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cerebellar projections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073788/dopamine-controls-parkinson-s-tremor-by-inhibiting-the-cerebellar-thalamus
#1
Michiel F Dirkx, Hanneke E M den Ouden, Esther Aarts, Monique H M Timmer, Bastiaan R Bloem, Ivan Toni, Rick C Helmich
Parkinson's resting tremor is related to altered cerebral activity in the basal ganglia and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit. Although Parkinson's disease is characterized by dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic basis of resting tremor remains unclear: dopaminergic medication reduces tremor in some patients, but many patients have a dopamine-resistant tremor. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging, we test how a dopaminergic intervention influences the cerebral circuit involved in Parkinson's tremor...
January 9, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031999/sleep-duration-and-resting-fmri-functional-connectivity-examination-of-short-sleepers-with-and-without-perceived-daytime-dysfunction
#2
Brian J Curtis, Paula G Williams, Christopher R Jones, Jeffrey S Anderson
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of the U.S. population reports recurrent short sleep; however, perceived sleep need varies widely among individuals. Some "habitual short sleepers" routinely sleep 4-6 hr/night without self-reported adverse consequences. Identifying neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in perceived sleep-related dysfunction has important implications for understanding associations between sleep duration and health. METHOD: This study utilized data from 839 subjects of the Human Connectome Project to examine resting functional connectivity associations with self-reported short sleep duration, as well as differences between short sleepers with versus without reported dysfunction...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017370/de-novo-mutations-in-ebf3-cause-a-neurodevelopmental-syndrome
#3
Hannah Sleven, Seth J Welsh, Jing Yu, Mair E A Churchill, Caroline F Wright, Alex Henderson, Rita Horvath, Julia Rankin, Julie Vogt, Alex Magee, Vivienne McConnell, Andrew Green, Mary D King, Helen Cox, Linlea Armstrong, Anna Lehman, Tanya N Nelson, Jonathan Williams, Penny Clouston, James Hagman, Andrea H Németh
Early B cell factor 3 (EBF3) is an atypical transcription factor that is thought to influence the laminar formation of the cerebral cortex. Here, we report that de novo mutations in EBF3 cause a complex neurodevelopmental syndrome. The mutations were identified in two large-scale sequencing projects: the UK Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) study and the Canadian Clinical Assessment of the Utility of Sequencing and Evaluation as a Service (CAUSES) study. The core phenotype includes moderate to severe intellectual disability, and many individuals exhibit cerebellar ataxia, subtle facial dysmorphism, strabismus, and vesicoureteric reflux, suggesting that EBF3 has a widespread developmental role...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975168/molecular-alterations-in-the-cerebellum-of-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-subtypes-with-dj-1-as-a-key-regulator-of-oxidative-stress
#4
Waqas Tahir, Saima Zafar, Franc Llorens, Amandeep Singh Arora, Katrin Thüne, Matthias Schmitz, Nadine Gotzmann, Niels Kruse, Brit Mollenhauer, Juan Maria Torres, Olivier Andréoletti, Isidre Ferrer, Inga Zerr
Cerebellar damage and granular and Purkinje cell loss in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) highlight a critical involvement of the cerebellum during symptomatic progression of the disease. In this project, global proteomic alterations in the cerebellum of brain from the two most prevalent subtypes (MM1 and VV2) of sCJD were studied. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) coupled mass spectrometric identification revealed 40 proteins in MM1 and 43 proteins in VV2 subtype to be differentially expressed...
December 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974932/correlations-between-the-semiologic-changes-and-the-imaging-aspects-in-the-lateral-bulbar-infarction
#5
Cristea I, Popa C
The study aimed to evaluate the correlations between the clinical and paraclinical data in the lateral bulbar infarction, benefiting from the access to the semiologic characteristics of a group studied and the MRI angiography, without a contrast agent, through the 3D TOF technique combined with MIP, as an imaging technique for the evaluation of the arterial lesion. The study group included 20 patients with lateral bulbar infarction, 14 men, and 6 women aged between 21 and 80 years, the mean age being 56, 9 years, who were enrolled in the study in the period 2012 and 2014, following the admission in the National Institute of Neurology and Neurovascular Diseases...
