolds), the relationships between them are not always clear. Structural studies on the coats themselves, comparative genomics and cell biology in diverse eukaryotes, and the recent discovery of the Asgard archaea and their 'eukaryotic signature proteins' are helping us to piece together how coats may have evolved during the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607928/extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-affect-myogenic-processes-in-c2c12-myoblasts-role-of-gap-junction-mediated-intercellular-communication
#5
Caterina Morabito, Nathalie Steimberg, Francesca Rovetta, Jennifer Boniotti, Simone Guarnieri, Giovanna Mazzoleni, Maria A Mariggiò
Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) can interact with biological systems. Although they are successfully used as therapeutic agents in physiatrics and rehabilitative practice, they might represent environmental pollutants and pose a risk to human health. Due to the lack of evidence of their mechanism of action, the effects of ELF-EMFs on differentiation processes in skeletal muscle were investigated. C2C12 myoblasts were exposed to ELF-EMFs generated by a solenoid. The effects of ELF-EMFs on cell viability and on growth and differentiation rates were studied using colorimetric and vital dye assays, cytomorphology, and molecular analysis of MyoD and myogenin expression, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575120/structural-basis-for-5-ets-recognition-by-utp4-at-the-early-stages-of-ribosome-biogenesis
#6
Fabiola R Calviño, Markus Kornprobst, Géza Schermann, Fabienne Birkle, Klemens Wild, Tamas Fischer, Ed Hurt, Yasar Luqman Ahmed, Irmgard Sinning
Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis begins with the co-transcriptional assembly of the 90S pre-ribosome. The 'U three protein' (UTP) complexes and snoRNP particles arrange around the nascent pre-ribosomal RNA chaperoning its folding and further maturation. The earliest event in this hierarchical process is the binding of the UTP-A complex to the 5'-end of the pre-ribosomal RNA (5'-ETS). This oligomeric complex predominantly consists of β-propeller and α-solenoidal proteins. Here we present the structure of the Utp4 subunit from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum at 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508083/structures-of-closed-and-open-conformations-of-dimeric-human-atm
#7
Domagoj Baretić, Hannah K Pollard, David I Fisher, Christopher M Johnson, Balaji Santhanam, Caroline M Truman, Tomas Kouba, Alan R Fersht, Christopher Phillips, Roger L Williams
ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) is a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) best known for its role in DNA damage response. ATM also functions in oxidative stress response, insulin signaling, and neurogenesis. Our electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) suggests that human ATM is in a dynamic equilibrium between closed and open dimers. In the closed state, the PIKK regulatory domain blocks the peptide substrate-binding site, suggesting that this conformation may represent an inactive or basally active enzyme...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503062/contraction-sensing-with-smart-braid-mckibben-muscles
#8
Wyatt Felt, Khai Yi Chin, C David Remy
The inherent compliance of soft fluidic actuators makes them attractive for use in wearable devices and soft robotics. Their flexible nature permits them to be used without traditional rotational or prismatic joints. Without these joints, however, measuring the motion of the actuators is challenging. Actuator-level sensors could improve the performance of continuum robots and robots with compliant or multi-degree-of-freedom joints. We make the reinforcing braid of a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM or McKibben muscle) "smart" by weaving it from conductive, insulated wires...
June 2016: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492374/a-miniaturized-wall-climbing-segment-robot-inspired-by-caterpillar-locomotion
#9
Il Hwan Han, Hoon Yi, Chang-Woo Song, Hoon Eui Jeong, Seung-Yop Lee
Caterpillars are very successful soft-bodied climbers that navigate in complex environments. This paper develops a multi-segmented robot climbing on vertical surfaces using dry adhesive pads, inspired by caterpillar locomotion. The miniaturized robot consists of four segments, and each segment uses a solenoid actuator with a permanent magnet plunger. The head and body segments adapt a novel mechanism and Scott-Russell linkages to generate a bi-directional plane motion using one solenoid actuator, resulting to reliable attaching and peeling motions of gecko pads...
