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peripherial neuropathy

Angela D Morris, Gwendolyn M Lewis, Sarah Kucenas
Precisely orchestrated interactions between spinal motor axons and their ensheathing glia are vital for forming and maintaining functional spinal motor nerves. Following perturbations to peripheral myelinating glial cells, centrally-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) ectopically exit the spinal cord and myelinate peripheral nerves in myelin with central nervous system (CNS) characteristics. However, whether remaining peripheral ensheathing glia, such as perineurial glia, properly encase the motor nerve despite this change in glial cell and myelin composition, remains unknown...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Shuyun Zhang, Baolin Shi
Diabetes-triggered apoptosis of Schwann cells (SC) contributes to the degradation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DNP). In recent years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were applied to DPN repair and it was demonstrated that paracrine secretion played a key role in neuroprotection exerted by MSC. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a potent cytokine capable of reducing apoptosis of SC. However, the expression of EPO in MSC is limited. In this study, we hypothesized that overexpression of EPO in MSC (EPO-MSC) may significantly improve their neuroprotective potentials...
2017: BioMed Research International
I-Ching Wang, Chen-Yen Chung, Fang Liao, Chih-Cheng Chen, Cheng-Han Lee
Multiple sclerosis (MS)-induced neuropathic pain deteriorates quality of life in patients but is often refractory to treatment. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of MS, animals develop neuropathy and inflammation-induced tissue acidosis, which suggests the involvement of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). Also, peripheral neuropathy is reported in MS patients. However, the involvement of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) in MS neuropathic pain remains elusive. This study investigated the contribution of ASICs and peripheral neuropathy in MS-induced neuropathic pain...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Preet G S Makker, Samuel S Duffy, Justin G Lees, Chamini J Perera, Ryan S Tonkin, Oleg Butovsky, Susanna B Park, David Goldstein, Gila Moalem-Taylor
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and associated neuropathic pain is a debilitating adverse effect of cancer treatment. Current understanding of the mechanisms underpinning CIPN is limited and there are no effective treatment strategies. In this study, we treated male C57BL/6J mice with 4 cycles of either Paclitaxel (PTX) or Oxaliplatin (OXA) over a week and tested pain hypersensitivity and changes in peripheral immune responses and neuroinflammation on days 7 and 13 post 1st injection. We found that both PTX and OXA caused significant mechanical allodynia...
2017: PloS One
Cathy Su, Thomas L Schwarz
O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) regulates a wide range of cellular processes through the addition of the O-GlcNAc sugar moiety to thousands of protein substrates. Because nutrient availability affects the activity of OGT, its role has been broadly studied in metabolic tissues. OGT is enriched in the nervous system, but little is known about its importance in basic neuronal processes in vivo Here, we show that OGT is essential for sensory neuron survival and maintenance in mice. Sensory neuron-specific knock-out of OGT results in behavioral hyposensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli accompanied by decreased epidermal innervation and cell-body loss in the dorsal root ganglia...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kunho Bae, Kyuyeon Cho, Se Woong Kang, Sang Jin Kim, Jong Min Kim
PURPOSE: To explore the pathogenesis of peripheral reticular pigmentary degeneration (PRPD) and its clinical significance. METHODS: This cross-sectional, observational study (conducted between January 2010 and May 2015) enrolled 441 eyes of 229 subjects, including 35 eyes with PRPD and 406 eyes without PRPD, which was identified by ultra-wide-field fluorescein angiography (UWFA). The distribution and angiographic circulation time of PRPD were assessed by UWFA. The frequencies of systemic and ophthalmologic comorbidities were compared between groups...
