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red cell membrane defect

Hung-Yu Chang, Xuejin Li, He Li, George Em Karniadakis
Healthy red blood cells (RBCs) have remarkable deformability, squeezing through narrow capillaries as small as 3 microns in diameter without any damage. However, in many hematological disorders the spectrin network and lipid bilayer of diseased RBCs may be significantly altered, leading to impaired functionality including loss of deformability. We employ a two-component whole-cell multiscale model to quantify the biomechanical characteristics of the healthy and diseased RBCs, including Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs (Pf-RBCs) and defective RBCs in hereditary disorders, such as spherocytosis and elliptocytosis...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Immacolata Andolfo, Roberta Russo, Antonella Gambale, Achille Iolascon
After the first proposed model of the red blood cell membrane skeleton 36 years ago, several additional proteins have been discovered during the intervening years, and their relationship with the pathogenesis of the related disorders have been somewhat defined. The knowledge of erythrocyte membrane structure is important because it represents the model for spectrin-based membrane skeletons in all cells and because defects in its structure underlie multiple hemolytic anemias. This review summarizes the main features of erythrocyte membrane disorders, dividing them into structural and altered permeability defects, focusing particularly on the most recent advances...
November 2016: Haematologica
Francesca Lupo, Elena Tibaldi, Alessandro Matte, Alok K Sharma, Anna Maria Brunati, Seth L Alper, Carlo Zancanaro, Donatella Benati, Angela Siciliano, Mariarita Bertoldi, Francesca Zonti, Alexander Storch, Ruth H Walker, Adrian Danek, Benedikt Bader, Andreas Hermann, Lucia De Franceschi
Chorea-acanthocytosis is one of the hereditary neurodegenerative disorders known as the neuroacanthocytoses. Chorea-acanthocytosis is characterized by circulating acanthocytes deficient in chorein, a protein of unknown function. We report here for the first time that chorea-acanthocytosis red-cells are characterized by impaired autophagy, with cytoplasmic accumulation of active Lyn and of autophagy-related proteins Ulk1, Atg7. In chorea-acanthocytosis erythrocytes, active Lyn is sequestered by HSP90-70 to form high-molecular-weight complexes that stabilize and protect Lyn from its proteasomal degradation, contributing to toxic Lyn accumulation...
October 14, 2016: Blood
Shouichi Ohga
Congenital hemolytic anemia is a group of monogenic diseases presenting with anemia due to increased destruction of circulating erythrocytes. The etiology of inherited anemia accounts for germline mutations of the responsible genes coding for the structural components of erythrocytes and extra-erythrocytes. The erythrocyte abnormalities are classified into three major disorders of red cell membrane defects, hemoglobinopathies, and red cell enzymopathies. The extra-erythrocyte abnormalities, typified by consumption coagulopathy and intravascular hemolysis, include Upshaw-Schulman syndrome and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome...
2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
J-Y Won, C-Y Park, J-H Bae, G Ahn, C Kim, D-H Lim, D-W Cho, W-S Yun, J-H Shim, J-B Huh
Here, we compared 3D-printed polycaprolactone/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/PLGA/β-TCP) membranes with the widely used collagen membranes for guided bone regeneration (GBR) in beagle implant models. For mechanical property comparison in dry and wet conditions and cytocompatibility determination, we analyzed the rate and pattern of cell proliferation of seeded fibroblasts and preosteoblasts using the cell counting kit-8 assay and scanning electron microscopy. Osteogenic differentiation was verified using alizarin red S staining...
October 7, 2016: Biomedical Materials
Omar Niss, Satheesh Chonat, Neha Dagaonkar, Marya O Almansoori, Karol Kerr, Zora R Rogers, Patrick T McGann, Maa-Ohui Quarmyne, Mary Risinger, Kejian Zhang, Theodosia A Kalfa
Hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) and hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (HPP) are heterogeneous red blood cell (RBC) membrane disorders that result from mutations in the genes encoding α-spectrin (SPTA1), β-spectrin (SPTB), or protein 4.1R (EPB41). The resulting defects alter the horizontal cytoskeletal associations and affect RBC membrane stability and deformability causing shortened RBC survival. The clinical diagnosis of HE and HPP relies on identifying characteristic RBC morphology on peripheral blood smear and specific membrane biomechanical properties using osmotic gradient ektacytometry...
