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Verma Subhash, Sodhi Monika, Salwan Richa, Shekhar Chander, Singh Geetanjali, Sharma Mandeep
Distribution of polymorphism in TLR2 gene was studied in Pahari (Indian non-descript indigenous breed) cattle of Himachal Pradesh. The complete sequence of TLR2 gene consisted of 136bp 5'-UTR, 2355bp CDS and 1316bp 3'UTR. The phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of Indian Zebu with Bos taurus as the nearest neighbour. The nucleotide sequences of TLR2 revealed the occurrence of 19 SNPs including 47% non-synonymous and 53% synonymous SNPs within TLR domain among all bovines. The dS/dN ratio (ω)<1 at polymorphic sites revealed purifying selection and thus, indicating the presence of highly conserved domains...
December 15, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
Thomas Meier, Nan Wang, Dario Mager, Jan G Korvink, Sylvain Petitgirard, Leonid Dubrovinsky
A new pathway to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for picoliter-sized samples (including those kept in harsh and extreme environments, particularly in diamond anvil cells) is introduced, using inductively coupled broadband passive electromagnetic lenses, to locally amplify the magnetic field at the isolated sample, leading to an increase in sensitivity. The lenses are adopted for the geometrical restrictions imposed by a toroidal diamond indenter cell and yield signal-to-noise ratios at pressures as high as 72 GPa at initial sample volumes of only 230 pl...
December 2017: Science Advances
Bernard C Collins, Hiro Nakahara, Sharmistha Acharya, Max D Cooper, Brantley R Herrin, Ian A Wilson
Variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), the leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-based antigen receptors of jawless fish, have great utility in a wide variety of biochemical and biological applications, similar to classical Ig-based antibodies. VLR-based reagents may be particularly useful when traditional antibodies are not available. An anti-idiotype lamprey VLR, VLR39, has previously been identified that recognizes the heavy-chain CDR3 of the B-cell receptor (BCR) of a leukemic clone from a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)...
December 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Wencong Liu, Lu Lu, V F Mitrović
We conduct a comprehensive set of tests of performance of surface coils used for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of quasi-2-dimensional samples. We report 115In and 31P NMR measurements on InP, semi-conducting thin substrate samples. Surface coils of both zig-zag meander-line and concentric spiral geometries were used. We compare reception sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of the NMR signal obtained by using surface-type coils to that obtained by standard solenoid-type coils. As expected, we find that surface-type coils provide better sensitivity for NMR study of thin film samples...
November 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Ming Luo, Erik H Skorina, Weijia Tao, Fuchen Chen, Selim Ozel, Yinan Sun, Cagdas D Onal
Real-world environments are complex, unstructured, and often fragile. Soft robotics offers a solution for robots to safely interact with the environment and human coworkers, but suffers from a host of challenges in sensing and control of continuously deformable bodies. To overcome these challenges, this article considers a modular soft robotic architecture that offers proprioceptive sensing of pressure-operated bending actuation modules. We present integrated custom magnetic curvature sensors embedded in the neutral axis of bidirectional bending actuators...
June 2017: Soft Robotics
Cheng Zhao, Astrid Höppner, Qian-Zhao Xu, Wolfgang Gärtner, Hugo Scheer, Ming Zhou, Kai-Hong Zhao
The light-harvesting phycobilisome in cyanobacteria and red algae requires the lyase-catalyzed chromophorylation of phycobiliproteins. There are three functionally distinct lyase families known. The heterodimeric E/F type is specific for attaching bilins covalently to α-subunits of phycocyanins and phycoerythrins. Unlike other lyases, the lyase also has chromophore-detaching activity. A subclass of the E/F-type lyases is, furthermore, capable of chemically modifying the chromophore. Although these enzymes were characterized >25 y ago, their structures remained unknown...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zeyaul Islam, Raghavendra Sashi Krishna Nagampalli, Munazza Tamkeen Fatima, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Classically, ankyrin repeat (ANK) proteins are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are associated with protein-protein interactions. These are short, widespread structural motif of around 33 amino acids repeats in tandem, having a canonical helix-loop-helix fold, found individually or in combination with other domains. The multiplicity of structural pattern enables it to form assemblies of diverse sizes, required for their abilities to confer multiple binding and structural roles of proteins...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Irena Roterman, Mateusz Banach, Leszek Konieczny
Amyloids characterized by unbounded growth of fibrillar structures cause many pathological processes. Such unbounded propagation is due to the presence of a propagating hydrophobicity field around the fibril's main axis, preventing its closure (unlike in globular proteins). Interestingly, similar fragments, commonly referred to as solenoids, are present in many naturally occurring proteins, where their propagation is arrested by suitably located "stopper" fragments. In this work, we analyze the distribution of hydrophobicity in solenoids and in their corresponding "stoppers" from the point of view of the fuzzy oil drop model (called FOD in this paper)...
