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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679930/mixed-culture-polyhydroxyalkanoate-pha-synthesis-from-nutrient-rich-wet-oxidation-liquors
#1
Suren Wijeyekoon, Carlo R Carere, Mark West, Shresta Nath, Daniel Gapes
Organic waste residues can be hydrothermally treated to produce organic acid rich liquors. These hydrothermal liquors are a potential feedstock for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production. We investigated the effect of dissolved oxygen concentration and substrate feeding regimes on PHA accumulation and yield using two hydrothermal liquors derived from a mixture of primary and secondary municipal wastewater treatment sludge and food waste. The enriched culture accumulated a maximum of 41% PHA of cell dry weight within 7 h; which is among the highest reported for N and P rich hydrothermal liquors...
April 12, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679831/nitrogen-fate-in-a-subtropical-mangrove-swamp-potential-association-with-seawater-groundwater-exchange
#2
Kai Xiao, Jiapeng Wu, Hailong Li, Yiguo Hong, Alicia M Wilson, Jiu Jimmy Jiao, Meghan Shananan
Coastal mangrove swamps play an important role in nutrient cycling at the land-ocean boundary. However, little is known about the role of periodic seawater-groundwater exchange in the nitrogen cycling processes. Seawater-groundwater exchange rates and inorganic nitrogen concentrations were investigated along a shore-perpendicular intertidal transect in Daya Bay, China. The intertidal transect comprises three hydrologic subzones (tidal creek, mangrove and bare mudflat zones), each with different physicochemical characteristics...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679696/effect-of-neuromonitor-guided-titrated-care-on-brain-tissue-hypoxia-after-opioid-overdose-cardiac-arrest
#3
Jonathan Elmer, Katharyn L Flickinger, Maighdlin W Anderson, Allison Koller, Matthew Sundermann, Cameron Dezfulian, David O Okonkwo, Lori A Shutter, David Salcido, Clifton W Callaway, James J Menegazzi
INTRODUCTION: Brain tissue hypoxia may contribute to preventable secondary brain injury after cardiac arrest. We developed a porcine model of opioid overdose cardiac arrest and post-arrest care including invasive, multimodal neurological monitoring of regional brain physiology. We hypothesized brain tissue hypoxia is common with usual post-arrest care and can be prevented by modifying mean arterial pressure (MAP) and arterial oxygen concentration (PaO2 ). METHODS: We induced opioid overdose and cardiac arrest in sixteen swine, attempted resuscitation after 9 minutes of apnea, and randomized resuscitated animals to three alternating 6-hour blocks of standard or titrated care...
April 18, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679641/ethanol-induced-cardiomyocyte-toxicity-involves-autophagy-nfkb-transcription-factor
#4
Jessica Maiuolo, Alessia Maretta, Micaela Gliozzi, Vincenzo Musolino, Cristina Carresi, Francesca Bosco, Rocco Mollace, Federica Scarano, Ernesto Palma, Miriam Scicchitano, Saverio Nucera, Domenico Sergi, Saverio Muscoli, Santo Gratteri, Carolina Muscoli, Vincenzo Mollace
Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption causes early detrimental consequences in many tissues including the myocardium, though the molecular mechanisms leading to the alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) still remain to be elucidated. Here, we studied several biomolecular changes occurring in cardiomyoblasts after their exposure to sublethal concentrations of EtOH and the potential synergistic effect with methylmercury (MM) or doxorubicin (DOXO), which are known to produce direct myocardial dysfunction. In addition, the possible role of autophagic responses and Nuclear Factor kappa-B (NFkB) modulation in early post-alcoholic myocardial damage has been investigated...
