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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241148/obesity-exacerbates-the-acute-metabolic-side-effects-of-olanzapine
#1
Logan K Townsend, Willem T Peppler, Natasha D Bush, David C Wright
Olanzapine is a second-generation antipsychotic used in the management of schizophrenia and various off-label conditions. The acute metabolic responses of olanzapine recapitulate many of the side effects associated with obesity. Obesity rates are high in the schizophrenic population, but it is unknown whether pre-existing obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction augments the acute side effects of olanzapine. To address this question, we compared the responses to olanzapine in lean and high-fat diet-induced (HFD) obese mice...
December 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241094/adhesion-of-human-monocytes-to-oxygen-and-nitrogen-containing-plasma-polymers-effect-of-surface-chemistry-and-protein-adsorption
#2
Sara Babaei, Natalie Fekete, Corinne A Hoesli, Pierre-Luc Girard-Lauriault
The interactions between monocytes and biomaterials can potentially be modulated by controlling the chemical and structural surface properties of biomaterials. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plasma-deposited functional organic coatings on monocyte adhesion and differentiation into macrophages. Organic coatings with varying oxygen and nitrogen concentration were prepared by low-pressure plasma co-polymerization of binary gas mixtures combining a hydrocarbon (butadiene/ethylene) and a heteroatom-containing gas (carbon dioxide/ammonia) to deposit either oxygen or nitrogen-containing coatings...
December 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241053/excitation-of-triplet-states-of-hypericin-in-water-mediated-by-hydrotropic-cromolyn-sodium-salt
#3
Peter Keša, Daniel Jancura, Júlia Kudláčová, Eva Valušová, Marián Antalík
Hypericin (Hyp) is a hydrophobic pigment found in plants of the genus Hypericum which exhibits low levels of solubility in water. This work shows that the solubility of Hyp can be significantly increased through the addition of cromolyn disodium salt (DSCG). Performed studies using UV-VIS absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies demonstrate that Hyp remains in a predominantly biologically photodynamic active monomeric form in the presence of DSCG at concentrations ranging from 4.6×10-3 to 1.2×10-1mol·L-1...
December 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240923/neutrophil-activation-signature-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-indicates-the-presence-of-low-density-granulocytes
#4
Kavitha Ramanathan, Anna Glaser, Hanna Lythgoe, Joanne Ong, Michael W Beresford, Angela Midgley, Helen L Wright
Objective: JIA is an autoimmune, inflammatory disease with involvement of innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the role of neutrophils in JIA pathogenesis remains unclear. This study aimed to identify and validate neutrophil gene expression signatures in JIA using public microarray datasets and new clinical samples. Methods: Three suitable datasets were analysed by significance analysis of microarray and Ingenuity. Neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from a new cohort of JIA patients and healthy paediatric controls (HCs)...
December 12, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240681/mercury-hair-concentration-among-primary-school-children-in-malaysia
#5
Nurul Izzah Abdul Samad, Zaleha Md Isa, Rozita Hod
The main concern regarding mercury exposure is the adverse health effect on the developing nervous system. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine hair mercury levels and their association with socio-demographic characteristics, complaints about mercury poisoning symptoms and the fish consumption pattern among children in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 215 school children aged 11 years old. Hair was collected from the children and the total mercury was analyzed using oxygen combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry...
December 14, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240674/evaluation-of-the-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-flavonolignans-in-different-cellular-models
#6
Michal Bijak, Ewelina Synowiec, Przemyslaw Sitarek, Tomasz Sliwiński, Joanna Saluk-Bijak
Flavonolignans are the main components of silymarin, which represents 1.5-3% of the dry fruit weight of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). In ancient Greece and Romania, physicians and herbalists used the Silybum marianum to treat a range of liver diseases. Besides their hepatoprotective action, silymarin flavonolignans have many other healthy properties, such as anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of flavonolignans on blood platelets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human lung cancer cell line-A549-using different molecular techniques...
December 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240652/interindividual-responses-of-appetite-to-acute-exercise-a-replicated-crossover-study
#7
Fernanda R Goltz, Alice E Thackray, James A King, James L Dorling, Greg Atkinson, David J Stensel
PURPOSE: Acute exercise transiently suppresses appetite, which coincides with alterations in appetite-regulatory hormone concentrations. Individual variability in these responses is suspected, but replicated trials are needed to quantify them robustly. We examined the reproducibility of appetite and appetite-regulatory hormone responses to acute exercise and quantified the individual differences in responses. METHODS: Fifteen healthy, recreationally-active men completed two control (60-min resting) and two exercise (60-min fasted treadmill running at 70% peak oxygen uptake) conditions in randomised sequences...