2017: PloS One
Deborah Chiabrando, Marco Castori, Maja di Rocco, Martin Ungelenk, Sebastian Gießelmann, Matteo Di Capua, Annalisa Madeo, Paola Grammatico, Sophie Bartsch, Christian A Hübner, Fiorella Altruda, Lorenzo Silengo, Emanuela Tolosano, Ingo Kurth
Pain is necessary to alert us to actual or potential tissue damage. Specialized nerve cells in the body periphery, so called nociceptors, are fundamental to mediate pain perception and humans without pain perception are at permanent risk for injuries, burns and mutilations. Pain insensitivity can be caused by sensory neurodegeneration which is a hallmark of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs). Although mutations in several genes were previously associated with sensory neurodegeneration, the etiology of many cases remains unknown...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
Giulia Donvito, Jenny L Wilkerson, M Imad Damaj, Aron H Lichtman
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) represents a serious complication associated with antineoplastic drugs. Although there are no medications available that effectively prevent CIPN, many classes of drugs have been used to treat this condition, including anticonvulsants, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, and opioids. However, these therapeutic options yielded inconclusive results in CIPN clinical trials and produced assorted side effects with their prolonged use. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop efficacious and safe treatments for CIPN...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Monika Lechleitner, Heidemarie Abrahamian, Claudia Francesconi, Wolfgang Sturm, Gerd Köhler
These are the guidelines for preventive care, diagnosis and treatment of the diabetic foot syndrome. Diabetic periphery neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, bone deformity and altered biomechanics are foot-related risk conditions. The position statement is focused on screening methods and recommendations for clinical care for diabetics, who currently have no foot ulcers. A decision pathway is offered with respect to diagnosis and management of diabetic patients at an increased risk or manifest injuries.
April 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Osvaldo Manuel Tiscornia, Gustavo Alberto Negri, Graciela Otero, Fabiana Norma López Mingorance, Hipólito Waisman, Patricia Graciela Tiscornia-Wasserman
prevents, in pancreocytes, the evolving of a "supramaximalecbolic-stimulation" process. The PP involvement as a modulating agent of pancreon's reactivity is reflected by the progressive increment of its plasma values in the first week of an evolving AP episode. In the AP associated to a large meal, an overpowering of the pancreon's brake might have a pivotal role. In experimental and clinical chronic alcoholism, a vagal neuropathy of the Pavlov inhibitory fibers that, as a consequence, impairs the pancreon's brake through a depression of PP secretion is at the basis of an enhanced reactivity of the duodeno-pancreatic reflexes...
June 2015: Acta Gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
Chuan Xue, Blerta Shtylla, Anthony Brown
The organization of the axonal cytoskeleton is a key determinant of the normal function of an axon, which is a long thin projection of a neuron. Under normal conditions two axonal cytoskeletal polymers, microtubules and neurofilaments, align longitudinally in axons and are interspersed in axonal cross-sections. However, in many neurotoxic and neurodegenerative disorders, microtubules and neurofilaments segregate apart from each other, with microtubules and membranous organelles clustered centrally and neurofilaments displaced to the periphery...
August 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Christoforos Tsantoulas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poor management of chronic pain remains a significant cause of misery with huge socioeconomic costs. Accumulating research in potassium (K+) channel physiology has uncovered several promising leads for the development of novel analgesics. RECENT FINDINGS: We now recognize that certain K+ channel subunits are directly gated to pain-relevant stimuli (Kv1.1, K2P) whereas others are specifically modulated by inflammatory processes (Kv7, BKCA, K2P)...
June 2015: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Lucia Ziccardi, Vincenzo Parisi, Daniela Giannini, Federico Sadun, Anna Maria De Negri, Piero Barboni, Chiara La Morgia, Alfedo A Sadun, Valerio Carelli
PURPOSE: To differentiate the bioelectrical cortical responses driven by axons from central and mid-peripheral retina in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) by using multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP). METHODS: Seventeen genetically confirmed LHON patients (33.35 ± 8.4 years, 17 eyes) and 22 age-matched controls (C) (38.2 ± 6.0 years, 22 eyes) were studied by mfVEP and optical coherence tomography. MfVEP P1 implicit time (P1 IT, ms) and response amplitude density of the N1-P1 components (N1-P1 RAD, nV/deg(2)) of the second order binary kernel were measured for five concentric retinal areas between the fovea and mid-periphery: 0-20 degrees (R1 to R5)...