April 18, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679467/salidroside-protects-against-advanced-glycation-end-products-induced-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction
#5
Peng Zhang, Yuanmin Li, Rong Guo, Wangfu Zang
BACKGROUND Salidroside, the major active compound in Rhodiola, has been reported to provide beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, but its effects on diabetes-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction are less known. Here, we examined the protective effects of salidroside on endothelial function in diabetes and explored the potential underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS First, we assessed the endothelium-dependent relaxation response to acetylcholine, with or without salidroside treatment, in aortas isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 21, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679131/process-optimization-involving-critical-evaluation-of-oxygen-transfer-oxygen-uptake-and-nitrogen-limitation-for-enhanced-biomass-and-lipid-production-by-oleaginous-yeast-for-biofuel-application
#6
Jayita Chopra, Ramkrishna Sen
Lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeast is generally induced by nitrogen starvation, while oxygen saturation can influence biomass growth. Systematic shake flask studies that help in identifying the right nitrogen source and relate its uptake kinetics to lipid biosynthesis under varying oxygen saturation conditions are very essential for addressing the bioprocessing-related issues, which are envisaged to occur in the fermenter scale production. In the present study, lipid bioaccumulation by P. guilliermondii at varying C:N ratios and oxygen transfer conditions (assessed in terms of kL a) was investigated in shake flasks using a pre-optimized N-source and a two-stage inoculum formulated in a hybrid medium...
April 20, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679130/effects-of-intermittent-aeration-periods-on-a-structured-bed-reactor-continuously-fed-on-the-post-treatment-of-sewage-anaerobic-effluent
#7
Bruno Garcia Silva, Márcia Helena Rissato Zamariolli Damianovic, Eugenio Foresti
This study assessed the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification processes and remaining organic matter removal from anaerobic reactor effluent treating wastewater in a single reactor. A structured-bed reactor, with polyurethane foam as support media, was subjected to intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation. Aerated/non-aerated periods varied in the range of 2/1-1/3 h. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent remained between 26 and 42 mg L-1 throughout all the aeration conditions. Aeration periods of 1/2 h removed 80 and 26% of Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Total Nitrogen, respectively...
April 20, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677745/one-pot-synthesis-of-magnesium-aminoclay-titanium-dioxide-nanocomposites-for-improved-photocatalytic-performance
#8
Vu K H Bui, Duckshin Park, Vinh V Tran, Go-Woon Lee, Seo Yeong Oh, Yun Suk Huh, Young-Chul Lee
TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with their excellent photocatalytic performance are among the hottest research subjects for environmental-cleanup applications. In the present work, we developed a method of one-pot synthesis of magnesium aminoclay-titanium dioxide [MgAC-TiO2] nanocomposites in ethanol solution and then treated the obtained nanocomposites in a 350 °C muffle furnace for 3 hours. The obtained X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the growth of the anatase TiO2 NPs in the amorphous MgAC phase. In the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) morphological observation, the MgAC-TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited an aggregate form of 246...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677151/treatment-of-anaerobic-digester-effluent-using-acorus-calamus-effects-on-plant-growth-and-tissue-composition
#9
Tararag Pincam, Hans Brix, Arunothai Jampeetong
The responses of Acorus calamus under greenhouse conditions for 56 days when exposed to three dilutions (25%, 50%, and undiluted) of anaerobic digester effluent from a swine farm were determined. Plant growth, morphology, pigments, and minerals in plant tissues as well as water quality were investigated. The plants grew well in all concentrations of anaerobic digester effluent with no statistically significant effects on plant growth and morphology, and without any toxicity symptoms. The NH₄⁺ concentrations in leaves and roots and the NO₃− concentrations in leaves as well as the nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations in the plant tissues increased with increasing effluent concentration...