July 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974448/the-inion-response-revisited-evidence-for-a-possible-cerebellar-contribution-to-vestibular-evoked-potentials-produced-by-air-conducted-sound-stimulation
#6
Neil P M Todd, Sendhil Govender, James Gordon Colebatch
This study investigated the effect of eye gaze and head position on vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs). Head position would be expected to affect myogenic sources and eye position is known to affect ocular myogenic responses (OVEMPs), whereas a neurogenic source should behave otherwise. 11 healthy subjects were recruited and VsEPs using 72 channel EEG were recorded at a fixed intensity above the vestibular threshold. Three eye gaze and three head positions were tested (-20°, 0° and+20° to the horizontal)...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966045/inter-rater-variability-of-visual-interpretation-and-comparison-with-quantitative-evaluation-of-11-c-pib-pet-amyloid-images-of-the-japanese-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-j-adni-multicenter-study
#7
Tomohiko Yamane, Kenji Ishii, Muneyuki Sakata, Yasuhiko Ikari, Tomoyuki Nishio, Kazunari Ishii, Takashi Kato, Kengo Ito, Michio Senda
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater variability of the visual interpretation of (11)C-PiB PET images regarding the positivity/negativity of amyloid deposition that were obtained in a multicenter clinical research project, Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI). The results of visual interpretation were also compared with a semi-automatic quantitative analysis using mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio to the cerebellar cortex (mcSUVR)...
December 13, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920207/vascular-angular-remodeling-by-kissing-y-stenting-in-wide-necked-intracranial-bifurcation-aneurysms
#8
Katharina Melber, Dan Meila, Philipp Draheim, Dominik Grieb, Björn Greling, Martin Schlunz-Hendann, Friedhelm Brassel
INTRODUCTION: Single stent deployment leads to a change in vascular geometry in wide necked bifurcation aneurysms. In some complex cases, the use of the single stent technique might not be sufficient or may not be feasible. The kissing-Y stenting technique appears to be an alternative endovascular treatment option. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the kissing-Y stenting technique on vascular angular remodeling. METHODS: 21 patients with wide necked intracranial bifurcation aneurysms at different sites (10 anterior communicating artery, 6 middle cerebral artery, 3 basilar artery, 1 vertebral artery/posterior inferior cerebellar artery, 1 internal carotid artery/posterior communicating artery) were treated with 44 closed cell stents (follow-up 2012-2016) using the kissing-Y stenting technique...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916985/the-obese-brain-as-a-heritable-phenotype-a-combined-morphometry-and-twin-study
#9
C M Weise, P Piaggi, M Reinhardt, K Chen, C R Savage, J Krakoff, B Pleger
BACKGROUND: Body weight and adiposity are heritable traits. To date it remains unknown whether obesity-associated brain structural alterations are under a similar level of genetic control. METHODS: For this study we utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from the Human Connectome Project. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate associations between body mass index (BMI) and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in a sample of 875 young adults with a wide BMI range (386m/489f; age 28...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896316/compound-heterozygous-intermediate-mjd-alleles-cause-cerebellar-ataxia-with-sensory-neuropathy
#10
Yuji Takahashi, Masahiro Kanai, Tomoya Taminato, Shoko Watanabe, Chihiro Matsumoto, Toshiyuki Araki, Tomoko Okamoto, Masafumi Ogawa, Miho Murata
Spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) is a group of disorders characterized by progressive ataxia caused by dysfunction and atrophy of the cerebellum or its projections. Approximately one-third of SCD cases are familial SCD, the majority of which are attributed to CAG triplet repeat expansions including spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA)1, SCA2, Machado-Joseph disease (MJD)/SCA3, SCA6, SCA8, SCA12, SCA17, and dentate-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA). The triplet repeat number of the alleles representing complete penetrance varies among diseases...
February 2016: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872585/the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-as-a-motor-and-cognitive-interface-between-the-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia
#11
REVIEW
Fumika Mori, Ken-Ichi Okada, Taishin Nomura, Yasushi Kobayashi
As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze) and cognitive processes (attention, learning and memory). The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition), and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851801/whole-cell-properties-of-cerebellar-nuclei-neurons-in-vivo
#12
Cathrin B Canto, Laurens Witter, Chris I De Zeeuw
Cerebellar nuclei neurons integrate sensorimotor information and form the final output of the cerebellum, projecting to premotor brainstem targets. This implies that, in contrast to specialized neurons and interneurons in cortical regions, neurons within the nuclei encode and integrate complex information that is most likely reflected in a large variation of intrinsic membrane properties and integrative capacities of individual neurons. Yet, whether this large variation in properties is reflected in a heterogeneous physiological cell population of cerebellar nuclei neurons with well or poorly defined cell types remains to be determined...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807163/long-term-potentiation-at-the-mossy-fiber-granule-cell-relay-invokes-postsynaptic-second-messenger-regulation-of-kv4-channels
#13
Arsalan P Rizwan, Xiaoqin Zhan, Gerald W Zamponi, Ray W Turner
