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peripherial neuropathy

Deborah Chiabrando, Marco Castori, Maja di Rocco, Martin Ungelenk, Sebastian Gießelmann, Matteo Di Capua, Annalisa Madeo, Paola Grammatico, Sophie Bartsch, Christian A Hübner, Fiorella Altruda, Lorenzo Silengo, Emanuela Tolosano, Ingo Kurth
Pain is necessary to alert us to actual or potential tissue damage. Specialized nerve cells in the body periphery, so called nociceptors, are fundamental to mediate pain perception and humans without pain perception are at permanent risk for injuries, burns and mutilations. Pain insensitivity can be caused by sensory neurodegeneration which is a hallmark of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs). Although mutations in several genes were previously associated with sensory neurodegeneration, the etiology of many cases remains unknown...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
Giulia Donvito, Jenny L Wilkerson, M Imad Damaj, Aron H Lichtman
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) represents a serious complication associated with antineoplastic drugs. Although there are no medications available that effectively prevent CIPN, many classes of drugs have been used to treat this condition, including anticonvulsants, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, and opioids. However, these therapeutic options yielded inconclusive results in CIPN clinical trials and produced assorted side effects with their prolonged use. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop efficacious and safe treatments for CIPN...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Monika Lechleitner, Heidemarie Abrahamian, Claudia Francesconi, Wolfgang Sturm, Gerd Köhler
These are the guidelines for preventive care, diagnosis and treatment of the diabetic foot syndrome. Diabetic periphery neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, bone deformity and altered biomechanics are foot-related risk conditions. The position statement is focused on screening methods and recommendations for clinical care for diabetics, who currently have no foot ulcers. A decision pathway is offered with respect to diagnosis and management of diabetic patients at an increased risk or manifest injuries.
April 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Osvaldo Manuel Tiscornia, Gustavo Alberto Negri, Graciela Otero, Fabiana Norma López Mingorance, Hipólito Waisman, Patricia Graciela Tiscornia-Wasserman
prevents, in pancreocytes, the evolving of a "supramaximalecbolic-stimulation" process. The PP involvement as a modulating agent of pancreon's reactivity is reflected by the progressive increment of its plasma values in the first week of an evolving AP episode. In the AP associated to a large meal, an overpowering of the pancreon's brake might have a pivotal role. In experimental and clinical chronic alcoholism, a vagal neuropathy of the Pavlov inhibitory fibers that, as a consequence, impairs the pancreon's brake through a depression of PP secretion is at the basis of an enhanced reactivity of the duodeno-pancreatic reflexes...
June 2015: Acta Gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
Chuan Xue, Blerta Shtylla, Anthony Brown
The organization of the axonal cytoskeleton is a key determinant of the normal function of an axon, which is a long thin projection of a neuron. Under normal conditions two axonal cytoskeletal polymers, microtubules and neurofilaments, align longitudinally in axons and are interspersed in axonal cross-sections. However, in many neurotoxic and neurodegenerative disorders, microtubules and neurofilaments segregate apart from each other, with microtubules and membranous organelles clustered centrally and neurofilaments displaced to the periphery...
August 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Christoforos Tsantoulas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Poor management of chronic pain remains a significant cause of misery with huge socioeconomic costs. Accumulating research in potassium (K+) channel physiology has uncovered several promising leads for the development of novel analgesics. RECENT FINDINGS: We now recognize that certain K+ channel subunits are directly gated to pain-relevant stimuli (Kv1.1, K2P) whereas others are specifically modulated by inflammatory processes (Kv7, BKCA, K2P)...
June 2015: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Lucia Ziccardi, Vincenzo Parisi, Daniela Giannini, Federico Sadun, Anna Maria De Negri, Piero Barboni, Chiara La Morgia, Alfedo A Sadun, Valerio Carelli
PURPOSE: To differentiate the bioelectrical cortical responses driven by axons from central and mid-peripheral retina in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) by using multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP). METHODS: Seventeen genetically confirmed LHON patients (33.35 ± 8.4 years, 17 eyes) and 22 age-matched controls (C) (38.2 ± 6.0 years, 22 eyes) were studied by mfVEP and optical coherence tomography. MfVEP P1 implicit time (P1 IT, ms) and response amplitude density of the N1-P1 components (N1-P1 RAD, nV/deg(2)) of the second order binary kernel were measured for five concentric retinal areas between the fovea and mid-periphery: 0-20 degrees (R1 to R5)...