April 20, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676750/advanced-treatment-of-biologically-pretreated-coal-chemical-industry-wastewater-using-the-catalytic-ozonation-process-combined-with-a-gas-liquid-solid-internal-circulating-fluidized-bed-reactor
#10
Zhipeng Li, Feng Liu, Hong You, Yi Ding, Jie Yao, Chao Jin
This paper investigated the performance of the combined system of catalytic ozonation and the gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor for the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater (CCIW). The results indicated that with ozonation alone for 60min, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) could reach 34%. The introduction of activated carbon, pumice, γ-Al2 O3 carriers improved the removal performance of COD, and the removal efficiency was increased by 8...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676101/-protective-effect-of-polygonum-orientale-flower-extract-on-h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-induced-oxidative-damage-of-huvec-cells
#11
Qiong Wu, Xiang-Xiang Liu, Ding-Yan Lu, Yue-Ting Li, Jia Sun, Yan-Yu Lan, Ting Liu
To investigate the protective effects and mechanism of Polygonum orientale flower extract on H₂O₂-induced oxidative damage of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), H₂O₂ was used to induce the oxidativestress damage on HUVEC cells and efforts were made to screen the low, medium and high drug concentrations of P.orientale flower extract. Cell viability was detected by the MTS assay. The content of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activities of superoxidedimutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were detected by biochemical kits...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675934/identifying-the-key-role-of-pyridinic-n-co-bonding-in-synergistic-electrocatalysis-for-reversible-orr-oer
#12
Xue-Rui Wang, Jie-Yu Liu, Zi-Wei Liu, Wei-Chao Wang, Jun Luo, Xiao-Peng Han, Xi-Wen Du, Shi-Zhang Qiao, Jing Yang
For many regenerative electrochemical energy-conversion systems, hybrid electrocatalysts comprising transition metal (TM) oxides and heteroatom-doped (e.g., nitrogen-doped) carbonaceous materials are promising bifunctional oxygen reduction reaction/oxygen evolution reaction electrocatalysts, whose enhanced electrocatalytic activities are attributed to the synergistic effect originated from the TM-N-C active sites. However, it is still ambiguous which configuration of nitrogen dopants, either pyridinic or pyrrolic N, when bonded to the TM in oxides, predominately contributes to the synergistic effect...
April 20, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675814/the-zinc-finger-transcription-factor-zat6-is-essential-for-hydrogen-peroxide-induction-of-anthocyanin-synthesis-in-arabidopsis
#13
Haitao Shi, Guoyin Liu, Yunxie Wei, Zhulong Chan
The accumulation of flavonoids is activated by various abiotic stresses, and the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) especially hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a general response to abiotic stress in plants. However, the direct link between flavonoids and H2 O2 and underlying mechanism remain elusive. In this study, we found that the concentrations of anthocyanin and flavonoids were significantly induced by H2 O2 treatment. Furthermore, we found that the transcript level of ZINC FINGER of ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA 6 (ZAT6) was significantly activated after exogenous H2 O2 treatment, and modulation of AtZAT6 expression positively affected the concentrations of both anthocyanin and total flavonoids...
April 19, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675575/bezafibrate-prevents-glycine-induced-increase-of-antioxidant-enzyme-activities-in-rat-striatum
#14
Belisa Parmeggiani, Mateus Grings, Nevton Teixeira da Rosa-Junior, Renata Britto, Moacir Wajner, Guilhian Leipnitz
Non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is a severe neurological disorder caused by defects in glycine (GLY) catabolism and characterized by a high cerebrospinal fluid/plasma GLY ratio. Treatment is often ineffective and limited to the control of symptoms and detoxification of GLY. In the present work, we investigated the in vivo effects of GLY intracerebroventricular administration on oxidative stress parameters in rat striatum, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus. In vitro effects of GLY were also evaluated in striatum...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675337/highly-diluted-acetylcholine-promotes-wound-repair-in-an-in-vivo-model
#15
Francesca Uberti, Vera Morsanuto, Sabrina Ghirlanda, Sara Ruga, Nausicaa Clemente, Cristina Boieri, Renzo Boldorini, Claudio Molinari
Objective: Wound healing is a dynamic, interactive, and complex process that involves a series of events, including inflammation, migration, proliferation, granulation tissue formation, and matrix remodeling. Despite the high frequency of serious slow-healing wounds, there is still no adequate therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate a new highly diluted acetylcholine (Ach) formulation obtained through a sequential kinetic activation (SKA) method applied to a wound healing in vivo model to verify the hypothesis that a low dose of Ach could be a more physiological stimulus for healing, by stimulating muscarinic and nicotinic receptors and their related intracellular pathways...