December 13, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240609/effects-of-propofol-on-cellular-bioenergetics-in-human-skeletal-muscle-cells
#8
Adéla Krajčová, Nils Gunnar Løvsletten, Petr Waldauf, Vladimír Frič, Moustafa Elkalaf, Tomáš Urban, Michal Anděl, Jan Trnka, G Hege Thoresen, František Duška
OBJECTIVES: Propofol may adversely affect the function of mitochondria and the clinical features of propofol infusion syndrome suggest that this may be linked to propofol-related bioenergetic failure. We aimed to assess the effect of therapeutic propofol concentrations on energy metabolism in human skeletal muscle cells. DESIGN: In vitro study on human skeletal muscle cells. SETTINGS: University research laboratories. SUBJECTS: Patients undergoing hip surgery and healthy volunteers...
December 13, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239779/gender-differences-in-residual-effect-of-prior-drop-jumps-on-oxygen-uptake-during-heavy-cycling-exercise
#9
Neringa Baranauskienė, Sandra Kilikevičienė, Loreta Stasiulė, Genuvaitė Civinskienė, Arvydas Stasiulis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Unaccustomed eccentric or eccentric-concentric exercise leaves us stiff and sore the next day and can cause muscle damage. The data about the residual effect of prior eccentric-concentric exercises on oxygen uptake (VO2) during constant cycling exercise in women or the data about differences of such effect between genders are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess differences of the residual effect of PDJ on VO2 during HCE and indirect muscle damage parameters between women and men...
November 1, 2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239737/comparison-of-the-acidogenic-and-methanogenic-potential-of-agroindustrial-residues
#10
Anastasios Perimenis, Thomas Nicolay, Matthieu Leclercq, Patrick A Gerin
The methanogenic and acidogenic potentials of six different agroindustrial residues, i.e. of fruit pulps and brewery residues, were determined. For all substrates, the methanogenic conversion yield was systematically higher than the acidogenic one in Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) terms, ranging from 0.46 to 0.87 gCOD_CH4/gCOD_substrate_fed and from 0.24 to 0.56 gCOD_tVFA/gCOD_substrate_fed, respectively. During methanogenic conversion, brewery trub exhibited the highest methane potential (304mlCH4/gCOD_substrate)...
November 24, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239609/nitroxylfluor-a-thiol-based-fluorescent-probe-for-live-cell-imaging-of-nitroxyl
#11
Nicholas W Pino, Jerome Davis, Zhengxin Yu, Jefferson Chan
Detection of nitroxyl (HNO), the transient one-electron reduced form of nitric oxide, is a significant challenge owing to its high reactivity with biological thiols (with rate constants as high as 109 M-1 s-1). To address this, we report a new thiol-based HNO-responsive trigger that can compete against reactive thiols for HNO. This process forms a common N-hydroxysulfenamide intermediate that cyclizes to release a masked fluorophore leading to fluorescence enhancement. To ensure that the cyclization step is rapid, our design capitalizes on two established physical organic phenomena; the alpha-effect and the Thorpe-Ingold effect...
December 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239349/influences-of-ivabradine-treatment-on-serum-levels-of-cardiac-biomarkers-sst2-gdf-15-supar-and-h-fabp-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#12
Peter Jirak, Dzeneta Fejzic, Vera Paar, Bernhard Wernly, Rudin Pistulli, Ilonka Rohm, Christian Jung, Uta C Hoppe, P Christian Schulze, Michael Lichtenauer, Atilla Yilmaz, Daniel Kretzschmar
Chronic heart failure (CHF) represents a major cause of hospitalization and death. Recent evidence shows that novel biomarkers such as soluble suppression of tumorigenicity (sST2), growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) are correlated with inflammatory and ischemic responses in CHF patients. In this study we examined the effects of Ivabradine that inhibited the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (HCN channel, also called funny current If), thereby leading to selective heart rate reduction and improved myocardial oxygen supply on the cardiac biomarkers sST2, GDF-15, suPAR and H-FABP in 50 CHF patients at the University Hospital of Jena...