September 2015: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Steven A Prescott
Nociceptive signals originating in the periphery must be transmitted to the brain to evoke pain. Rather than being conveyed unchanged, those signals undergo extensive processing in the spinal dorsal horn. Synaptic inhibition plays a crucial role in that processing. On the one hand, neuropathy and inflammation are associated with reduced spinal inhibition; on the other hand, the hypersensitivity associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain can be reproduced by blocking inhibition at the spinal level. To understand the consequences of disinhibition and how to therapeutically reverse it, one must understand how synaptic inhibition normally operates...
2015: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
E S Petrova, E N Isaeva
A comparative study of the effect of tissue and suspension allografts of an embryonic spinal cord on regeneration of nerve fibers of impaired (by application of a ligature) sciatic nerve in rats was conducted. It was demonstrated that unlike tissue grafts that reach a large volume 21 and 60 days after transplantation, suspension grafts do not inhibit the growth of axons of the recipient to the periphery. It was established that introduction of a suspension of dissociated cells of the spinal cord embryonic anlages (but not fragments of these anlages) into the impaired sciatic nerve in rats results in an increase in the amount of myelinated regenerating nerve fibers of the recipient 60 days after the operation...
November 2014: Izvestiia Akademii Nauk. Seriia Biologicheskaia
Yufeng Jiang, Xuemei Wang, Lei Xia, Xiaobing Fu, Zhangrong Xu, Xingwu Ran, Li Yan, Qiu Li, Zhaohui Mo, Zhaoli Yan, Qiuhe Ji, Qiang Li
To determine the annual incidence and clinically relevant risk factors for foot ulceration in a large cohort study of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in China. To investigate a cohort of 1,333 patients comprising 452 DFU patients and 881 DM patients, who underwent foot screening, physical examination, and laboratory tests in eight hospitals. The patients were assessed at baseline in terms of their demographic information, medical and social history, peripheral neuropathy disease (PND) screening, periphery artery disease (PAD) screening, assessment of nutritional status, and diabetic control...
March 2015: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Simon Mead, Mary M Reilly
Prion diseases are typically recognized as rapidly progressive dementing illnesses that also feature myoclonus and cerebellar ataxia. Several families have now been described with a late-onset hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy caused by truncation of prion protein (PrP), and associated with systemic amyloidosis, which was a profoundly unexpected phenotype. The chronic symptoms of this disorder, termed PrP systemic amyloidosis, can be very disabling, and are comparable to familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) caused by transthyretin mutations...
February 2015: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Yufeng Jiang, Xingwu Ran, Lijing Jia, Chuan Yang, Penghua Wang, Jianhua Ma, Bing Chen, Yanmei Yu, Bo Feng, Lili Chen, Han Yin, Zhifeng Cheng, Zhaoli Yan, Yuzhi Yang, Fang Liu, Zhangrong Xu
To determine incidence and clinically relevant risk factors for diabetic amputation in a large cohort study of diabetic foot ulceration patients in China, we investigated a total of 669 diabetic foot ulceration patients, who were assessed at baseline for demographic information, medical and social history, peripheral neuropathy screening, periphery artery disease screening, assessment of nutritional status and diabetic control, physical examination including foot deformity in 15 Grade III-A hospitals. Of the 669 patients, 435 were male and 201 were female, with the mean age being 64...