June 15, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475050/development-of-a-mechanical-scanning-device-with-high-frequency-ultrasound-transducer-for-ultrasonic-capsule-endoscopy
#10
Xingying Wang, Vipin Seetohul, Ruimin Chen, Ming Qian, Congzhi Wang, Zhihong Huang, Qifa Zhou, Hairong Zheng, Sandy Cochran, Weibao Qiu
Wireless capsule endoscopy has opened a new era by enabling remote diagnostic assessment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in a painless procedure. Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is currently commercially available worldwide. However, it is limited to visualization of superficial tissue. Ultrasound (US) imaging is a complementary solution as it is capable of acquiring transmural information from the tissue wall. This paper presents a mechanical scanning device incorporating a high-frequency transducer specifically as a proof of concept for ultrasound capsule endoscopy (USCE), providing information that may usefully assist future research...
May 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471691/the-evolution-of-organellar-coat-complexes-and-organization-of-the-eukaryotic-cell
#11
Michael P Rout, Mark C Field
Eukaryotic cells possess a remarkably diverse range of organelles that provide compartmentalization for distinct cellular functions and are likely responsible for the remarkable success of these organisms. The origins and subsequent elaboration of these compartments represent a key aspect in the transition between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular forms. The protein machinery required to build, maintain, and define many membrane-bound compartments is encoded by several paralog families, including small GTPases, coiled-bundle proteins, and proteins with β-propeller and α-solenoid secondary structures...
June 20, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463204/design-and-characterization-of-a-quasi-passive-pneumatic-foot-ankle-prosthesis
#12
Jeffrey Lee, Luke Mooney, Elliott Rouse
The majority of commercially available passive prosthetic feet are not capable of providing joint mechanics that match that of the intact human ankle. Due to their cantilever design, their stiffness characteristics contrast with what has been observed in the biological ankle; namely, an increase in stiffness during the stance phase of walking. In this study, we introduce the design and control of a pneumatic foot-ankle prosthesis that attempts to provide biomimetic mechanics. The prosthesis is comprised of a pneumatic cylinder in series with a fiberglass leaf spring, and a solenoid valve to control the flow of air between the two sides of the cylinder...
April 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436407/design-of-a-pulsatile-dc-electromagnetic-blood-pump-for-ecmo
#13
Jingjing Liu, Bin Ge, Tong Lu
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has developed rapidly and become a significant treatment for emergency. Current blood pumps for ECMO have different disadvantages. OBJECTIVE: To design a pulsatile DC electromagnetic blood pump for ECMO. METHODS: The design is presented with a driving principle which the rectilinear reciprocation of a magnet inside energized solenoids is implemented, and with a structure of solenoids with compensation coils...
April 14, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415195/ultrafast-probing-of-magnetic-field-growth-inside-a-laser-driven-solenoid
#14
C Goyon, B B Pollock, D P Turnbull, A Hazi, L Divol, W A Farmer, D Haberberger, J Javedani, A J Johnson, A Kemp, M C Levy, B Grant Logan, D A Mariscal, O L Landen, S Patankar, J S Ross, A M Rubenchik, G F Swadling, G J Williams, S Fujioka, K F F Law, J D Moody
We report on the detection of the time-dependent B-field amplitude and topology in a laser-driven solenoid. The B-field inferred from both proton deflectometry and Faraday rotation ramps up linearly in time reaching 210 ± 35 T at the end of a 0.75-ns laser drive with 1 TW at 351 nm. A lumped-element circuit model agrees well with the linear rise and suggests that the blow-off plasma screens the field between the plates leading to an increased plate capacitance that converts the laser-generated hot-electron current into a voltage source that drives current through the solenoid...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388497/a-size-adjustable-radiofrequency-coil-for-investigating-plants-in-a-halbach-magnet
#15
Dirk Oligschläger, Christian Rehorn, Sören Lehmkuhl, Michael Adams, Alina Adams, Bernhard Blümich
A radio-frequency coil with adjustable distance has been developed and tested for in-situ examination of growing plants. The Helmholtz-based coil design reduces laborious tuning and matching efforts encountered with solenoids wound around a growing stem or branch. Relaxation experiments were performed on tomato plants and winter wheat under controlled light irradiation. Changes in signal amplitude and in relaxation times T2 were recorded over day and night cycles. Peaks in distributions of relaxation times were attributed to different tissue components of two different plants...