: Mossy fiber afferents to cerebellar granule cells form the primary synaptic relay into cerebellum, providing an ideal site to process signal inputs differentially. Mossy fiber input is known to exhibit a long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic efficacy through a combination of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. However, the specific postsynaptic mechanisms contributing to LTP of mossy fiber input is unknown. The current study tested the hypothesis that LTP induces a change in intrinsic membrane excitability of rat cerebellar granule cells through modification of Kv4 A-type potassium channels...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790095/merged-group-tractography-evaluation-with-selective-automated-group-integrated-tractography
#14
David Q Chen, Jidan Zhong, David J Hayes, Brendan Behan, Matthew Walker, Peter S-P Hung, Mojgan Hodaie
Introduction: Tractography analysis in group-based studies across large populations has been difficult to implement. We propose Selective Automated Group Integrated Tractography (SAGIT), an automated group tractography software platform that incorporates multiple diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) practices which will allow great accessibility to group-wise dMRI. We use a merged tractography approach that permits evaluation of tractography datasets at the group level. We also introduce an image normalized overlap score (NOS) that measures the quality of the group tractography results...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780031/microstructural-brain-abnormalities-in-medication-free-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#15
Jing Jiang, You-Jin Zhao, Xin-Yu Hu, Ming-Ying Du, Zi-Qi Chen, Min Wu, Kai-Ming Li, Hong-Yan Zhu, Poornima Kumar, Qi-Yong Gong
BACKGROUND: Multiple meta-analyses of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported impaired white matter integrity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, owing to inclusion of medicated patients in these studies, it is difficult to conclude whether these reported alterations are associated with MDD or confounded by medication effects. A meta-analysis of DTI studies on medication-free (medication-naive and medication washout) patients with MDD would therefore be necessary to disentangle MDD-specific effects...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767209/active-integration-of-glutamatergic-input-to-the-inferior-olive-generates-bi-directional-postsynaptic-potentials
#16
Derek Garden, Arianna Rinaldi, Matthew F Nolan
The inferior olive plays a critical role in motor coordination and learning by integrating diverse afferent signals to generate climbing fibre inputs to the cerebellar cortex. While it is well established that climbing fibre signals are important for motor coordination, the mechanisms by which neurones in the inferior olive integrate synaptic inputs and the roles of particular ion channels are unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that neurones in the inferior olive actively integrate glutamatergic synaptic inputs...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718359/projections-from-the-lowest-lumbar-and-sacral-caudal-segments-to-the-cerebellar-cortex-in-the-rat-an-anterograde-tracing-study
#17
Matsuo Matsushita
The crossed spinocerebellar tracts originate from neurons in the basolateral part of lamina V, the sacral nuclei of Stilling and the ventrolateral part of the ventral horn of the L6 to caudal segments. The present study examined their projection areas in the cerebellar cortex by using anterograde labeling of mossy fiber terminals with biotinylated dextran in the rat. Labeled terminals were distributed bilaterally in lobules I-V of the anterior lobe. They were most abundant in the apical parts of the lateral vermis and the intermediate region of lobules Ib and IIa, and the rostral side of lobule IIb...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716988/progression-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-in-multiple-system-atrophy-of-the-cerebellar-type
#18
Johannes Brettschneider, David J Irwin, Susana Boluda, Matthew D Byrne, Lubin Fang, Edward B Lee, John L Robinson, EunRan Suh, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Jon B Toledo, Murray Grossman, Howard Hurtig, Reinhard Dengler, Susanne Petri, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski
AIMS: To identify early foci of α-synuclein (α-syn pathology) accumulation, subsequent progression and neurodegeneration in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C). METHODS: We analyzed 70 μm thick sections of 10 cases with MSA-C and 24 normal controls. RESULTS: MSA-C cases with the lowest burden of pathology showed α-syn glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in the cerebellum as well as in medullary and pontine cerebellar projections...
September 22, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638060/physiology-of-central-pathways
#19
K E Cullen
The relative simplicity of the neural circuits that mediate vestibular reflexes is well suited for linking systems and cellular levels of analyses. Notably, a distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei are premotor neurons; the same neurons that receive vestibular-nerve input also send direct projections to motor pathways. For example, the simplicity of the three-neuron pathway that mediates the vestibulo-ocular reflex leads to the generation of compensatory eye movements within ~5ms of a head movement...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629561/anticonvulsive-activity-in-audiogenic-dba-2-mice-of-1-4-benzodiazepines-and-1-5-benzodiazepines-with-different-activities-at-cerebellar-granule-cell-gabaa-receptors
#20
Elena Gatta, Aroldo Cupello, Mario Di Braccio, Giancarlo Grossi, Mauro Robello, Francesca Scicchitano, Emilio Russo, Giovambattista De Sarro
Herein, we tested in a model of generalized reflex epilepsy in mice different 1,4-benzodiazepines and 1,5-benzodiazepines with agonistic activity at the GABAA receptor population contributing to the peak component of the chloride current elicited by GABA in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) in culture. The substances have all higher lipophilia than clobazam, an antiepileptic drug well known and used in human therapy. This ensures that they all can pass relatively easily the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The benzodiazepines were administered intraperitoneally (i...
December 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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