November 16, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
Diego P Rocha, Gabriel C Terra, Thaís S Nery, Jairo Tronto, Frederico G Pinto, Sidnei G Silva, Nívia M M Coelho
This work showed a flow system designed with solenoid valves for preconcentration of fluoride using SPADNS method in water samples. The analyte was preconcentrated in a mini-column coated with Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) used as adsorbent. Then, the fluoride ions were eluted with 0.5molL(-1) sodium hydroxide and determined by spectrophotometry. The variables that affect the system such adsorbent mass, type of eluent, solutions flow rate, reagent concentration and pH effect were critically evaluated. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit, coefficient of variation, linear range and preconcentration factor were estimated at 15µgL(-1) (99...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
D J Ivers
The kinematic dynamo problem is solved numerically for a spheroidal conducting fluid of possibly large aspect ratio with an insulating exterior. The solution method uses solenoidal representations of the magnetic field and the velocity by spheroidal toroidal and poloidal fields in a non-orthogonal coordinate system. Scaling of coordinates and fields to a spherical geometry leads to a modified form of the kinematic dynamo problem with a geometric anisotropic diffusion and an anisotropic current-free condition in the exterior, which is solved explicitly...
October 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Zeyu Peng, Amanda S Parker, Maria D R Peralta, Krishnakumar M Ravikumar, Daniel L Cox, Michael D Toney
We present estimates of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) for two engineered β-solenoid protein mutant fibril structures (spruce budworm and Rhagium inquisitor antifreeze proteins) derived from sonication-based measurements and from force pulling molecular dynamics simulations, both in water. Sonication experiments generate limiting scissioned fibrils with a well-defined length-to-width correlation for the mutant spruce budworm protein and the resultant UTS estimate is 0.66 ± 0.08 GPa. For fibrils formed from engineered R...
November 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Fabio Freschi, Luca Giaccone, Vincenzo Cirimele, Aldo Canova
Low-frequency dosimetry is commonly assessed by evaluating the electric field in the human body using the scalar potential finite dif- ference method. This method is effective only when the sources of the magnetic field are completely known and the magnetic vector po- tential can be analytically computed. The aim of the paper is to present a rigorous method to characterize the source term when only the magnetic flux density is available at discrete points, e.g. in case of field measurements. The method is based on the solution of the discrete magnetic curl equation...
November 8, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Wanpen Khongpet, Somkid Pencharee, Chanida Puangpila, Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell, Somchai Lapanantnoppakhun, Jaroon Jakmunee
A microfluidic hydrodynamic sequential injection (μHSI) spectrophotometric system was designed and fabricated. The system was built by laser engraving a manifold pattern on an acrylic block and sealing with another flat acrylic plate to form a microfluidic channel platform. The platform was incorporated with small solenoid valves to obtain a portable setup for programmable control of the liquid flow into the channel according to the HSI principle. The system was demonstrated for the determination of phosphate using a molybdenum blue method...
January 15, 2018: Talanta
Zeyu Peng, Maria D R Peralta, Michael D Toney
The self-assembly of biological molecules into ordered nanostructures is an attractive method for fabricating novel nanomaterials. Nucleic acid-based nanostructures suffer from limitations to functionalization and stability. Alternatively, protein-based nanostructures have advantageous chemical properties, but design facility lags behind that of nucleic acids. Structurally defined fibrils engineered from β-solenoid proteins (BSPs) form under mild conditions [Peralta, M. D. R., et al. (2015) ACS Nano 9, 449-463] and are good candidates for novel nanomaterials because of the defined sequence-to-structure relationship and tunable properties...