October 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
G Maulucci, O Cohen, B Daniel, A Sansone, P I Petropoulou, S Filou, A Spyridonidis, G Pani, M De Spirito, C Chatgilialoglu, C Ferreri, K E Kypreos, S Sasson
Metabolic homeostasis of fatty acids is complex and well-regulated in all organisms. The biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in mammals provides substrates for β-oxidation and ATP production. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are products of desaturases that introduce a methylene group in cis geometry in SFA. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 and n-3 PUFA) are products of elongation and desaturation of the essential linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. The liver processes dietary fatty acids and exports them in lipoproteins for distribution and storage in peripheral tissues...
September 5, 2016: Free Radical Research
Ying Li, Liyuan Lu, Juan Li
Hereditary spherocytosis is an inherited red blood cell membrane disorder resulting from mutations of genes encoding erythrocyte membrane and cytoskeletal proteins. Few equipments can observe the structural characteristics of hereditary spherocytosis directly expect for atomic force microscopy In our study, we proved atomic force microscopy is a powerful and sensitive instrument to describe the characteristics of hereditary spherocytosis. Erythrocytes from hereditary spherocytosis patients were small spheroidal, lacking a well-organized lattice on the cell membrane, with smaller cell surface particles and had reduced valley to peak distance and average cell membrane roughness vs...
September 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Hongyan Shuai, Yunjian Xu, Qian Yu, Erik Gylfe, Anders Tengholm
The islets of Langerhans contain different types of endocrine cells, which are crucial for glucose homeostasis. β- and α-cells that release insulin and glucagon, respectively, are most abundant, whereas somatostatin-producing δ-cells and particularly pancreatic polypeptide-releasing PP-cells are more scarce. Studies of islet cell function are hampered by difficulties to identify the different cell types, especially in live-cell imaging experiments when immunostaining is unsuitable. The aim of the present study was to create a set of vectors for fluorescent protein expression with cell-type-specific promoters and evaluate their applicability in functional islet imaging...
October 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Paola Bianchi, Klaus Schwarz, Josef Högel, Elisa Fermo, Cristina Vercellati, Regine Grosse, Richard van Wijk, Rob van Zwieten, Wilma Barcellini, Alberto Zanella, Hermann Heimpel
Congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia type II (CDAII) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis, haemolysis, erythroblast morphological abnormalities, hypoglycosylation of some red blood cell membrane proteins, particularly band 3, and mutations in the SEC23B gene. We report the analysis of 101 patients from 91 families with a median follow-up of 23 years (range 0-65); 68 patients are newly reported. Clinical and haematological parameters were separately analysed in early infancy and thereafter, when feasible...
November 2016: British Journal of Haematology
R Del Orbe Barreto, B Arrizabalaga, A B De la Hoz, Á García-Orad, M I Tejada, J C Garcia-Ruiz, T Fidalgo, C Bento, L Manco, M L Ribeiro
INTRODUCTION: Congenital haemolytic anaemia (CHA) refers to a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders, mainly caused by changes in genes encoding globin chains, cytoskeletal proteins and red cell enzymes, in which accurate diagnosis can be challenging with conventional techniques. METHODS: To set-up a comprehensive assay for detecting mutations that could improve aetiological diagnosis, we designed a custom panel for sequencing coding regions from 40 genes known to be involved in the pathogenesis of CHA, using the Ion Torrent(™) (Thermo Fisher Scientific, S...
December 2016: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Aneta M Bragiel, Di Wang, Tomasz D Pieczonka, Masayuki Shono, Yasuko Ishikawa
Defective cellular trafficking of aquaporin-5 (AQP5) to the apical plasma membrane (APM) in salivary glands is associated with the loss of salivary fluid secretion. To examine mechanisms of α₁-adrenoceptor (AR)-induced trafficking of AQP5, immunoconfocal microscopy and Western blot analysis were used to analyze AQP5 localization in parotid tissues stimulated with phenylephrine under different osmolality. Phenylephrine-induced trafficking of AQP5 to the APM and lateral plasma membrane (LPM) was mediated via the α1A-AR subtype, but not the α1B- and α1D-AR subtypes...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Catherine Badens, Hélène Guizouarn
Genetic defects of erythrocyte transport proteins cause disorders of red blood cell volume that are characterized by abnormal permeability to the cations Na(+) and K(+) and, consequently, by changes in red cell hydration. Clinically, these disorders are associated with chronic haemolytic anaemia of variable severity and significant co-morbidities, such as iron overload. This review provides an overview of recent insights into the molecular basis of this group of rare anaemias involving cation channels and transporters dysfunction...