September 2015: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Steven A Prescott
Nociceptive signals originating in the periphery must be transmitted to the brain to evoke pain. Rather than being conveyed unchanged, those signals undergo extensive processing in the spinal dorsal horn. Synaptic inhibition plays a crucial role in that processing. On the one hand, neuropathy and inflammation are associated with reduced spinal inhibition; on the other hand, the hypersensitivity associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain can be reproduced by blocking inhibition at the spinal level. To understand the consequences of disinhibition and how to therapeutically reverse it, one must understand how synaptic inhibition normally operates...
2015: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
E S Petrova, E N Isaeva
A comparative study of the effect of tissue and suspension allografts of an embryonic spinal cord on regeneration of nerve fibers of impaired (by application of a ligature) sciatic nerve in rats was conducted. It was demonstrated that unlike tissue grafts that reach a large volume 21 and 60 days after transplantation, suspension grafts do not inhibit the growth of axons of the recipient to the periphery. It was established that introduction of a suspension of dissociated cells of the spinal cord embryonic anlages (but not fragments of these anlages) into the impaired sciatic nerve in rats results in an increase in the amount of myelinated regenerating nerve fibers of the recipient 60 days after the operation...
November 2014: Izvestiia Akademii Nauk. Seriia Biologicheskaia
Yufeng Jiang, Xuemei Wang, Lei Xia, Xiaobing Fu, Zhangrong Xu, Xingwu Ran, Li Yan, Qiu Li, Zhaohui Mo, Zhaoli Yan, Qiuhe Ji, Qiang Li
To determine the annual incidence and clinically relevant risk factors for foot ulceration in a large cohort study of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in China. To investigate a cohort of 1,333 patients comprising 452 DFU patients and 881 DM patients, who underwent foot screening, physical examination, and laboratory tests in eight hospitals. The patients were assessed at baseline in terms of their demographic information, medical and social history, peripheral neuropathy disease (PND) screening, periphery artery disease (PAD) screening, assessment of nutritional status, and diabetic control...
March 2015: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Simon Mead, Mary M Reilly
Prion diseases are typically recognized as rapidly progressive dementing illnesses that also feature myoclonus and cerebellar ataxia. Several families have now been described with a late-onset hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy caused by truncation of prion protein (PrP), and associated with systemic amyloidosis, which was a profoundly unexpected phenotype. The chronic symptoms of this disorder, termed PrP systemic amyloidosis, can be very disabling, and are comparable to familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) caused by transthyretin mutations...
February 2015: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Yufeng Jiang, Xingwu Ran, Lijing Jia, Chuan Yang, Penghua Wang, Jianhua Ma, Bing Chen, Yanmei Yu, Bo Feng, Lili Chen, Han Yin, Zhifeng Cheng, Zhaoli Yan, Yuzhi Yang, Fang Liu, Zhangrong Xu
To determine incidence and clinically relevant risk factors for diabetic amputation in a large cohort study of diabetic foot ulceration patients in China, we investigated a total of 669 diabetic foot ulceration patients, who were assessed at baseline for demographic information, medical and social history, peripheral neuropathy screening, periphery artery disease screening, assessment of nutritional status and diabetic control, physical examination including foot deformity in 15 Grade III-A hospitals. Of the 669 patients, 435 were male and 201 were female, with the mean age being 64...
March 2015: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
Kyle R Denton, Chong-Chong Xu, Xue-Jun Li
Impaired axonal development and degeneration are implicated in many debilitating disorders, such as hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and periphery neuropathy. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have provided researchers with an excellent resource for modeling human neuropathologic processes including axonal defects in vitro. There are a number of steps that are crucial when developing an hPSC-based model of a human disease, including generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), differentiating those cells to affected cell types, and identifying disease-relevant phenotypes...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Arnaldo Dias-Santos, Joana Ferreira, João Paulo Cunha
INTRODUCTION: Familial amyloid polyneuropathy is a group of autosomal dominant disorders characterized by extracellular amyloid deposition in several target organs. This paper aims to report an unusual manifestation of retinal vascular leakage including optic disc and macular edema in a patient with familial amyloid polyneuropathy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old Portuguese Caucasian man with Val30Met transthyretin-related familial amyloid polyneuropathy presented with rapidly progressing visual loss in his left eye...
2014: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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