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cerebellar projections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793060/a-computational-framework-for-the-detection-of-subcortical-brain-dysmaturation-in-neonatal-mri-using-3d-convolutional-neural-networks
#1
Rafael Ceschin, Alexandria Zahner, William Reynolds, Jenna Gaesser, Giulio Zuccoli, Cecilia W Lo, Vanathi Gopalakrishnan, Ashok Panigrahy
Deep neural networks are increasingly being used in both supervised learning for classification tasks and unsupervised learning to derive complex patterns from the input data. However, the successful implementation of deep neural networks using neuroimaging datasets requires adequate sample size for training and well-defined signal intensity based structural differentiation. There is a lack of effective automated diagnostic tools for the reliable detection of brain dysmaturation in the neonatal period, related to small sample size and complex undifferentiated brain structures, despite both translational research and clinical importance...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753860/the-modular-architecture-and-neurochemical-patterns-in-the-cerebellar-cortex
#2
REVIEW
Sergei G Kalinichenko, Igor I Pushchin
The review deals with topical issues of the neuronal arrangement underlying basic cerebellar functions. The cerebellum and its auxiliary structures contain several hundreds of modules (so called "microzones"). Each module receives the corticopetal input specific for the lobule it belongs to and forms the topographic projection. The precision of the major input-output signal flow in the cerebellar cortex is provided by a pronounced stratification of its synaptic zones of a various origin and regular topography of its afferent connections, interneurons, and efferent neurons...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736384/a-technology-developed-from-concept-of-acupuncture-and-meridian-system-the-clinical-effect-of-bioceramic-resonance-on-psychological-related-sleep-disturbance-with-findings-on-questionnaire-eeg-and-fmri
#3
Lei Zhang, Paul Chan, Zhong Min Liu, Yi Li Tseng, C Will Chen, Ming Tse Lin, Wing P Chan, Ting-Kai Leung
Under the concept of meridian channels that belongs to traditional Chinese medicine, BIOCERAMIC Resonance (BR) has already been applied to many clinical medical research projects with functions mimicking of traditional acupuncture. Forty-five patients were recruited with chronic sleep disorders; 36 patients were given, applied to the device with BIOCERAMIC material and sound rhythm on chest skin surface; 9 patients were included as controls. All study participants completed a sleep pattern and quality of life questionnaire (assessment on psychological and physical causes of sleep disturbances), which was repeated before, during and after treatment...
April 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733955/structural-and-functional-connectivity-of-the-nondecussating-dentato-rubro-thalamic-tract
#4
Kalen J Petersen, Jacqueline A Reid, Srijata Chakravorti, Meher R Juttukonda, Giulia Franco, Paula Trujillo, Adam J Stark, Benoit M Dawant, Manus J Donahue, Daniel O Claassen
The dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTT) regulates motor control, connecting the cerebellum to the thalamus. This tract is modulated by deep-brain stimulation in the surgical treatment of medically refractory tremor, especially in essential tremor, where high-frequency stimulation of the thalamus can improve symptoms. The DRTT is classically described as a decussating pathway, ascending to the contralateral thalamus. However, the existence of a nondecussating (i.e. ipsilateral) DRTT in humans was recently demonstrated, and these tracts are arranged in distinct regions of the superior cerebellar peduncle...
May 4, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715273/neurofibromatosis-type-2-tumor-suppressor-protein-is-expressed-in-oligodendrocytes-and-regulates-cell-proliferation-and-process-formation
#5
Andrea Toledo, Elena Grieger, Khalad Karram, Helen Morrison, Stephan L Baader
The neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor protein Merlin functions as a negative regulator of cell growth and actin dynamics in different cell types amongst which Schwann cells have been extensively studied. In contrast, the presence and the role of Merlin in oligodendrocytes, the myelin forming cells within the CNS, have not been elucidated. In this work, we demonstrate that Merlin immunoreactivity was broadly distributed in the white matter throughout the central nervous system. Following Merlin expression during development in the cerebellum, Merlin could be detected in the cerebellar white matter tract at early postnatal stages as shown by its co-localization with Olig2-positive cells as well as in adult brain sections where it was aligned with myelin basic protein containing fibers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713529/an-objective-study-of-anatomic-shifts-in-intracranial-hypotension-using-four-anatomic-planes
#6
Shamar J Young, Ronald G Quisling, Sharatchandra Bidari, Tina S Sanghvi
Purpose: Intracranial hypotension (IH) often remains undetected using current MR diagnostic criteria. This project aims to demonstrate that central incisural herniation is highly effective in helping to make this diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was analyzed in 200 normal and 81 clinically known IH patients. MRI reference lines approximating the plane of the incisura, the plane of the diaphragma sella, the plane of the foramen magnum, and the plane of the visual pathway were utilized to measure the position of selected brain structures relative to these reference lines...