May 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375255/high-magnetic-field-measurement-utilizing-faraday-rotation-in-sf11-glass-in-simplified-diagnostics
#16
Premananda Dey, Rohit Shukla, D Venkateswarlu
With the commercialization of powerful solid-state lasers as pointer lasers, it is becoming simpler nowadays for the launch and free-space reception of polarized light for polarimetric applications. Additionally, because of the high power of such laser diodes, the alignment of the received light on the small sensor area of a photo-diode with a high bandwidth response is also greatly simplified. A plastic sheet polarizer taken from spectacles of 3D television (commercially available) is simply implemented as an analyzer before the photo-receiver...
April 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372434/analog-isolated-electronic-dynamometer-based-on-a-magnetoresistive-current-sensor
#17
C Arcos Carrasco, D Ramírez Muñoz, S I Ravelo Arias, J Sánchez Moreno, E Maset Sancho, A Garrigós Sirvent
In this work, an electronic system is presented to measure the force applied by a solenoid. The originality of the work is focused on the use of a magnetoresistive current sensor to provide the isolation barrier needed in the actual industrial plant where the solenoids are working. The design of the electronic system is presented as well as experimental measurements as a result of a calibration process showing a negligible hysteresis with that specific sensor. The magnetoresistive current sensor is used to develop transmission functions rather than playing its usual sensing roles...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360455/a-feasibility-study-of-high-strength-bi-2223-conductor-for-high-field-solenoids
#18
A Godeke, D V Abraimov, E Arroyo, N Barret, M D Bird, A Francis, J Jaroszynski, D V Kurteva, W D Markiewicz, E L Marks, W S Marshall, D M McRae, P D Noyes, R C P Pereira, Y L Viouchkov, R P Walsh, J M White
We performed a feasibility study on a high-strength Bi2-x Pb x Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-x (Bi-2223) tape conductor for high-field solenoid applications. The investigated conductor, DI-BSCCO Type HT-XX, is a pre-production version of Type HT-NX, which has recently become available from Sumitomo Electric Industries (SEI). It is based on their DI-BSCCO Type H tape, but laminated with a high-strength Ni-alloy. We used stress-strain characterizations, single- and double-bend tests, easy- and hard-way bent coil-turns at various radii, straight and helical samples in up to 31...
March 2017: Superconductor Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356354/n-terminal-half-of-transportin-sr2-interacts-with-hiv-integrase
#19
Vicky G Tsirkone, Jolien Blokken, Flore De Wit, Jolien Breemans, Stéphanie De Houwer, Zeger Debyser, Frauke Christ, Sergei V Strelkov
The karyopherin transportin SR2 (TRN-SR2, TNPO3) is responsible for shuttling specific cargoes such as serine/arginine-rich splicing factors from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. This protein plays a key role in HIV infection by facilitating the nuclear import of the pre-integration complex (PIC) that contains the viral DNA as well as several cellular and HIV proteins, including the integrase. The process of nuclear import is considered to be the bottleneck of the viral replication cycle and therefore represents a promising target for anti-HIV drug design...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340785/an-automatic-chemiluminescence-method-based-on-the-multi-pumping-flow-system-coupled-with-the-fluidized-reactor-and-direct-injection-detector-determination-of-uric-acid-in-saliva-samples
#20
Christina Vakh, Stanislawa Koronkiewicz, Slawomir Kalinowski, Leonid Moskvin, Andrey Bulatov
A novel approach for the automatic chemiluminescence (CL) analysis of the complex samples is proposed. A multi-pumping flow system was successfully combined with fluidized reactor and direct-injection CL detector. The possibility of the approach was demonstrated on the determination of uric acid in saliva samples. Uric acid is clinically important analyte and its determination in biological fluids is related to human organism dysfunctions, such as gout. For the first time, the fast luminol - N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) reaction in an alkaline medium was used for the CL determination of uric acid in saliva samples...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
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