March 2015: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
Kyle R Denton, Chong-Chong Xu, Xue-Jun Li
Impaired axonal development and degeneration are implicated in many debilitating disorders, such as hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and periphery neuropathy. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have provided researchers with an excellent resource for modeling human neuropathologic processes including axonal defects in vitro. There are a number of steps that are crucial when developing an hPSC-based model of a human disease, including generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), differentiating those cells to affected cell types, and identifying disease-relevant phenotypes...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Arnaldo Dias-Santos, Joana Ferreira, João Paulo Cunha
INTRODUCTION: Familial amyloid polyneuropathy is a group of autosomal dominant disorders characterized by extracellular amyloid deposition in several target organs. This paper aims to report an unusual manifestation of retinal vascular leakage including optic disc and macular edema in a patient with familial amyloid polyneuropathy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old Portuguese Caucasian man with Val30Met transthyretin-related familial amyloid polyneuropathy presented with rapidly progressing visual loss in his left eye...
2014: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Fei-Yue Zhao, Ross Jeggo, Haifeng Wei, Andrew Whyment, Xin Fang, David Spanswick
Neuropathic pain develops following nerve injury, and is a chronic pain syndrome that can persist long after repair of a wound or removal of the neurological insult. This condition remains poorly treated, not least because of a lack of mechanism-based therapeutics. Clinically, neuropathic pain is characterized by three major symptoms: thermal or mechanical allodynia (pain sensation in response to previously non-noxious stimuli); hyperalgesia (enhanced pain sensation to noxious stimulation); and spontaneous, ongoing pain...
2014: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
Oksana A Sergeeva, Meme T Tran, Cameron Haase-Pettingell, Jonathan A King
Hereditary sensory neuropathies are a class of disorders marked by degeneration of the nerve fibers in the sensory periphery neurons. Recently, two mutations were identified in the subunits of the eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin TRiC, a protein machine responsible for folding actin and tubulin in the cell. C450Y CCT4 was identified in a stock of Sprague-Dawley rats, whereas H147R CCT5 was found in a human Moroccan family. As with many genetically identified mutations associated with neuropathies, the underlying molecular basis of the mutants was not defined...
October 3, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mathew Philip, Reginald G Alex, Soumya S Sunny, Anand Alwan, Deepak Guzzula, Rajan Srinivasan
INTRODUCTION: Service sector in Indian industrial growth has obtained significant numbers. Automobile service industry is one of the largest in the world with a majority of the workers in unorganized sector of the industry. This study was carried out among auto service industry workers in Vellore urban area to assess possible occupation related morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional observation study was carried out among 106 automobile repair shop workers...
January 2014: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Alona Rudchenko, Eli Akude, Ellis Cooper
Synapses in autonomic ganglia represent the final output of various CNS structures that regulate the function of the periphery. Normally, these excitatory cholinergic-nicotinic synapses produce large suprathreshold EPSPs on sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons to convey signals from the CNS. However, in certain disease states, synaptic transmission in autonomic ganglia is depressed and the periphery becomes deregulated. For example, previous work demonstrated that hyperglycemia depresses EPSPs on sympathetic neurons and disrupts sympathetic reflexes by causing an ROS-dependent inactivation of the postsynaptic nAChRs...
June 25, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Irina Shelukhina, Renate Paddenberg, Wolfgang Kummer, Victor Tsetlin
In recent pain studies on animal models, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists demonstrated analgesic, anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, apparently acting through some peripheral receptors. Assuming possible involvement of α7 nAChRs on nociceptive sensory neurons, we investigated the morphological and neurochemical features of the α7 nAChR-expressing subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and their ability to transport α7 nAChR axonally. In addition, α7 receptor activity and its putative role in pain signal neurotransmitter release were studied...
July 2015: Brain Structure & Function
Dongmei Wang, Réjean Couture, Yanguo Hong
Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly common chronic medical condition. Approximately 30% of diabetic patients develop neuropathic pain, manifested as spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and allodynia. Hyperglycemia induces metabolic changes in peripheral tissues and enhances oxidative stress in nerve fibers. The damages and subsequent reactive inflammation affect structural properties of Schwann cells and axons leading to the release of neuropoietic mediators, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-nociceptive mediators...
April 5, 2014: European Journal of Pharmacology
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