2018: Radiology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692521/clinicoradiological-aspects-of-pontine-tegmental-cap-dysplasia-case-report-of-a-rare-hindbrain-malformation
#7
Aanchal Bhayana, Sunil K Bajaj, Ritu N Misra, S Senthil Kumaran
Malformations involving the brainstem are very rare and present with a varied spectrum of clinical symptoms due to multiple cranial nerve palsies and pyramidal tract involvement. Of these, pontine tegmental cap dysplasia is a very unusual malformation, characterized by ventral pons hypoplasia and an ectopic dorsal band of tissue, projecting into the fourth ventricle, from dorsal pontine tegmentum. A 4-year-old male child, presenting with left facial nerve palsy, revealed hypoplastic ventral pons and an ectopic structure on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686605/visual-cerebellar-pathways-and-their-roles-in-the-control-of-avian-flight
#8
REVIEW
Douglas R Wylie, Cristián Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Andrea H Gaede, Douglas L Altshuler, Andrew N Iwaniuk
In this paper, we review the connections and physiology of visual pathways to the cerebellum in birds and consider their role in flight. We emphasize that there are two visual pathways to the cerebellum. One is to the vestibulocerebellum (folia IXcd and X) that originates from two retinal-recipient nuclei that process optic flow: the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and the pretectal nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (LM). The second is to the oculomotor cerebellum (folia VI-VIII), which receives optic flow information, mainly from LM, but also local visual motion information from the optic tectum, and other visual information from the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (Glv)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673951/revealing-the-cerebello-ponto-hypothalamic-pathway-in-the-human-brain
#9
Arash Kamali, Niloofar Karbasian, Pejman Rabiei, Andres Cano, Roy F Riascos, Nitin Tandon, Octavio Arevalo, Laura Ocasio, Kyan Younes, Mahsa Khayat-Khoei, Saeedeh Mirbagheri, Khader M Hasan
The cerebellum is shown to be involved in some limbic functions of the human brain such as emotion and affect. The major connection of the cerebellum with the limbic system is known to be through the cerebello-hypothalamic pathways. The consensus is that the projections from the cerebellar nuclei to the limbic system, and particularly the hypothalamus, or from the hypothalamus to the cerebellar nuclei, are through multisynaptic pathways in the bulbar reticular formation. The detailed anatomy of the pathways responsible for mediating these responses, however, is yet to be determined...
April 16, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643480/the-basal-ganglia-and-the-cerebellum-nodes-in-an-integrated-network
#10
REVIEW
Andreea C Bostan, Peter L Strick
The basal ganglia and the cerebellum are considered to be distinct subcortical systems that perform unique functional operations. The outputs of the basal ganglia and the cerebellum influence many of the same cortical areas but do so by projecting to distinct thalamic nuclei. As a consequence, the two subcortical systems were thought to be independent and to communicate only at the level of the cerebral cortex. Here, we review recent data showing that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are interconnected at the subcortical level...
April 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599710/topographic-organization-of-inferior-olive-projections-to-the-zebrin-ii-stripes-in-the-pigeon-cerebellar-uvula
#11
Iulia Craciun, Cristián Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Jeremy R Corfield, Peter L Hurd, Douglas R Wylie
This study was aimed at mapping the organization of the projections from the inferior olive (IO) to the ventral uvula in pigeons. The uvula is part of the vestibulocerebellum (VbC), which is involved in the processing of optic flow resulting from self-motion. As in other areas of the cerebellum, the uvula is organized into sagittal zones, which is apparent with respect to afferent inputs, the projection patterns of Purkinje cell (PC) efferents, the response properties of PCs and the expression of molecular markers such as zebrin II (ZII)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568289/an-ontology-systems-approach-on-human-brain-expression-and-metaproteomics
#12
Adolfo Flores Saiffe Farías, Adriana P Mendizabal, J Alejandro Morales
Research in the last decade has shown growing evidence of the gut microbiota influence on brain physiology. While many mechanisms of this influence have been proposed in animal models, most studies in humans are the result of a pathology-dysbiosis association and very few have related the presence of certain taxa with brain substructures or molecular pathways. In this paper, we associated the functional ontologies in the differential expression of brain substructures from the Allen Brain Atlas database, with those of the metaproteome from the Human Microbiome Project...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535041/amygdala-central-nucleus-modulation-of-cerebellar-learning-with-a-visual-conditioned-stimulus
#13
Sean J Farley, Heba Albazboz, Benjamin J De Corte, Jason J Radley, John H Freeman
Previous studies found that reversible inactivation of the central amygdala (CeA) severely impairs acquisition and retention of cerebellum-dependent eye-blink conditioning (EBC) with an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). A monosynaptic pathway between the CeA and basilar pontine nuclei (BPN) may be capable of facilitating cerebellar learning. However, given that the CeA projects to the medial auditory thalamus, a critical part of the auditory CS pathway in EBC, the CeA influence on cerebellar learning could be specific to auditory stimuli...