December 14, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238928/green-electrochemical-modification-of-rvc-foam-electrode-and-improved-h2o2-electrogeneration-by-applying-pulsed-current-for-pollutant-removal
#13
Wei Zhou, Yani Ding, Jihui Gao, Kaikai Kou, Yan Wang, Xiaoxiao Meng, Shaohua Wu, Yukun Qin
The performance of cathode on H2O2 electrogeneration is a critical factor that limits the practical application of electro-Fenton (EF) process. Herein, we report a simple but effective electrochemical modification of reticulated vitreous carbon foam (RVC foam) electrode for enhanced H2O2 electrogeneration. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectrum were used to characterize the modified electrode. Oxygen-containing groups (72.5-184.0 μmol/g) were introduced to RVC foam surface, thus resulting in a 59...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238606/effects-of-amino-acid-composition-in-pig-diet-on-odorous-compounds-and-microbial-characteristics-of-swine-excreta
#14
Neeraja Recharla, Kihyun Kim, Juncheol Park, Jinyoung Jeong, Yongdae Jeong, Hyunjeong Lee, Okhwa Hwang, Jaehyoung Ryu, Youlchang Baek, Youngkyun Oh, Sungkwon Park
Background: Major amino acids in pig diets are Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp, but little is known about the requirements for the other essential amino acids, especially on odorous compounds and microbial characteristics in feces of growing-finishing pigs. To this end, different levels of amino acid composition added to diets to investigate the effects of amino acid composition on microbial characteristics and odorous compounds concentration. Methods: A total eight (n = 8) barrows (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) with an average bodyweight of 89...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238274/hormetic-response-by-silver-nanoparticles-on-in-vitro-multiplication-of-sugarcane-saccharum-spp-cv-mex-69-290-using-a-temporary-immersion-system
#15
Jericó J Bello-Bello, Rocío A Chavez-Santoscoy, Carlos A Lecona-Guzmán, Nina Bogdanchikova, Josafhat Salinas-Ruíz, Fernando Carlos Gómez-Merino, Alexey Pestryakov
Background: Hormesis is considered a dose-response phenomenon characterized by growth stimulation at low doses and inhibition at high doses. The hormetic response by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on in vitro multiplication of sugarcane was evaluated using a temporary immersion system. Methods: Sugarcane shoots were used as explants cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium with AgNPs at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/L. Shoot multiplication rate and length were used to determine hormetic response...
October 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238189/diethyl-citrate-and-sodium-citrate-reduce-the-cytotoxic-effects-of-nanosized-hydroxyapatite-crystals-on-mouse-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#16
Chong-Yu Zhang, Xin-Yuan Sun, Jian-Ming Ouyang, Bao-Song Gui
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the damage mechanism of nanosized hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) on mouse aortic smooth muscle cells (MOVASs) and the injury-inhibiting effects of diethyl citrate (Et2Cit) and sodium citrate (Na3Cit) to develop new drugs that can simultaneously induce anticoagulation and inhibit vascular calcification. Methods: The change in cell viability was evaluated using a cell proliferation assay kit, and the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released was measured using an LDH kit...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238032/influence-of-fruit-ripening-on-color-organic-acid-contents-capsaicinoids-aroma-compounds-and-antioxidant-capacity-of-shimatogarashi-capsicum-frutescens
#17
Manikharda Manikharda, Makoto Takahashi, Mika Arakaki, Kaoru Yonamine, Fumio Hashimoto, Kensaku Takara, Koji Wada
Shimatogarashi (Capsicum frutescens) is a typical chili pepper domesticated in southern Japan. Important traits of Shimatogarashi peppers, such as color; proportion of organic acids, capsaicinoids, and aromatic compounds; and antioxidant activity in three stages of maturity (green (immature), orange (turning), and red (mature) stages) were characterized. The results indicated that the concentration of organic acids, including ascorbic, citric, and malic acid, increased during ripening. In addition, the amount of capsaicinoids, which are responsible for the pungent taste of chili peppers, increased as the fruit matured to the orange and red stages...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237999/the-relationships-among-hyperuricemia-body-mass-index-and-impaired-renal-function-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#18
Yongmei Li, Xing Fan, Chunjun Li, Xinyue Zhi, Liyuan Peng, Hongling Han, Bei Sun
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common chronic microvascular complication and the major cause of death in diabetic patients. This study was conceived to explore the possible mechanisms of how hyperuricemia and obesity contribute to renal function impairment in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. A cross-sectional study in 609 participants recruited from a T2DM population in North China was conducted. The multiplicative interaction between body mass index (BMI) and uric acid (UA) level was assessed using an interaction term in a logistic regression analysis...
December 13, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237825/mitochondrial-ca2-transport-in-the-endothelium-regulation-by-ions-redox-signalling-and-mechanical-forces
#19
REVIEW
B Rita Alevriadou, Santhanam Shanmughapriya, Akshar Patel, Peter B Stathopulos, Muniswamy Madesh
Calcium (Ca2+) transport by mitochondria is an important component of the cell Ca2+ homeostasis machinery in metazoans. Ca2+ uptake by mitochondria is a major determinant of bioenergetics and cell fate. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake occurs via the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) complex, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein assembly consisting of the MCU Ca2+ channel, as its core component, and the MCU complex regulatory/auxiliary proteins. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular nature of the MCU complex and its regulation by intra- and extramitochondrial levels of divalent ions and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237763/bisphenol-a-phthalate-metabolites-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-healthy-normal-weight-children
#20
Amalie Carlsson, Kaspar Sørensen, Anna-Maria Andersson, Hanne Frederiksen, Anders Juul
INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children and adolescents. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of The COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry, and fasting blood samples...
December 13, 2017: Endocrine Connections
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