April 1, 2018: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675300/modelling-spatially-resolved-diffuse-reflectance-spectra-of-a-multi-layered-skin-model-by-artificial-neural-networks-trained-with-monte-carlo-simulations
#16
Sheng-Yang Tsui, Chiao-Yi Wang, Tsan-Hsueh Huang, Kung-Bin Sung
A robust modelling method was proposed to extract chromophore information in multi-layered skin tissue with spatially-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Artificial neural network models trained with a pre-simulated database were first built to map geometric and optical parameters into diffuse reflectance spectra. Nine fitting parameters including chromophore concentrations and oxygen saturation were then determined by solving the inverse problem of fitting spectral measurements from three different parts of the skin...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675294/multispectral-non-contact-diffuse-optical-tomography-of-healthy-human-finger-joints
#17
Daniel Lighter, James Hughes, Iain Styles, Andrew Filer, Hamid Dehghani
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disease often affecting the hands, which if untreated causes disability. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides information about the underlying functional properties of biological tissue. To detect pathophysiological changes in inflamed RA joints, a good understanding of the baseline values for healthy subjects is first required. Finger joints from healthy subjects were imaged using a non-contact, multispectral, continuous wave DOT system, recovering physiological parameters of oxygen saturation, total haemoglobin, water concentration and scatter amplitude...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674976/neocytolysis-how-to-get-rid-of-the-extra-erythrocytes-formed-by-stress-erythropoiesis-upon-descent-from-high-altitude
#18
REVIEW
Heimo Mairbäurl
Neocytolysis is the selective destruction of those erythrocytes that had been formed during stress-erythropoiesis in hypoxia in order to increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood. Neocytolysis likely aims at decreasing this excess amount of erythrocytes and hemoglobin (Hb) when it is not required anymore and to decrease blood viscosity. Neocytolysis seems to occur upon descent from high altitude. Similar processes seem to occur in microgravity, and are also discussed to mediate the replacement of erythrocytes containing fetal hemoglobin (HbF) with those having adult hemoglobin (HbA) after birth...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674770/incidence-of-pulmonary-complications-with-the-prophylactic-use-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-prophylactic-hfnc-study-protocol
#19
Naohiro Shioji, Tomoyuki Kanazawa, Tatsuo Iwasaki, Kazuyoshi Shimizu, Tomohiko Suemori, Hirokazu Kawase, Satoshi Kimura, Yasutoshi Kuroe, Hiroshi Morimatsu
We will investigate the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) with the prophylactic use of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) after pediatric cardiac surgery. Children < 48 months old with congenital heart disease for whom cardiac surgery is planned will be included. The HFNC procedure will be commenced just after extubation, at a flow rate of 2 L/kg/min with adequate oxygen concentration to achieve target oxygen saturation ≥ 94%. This study will reveal the prevalence of PPCs after pediatric cardiac surgery with the prophylactic use of HFNC...
April 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674598/online-monitoring-of-carbon-dioxide-and-oxygen-in-exhaled-mouse-breath-via-substrate-integrated-hollow-waveguide-fourier-transform-infrared-luminescence-spectroscopy
#20
Felicia Seichter, Erhan Tuetuencue, Tamina Hagemann, Josef Vogt, Ulrich Wachter, Michael Groeger, Sandra Kress, Peter Radermacher, Boris Mizaikoff
Exhaled breath offers monitoring bio markers, as well as diagnosing diseases and therapeutic interventions. In addition, vital functions may be non-invasively monitored on-line. Animal models are frequently used in research for determining novel therapeutic approaches and/or for investigating biological pathways. The exhaled carbon dioxide concentration, exhaled and inhaled oxygen concentration, and the subsequent respiratory quotient (RQ) offer insight into metabolic activity. One may adapt breath sampling systems and equipment designed for human applications to large animal studies, however, such adaptations are usually impossible for small animals due to their minuscule breath volume...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
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