April 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523000/neighborhood-resolved-fiber-orientation-distributions-nrfod-in-automatic-labeling-of-white-matter-fiber-pathways
#14
Devran Ugurlu, Zeynep Firat, Uğur Türe, Gozde Unal
Accurate digital representation of major white matter bundles in the brain is an important goal in neuroscience image computing since the representations can be used for surgical planning, intra-patient longitudinal analysis and inter-subject population connectivity studies. Reconstructing desired fiber bundles generally involves manual selection of regions of interest by an expert, which is subject to user bias and fatigue, hence an automation is desirable. To that end, we first present a novel anatomical representation based on Neighborhood Resolved Fiber Orientation Distributions (NRFOD) along the fibers...
May 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520771/thalamostriatal-and-cerebellothalamic-pathways-in-a-songbird-the-bengalese-finch
#15
David A Nicholson, Todd F Roberts, Samuel J Sober
The thalamostriatal system is a major network in the mammalian brain, originating principally from the intralaminar nuclei of thalamus. Its functions remain unclear, but a subset of these projections provides a pathway through which the cerebellum communicates with the basal ganglia. Both the cerebellum and basal ganglia play crucial roles in motor control. Although songbirds have yielded key insights into the neural basis of vocal learning, it is unknown whether a thalamostriatal system exists in the songbird brain...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504939/the-association-between-lifelong-greenspace-exposure-and-3-dimensional-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-barcelona-schoolchildren
#16
Payam Dadvand, Jesus Pujol, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Marion Mortamais, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Raquel Fenoll, Mikel Esnaola, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mónica López-Vicente, Xavier Basagaña, Michael Jerrett, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer
BACKGROUND: Proponents of the biophilia hypothesis believe that contact with nature, including green spaces, has a crucial role in brain development in children. Currently, however, we are not aware of evidence linking such exposure with potential effects on brain structure. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenness is associated with regional differences in brain volume based on 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) among children attending primary school...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496611/optogenetic-fmri-and-electrophysiological-identification-of-region-specific-connectivity-between-the-cerebellar-cortex-and-forebrain
#17
Katrina Y Choe, Carlos F Sanchez, Neil G Harris, Thomas S Otis, Paul J Mathews
Complex animal behavior is produced by dynamic interactions between discrete regions of the brain. As such, defining functional connections between brain regions is critical in gaining a full understanding of how the brain generates behavior. Evidence suggests that discrete regions of the cerebellar cortex functionally project to the forebrain, mediating long-range communication potentially important in motor and non-motor behaviors. However, the connectivity map remains largely incomplete owing to the challenge of driving both reliable and selective output from the cerebellar cortex, as well as the need for methods to detect region specific activation across the entire forebrain...
June 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488162/vincenzo-malacarne-1744-1816-and-the-first-description-of-the-human-cerebellum
#18
Alberto Zanatta, Céline Cherici, Alessandro Bargoni, Serena Buzzi, Valentina Cani, Paolo Mazzarello, Fabio Zampieri
Vincenzo Malacarne, professor of medicine, surgery, and obstetrics in Turin, Pavia, and Padua, Italy, represented a perfect example of an eighteenth century "letterato", combining interests in humanities, sciences, and politics, embodying the ideal of an encyclopedic and universal culture. He made important contributions in anatomy and surgery, teratology, obstetrics, neurology, and history of medicine, adopting a interdisciplinary approach based on the correlation between anatomy, surgery, and clinics...
February 27, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479318/circadian-clock-proteins-and-melatonin-receptors-in-neurons-and-glia-of-the-sapajus-apella-cerebellum
#19
Leila M Guissoni Campos, Alessandre Hataka, Isis Z Vieira, Rogério L Buchaim, Isadora F Robalinho, Giovanna E P S Arantes, Joyce S Viégas, Henrique Bosso, Rafael M Bravos, Luciana Pinato
Oscillations of brain proteins in circadian rhythms are important for determining several cellular and physiological processes in anticipation of daily and seasonal environmental rhythms. In addition to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the primary central oscillator, the cerebellum shows oscillations in gene and protein expression. The variety of local circuit rhythms that the cerebellar cortex contains influences functions such as motivational processes, regulation of feeding, food anticipation, language, and working memory...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476066/vertical-transmission-of-the-zika-virus-causes-neurological-disorders-in-mouse-offspring
#20
Yingchao Shi, Shihua Li, Qian Wu, Le Sun, Junjing Zhang, Na Pan, Qihui Wang, Yuhai Bi, Jing An, Xuancheng Lu, George Fu Gao, Xiaoqun Wang
The association between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and congenital malformations such as microcephaly in infants is a public health emergency. Although various in vivo and in vitro models are used for ZIKV research, few animal models are available for resolving the effects of maternal ZIKV infection on neonatal development. Here, we established an immunocompetent mouse model via intrauterine inoculation. Our results confirmed that ZIKV, but not dengue virus, infection caused spontaneous abortions, brain malformations, ocular abnormalities, spinal cord defects and paralysis in mouse offspring...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
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