September 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Fiona Karen Harlan, Jason Scott Lusk, Breanna Michelle Mohr, Anthony Peter Guzikowski, Robert Hardy Batchelor, Ying Jiang, John Joseph Naleway
Lysosomes are acidic cytoplasmic organelles that are present in all nucleated mammalian cells and are involved in a variety of cellular processes including repair of the plasma membrane, defense against pathogens, cholesterol homeostasis, bone remodeling, metabolism, apoptosis and cell signaling. Defects in lysosomal enzyme activity have been associated with a variety of neurological diseases including Parkinson's Disease, Lysosomal Storage Diseases, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Fluorogenic lysosomal staining probes were synthesized for labeling lysosomes and other acidic organelles in a live-cell format and were shown to be capable of monitoring lysosomal metabolic activity...
2016: PloS One
Manu Jamwal, Anu Aggarwal, Verinder Kumar, Prashant Sharma, Man Updesh Singh Sachdeva, Deepak Bansal, Pankaj Malhotra, Reena Das
BACKGROUND: Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a common inherited hemolytic anemia characterized by heterogeneous clinical presentations with variable degrees of anemia, jaundice, splenomegaly and gallstones. Although the underlying genetic defects in red cell membrane proteins may explain many phenotypic variations, a proportion of variability may be due to other co-inherited factors like enzymopathies, thalassemias and Gilbert syndrome. Associations of HS with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and Gilbert syndrome in isolation have been reported previously...
July 1, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Flávia Gonçalves, Míriam Santos de Moraes, Lorraine Braga Ferreira, Ana Cláudia Oliveira Carreira, Patrícia Mayumi Kossugue, Letícia Cristina Cidreira Boaro, Ricardo Bentini, Célia Regina da Silva Garcia, Mari Cleide Sogayar, Victor Elias Arana-Chavez, Luiz Henrique Catalani
Regeneration of periodontal tissues requires a concerted effort to obtain consistent and predictable results in vivo. The aim of the present study was to test a new family of bioactive polymeric membranes in combination with stem cell therapy for periodontal regeneration. In particular, the novel polyester poly(isosorbide succinate-co-L-lactide) (PisPLLA) was compared with poly(L-lactide) (PLLA). Both polymers were combined with collagen (COL), hydroxyapatite (HA) and the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7), and their osteoinductive capacity was evaluated via in vitro and in vivo experiments...
2016: PloS One
He Li, Yihao Zhang, Vi Ha, George Lykotrafitis
We employ a two-component red blood cell (RBC) membrane model to simulate lateral diffusion of band-3 proteins in the normal RBC and in the RBC with defective membrane proteins. The defects reduce the connectivity between the lipid bilayer and the membrane skeleton (vertical connectivity), or the connectivity of the membrane skeleton itself (horizontal connectivity), and are associated with the blood disorders of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) respectively. Initially, we demonstrate that the cytoskeleton limits band-3 lateral mobility by measuring the band-3 macroscopic diffusion coefficients in the normal RBC membrane and in a lipid bilayer without the cytoskeleton...
April 21, 2016: Soft Matter
Z Hashemi, M Rahnama, S Jafari
In this paper, an attempt has been made to study sedimentation of a red blood cell (RBC) in a plasma-filled tube numerically. Such behaviors are studied for a healthy and a defective cell which might be created due to human diseases, such as diabetes, sickle-cell anemia, and hereditary spherocytosis. Flow-induced deformation of RBC is obtained using finite-element method (FEM), while flow and fluid-membrane interaction are handled using lattice Boltzmann (LB) and immersed boundary methods (IBMs), respectively...
May 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Z Kadkhoda, A Safarpour, F Azmoodeh, S Adibi, A Khoshzaban, N Bahrami
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is an important oral disease. Stem cell therapy has found its way in treatment of many diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the regenerative potential of periodontal ligament-derived stem cells (PDLSCs) and osteoblast differentiated from PDLSC in comparison with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and pre-osteoblasts in calvarial defects. METHODS: After proving the existence of surface markers by flow cytometry, BM-MSCs were differentiated into osteoblasts...
2016: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
Bing Cheng, An Xu, Mengran Qiao, Qiao Wu, Wenyu Wang, Yide Mei, Mian Wu
Mitochondria selective autophagy, known as mitophagy, plays a pivotal role in several biological processes, such as elimination of the damaged mitochondria, removal of the mitochondria from immature red blood cells and sperm. The defects in mitophagy are associated with a wide spectrum of human diseases, including neurodegenerative disease, aging, cardiac disease and autoimmune disease. However, the mechanism underlying mitophagy remains largely unclear. Here, we report the characterization of a novel splice variant of BECN1/Beclin 1, BECN1s, which is produced by an alternative splicing mechanism...
November 2, 2015: Autophagy
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