November 3, 2017: Biochemistry
Giorgio Bonmassar, Laleh Golestanirad
Micro-magnetic stimulation (μMS) is an emerging neurostimulation technology that promises to revolutionize the therapeutic stimulation of the human nervous system. μMS uses sub-millimeter sized coils that can be implemented in the central nervous system to elicit neuronal activation using magnetically induced electric currents. By their microscopic size, μMS coils can be acutely implanted in deep brain structures to deliver therapeutic stimulation with effects analogous to those achieved by state-of-the-art deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Kelsey A Collier, Suvrajit Sengupta, Catalina A Espinosa, John E Kelly, Jessica I Kelz, Rachel W Martin
Extensive deuteration is frequently used in solid-state NMR studies of biomolecules because it dramatically reduces both homonuclear ((1)H-(1)H) and heteronuclear ((1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(15)N) dipolar interactions. This approach greatly improves resolution, enables low-power rf decoupling, and facilitates (1)H-detected experiments even in rigid solids at moderate MAS rates. However, the resolution enhancement is obtained at some cost due the reduced abundance of protons available for polarization transfer. Although deuterium is a useful spin-1 NMR nucleus, in typical experiments the deuterons are not directly utilized because the available probes are usually triple-tuned to (1)H,(13)C and (15)N...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
M Banach, L Konieczny, I Roterman
Proteins whose presence prevents water from freezing in living organisms at temperatures below 0 °C are referred to as antifreeze proteins. This group includes molecules of varying size (from 30 to over 300 aa) and variable secondary/supersecondary conformation. Some of these proteins also contain peculiar structural motifs called solenoids. We have applied the fuzzy oil drop model in the analysis of four categories of antifreeze proteins: 1 - very small proteins, i.e. helical peptides (below 40 aa); 2 - small globular proteins (40-100 aa); 3 - large globular proteins (>100 aa) and 4 - proteins containing solenoids...
October 17, 2017: Biochimie
Joshua R Biller, Karl F Stupic, J Moreland
We present the development of a portable dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) instrument based on the PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation (PXI) platform. The main purpose of the instrument is for study of (1) H polarization enhancements in solution through the Overhauser mechanism at low magnetic fields. A DNP probe set was constructed for use at 6.7 mT, using a modified Alderman-Grant (MAG) resonator at 241 MHz for saturation of the electron transition. The solenoid for detection of the enhanced (1) H signal at 288 kHz was constructed with Litz wire...
October 19, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
P M Sarte, A A Aczel, G Ehlers, C Stock, B D Gaulin, C Mauws, M B Stone, S Calder, S E Nagler, J W Hollett, H D Zhou, J S Gardner, J P Attfield, C R Wiebe
Magnetic monopoles are hypothesised elementary particles connected by Dirac strings that behave like infinitely thin solenoids (Dirac 1931 Proc. R. Soc. A 133 60). Despite decades of searching, free magnetic monopoles and their Dirac strings have eluded experimental detection, although there is substantial evidence for deconfined magnetic monopole quasiparticles in spin ice materials (Castelnovo et al 2008 Nature 326 411). Here we report the detection of a hierarchy of unequally-spaced magnetic excitations via high resolution inelastic neutron spectroscopic measurements on the quantum spin ice candidate [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
S Jinno, H Tanaka, R Matsui, M Kanasaki, H Sakaki, M Kando, K Kondo, A Sugiyama, M Uesaka, Y Kishimoto, Y Fukuda
Hydrogen clusters with diameters of a few micrometer range, composed of 10(8-10) hydrogen molecules, have been produced for the first time in an expansion of supercooled, high-pressure hydrogen gas into a vacuum through a conical nozzle connected to a cryogenic pulsed solenoid valve. The size distribution of the clusters has been evaluated by measuring the angular distribution of laser light scattered from the clusters. The data were analyzed based on the Mie scattering theory combined with the Tikhonov regularization method including the instrumental functions, the validity of which was assessed by performing a calibration study using a reference target consisting of standard micro-particles with two different sizes...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
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