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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639357/cerebellar-projections-to-the-ventral-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-and-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-the-cat
#1
Hiroyuki Nakamura
The ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNv) is a retinorecipient part of the ventral thalamus and in cats, it consists of medial (M), medial intermediate (IM), lateral intermediate (IL), lateral (L), and dorsal (D) subdivisions. These subdivisions can be differentiated not only by their cytoarchitecture, but also by their connectivity and putative functions. The LGNv may play a role in visuomotor gating, in that there is evidence of cerebellar afferent projections to the intermediate subdivisions. The cerebellar posterior interpositus (IP) and lateral (LC) nuclei are known to project to IM and IL, but the specifics of these projections are unclear...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618000/in-vivo-analysis-of-synaptic-activity-in-cerebellar-nuclei-neurons-unravels-the-efficacy-of-excitatory-inputs
#2
Yasmin Yarden-Rabinowitz, Yosef Yarom
It is commonly agreed that the main function of the cerebellar system is to provide well-timed signals used for the execution of motor commands or prediction of sensory inputs. This function is manifested as a temporal sequence of spiking that should be expressed in the cerebellar nuclei projection neurons (CN). Whether spiking activity is generated by excitation or release from inhibition is still a hotly debated issue. In an attempt to resolve this debate, we recorded intracellularly from CN neurons in anaesthetized mice and performed an analysis of synaptic activity that yielded a number of important observations...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617798/robust-transmission-of-rate-coding-in-the-inhibitory-purkinje-cell-to-cerebellar-nuclei-pathway-in-awake-mice
#3
Samira Abbasi, Amber E Hudson, Selva K Maran, Ying Cao, Ataollah Abbasi, Detlef H Heck, Dieter Jaeger
Neural coding through inhibitory projection pathways remains poorly understood. We analyze the transmission properties of the Purkinje cell (PC) to cerebellar nucleus (CN) pathway in a modeling study using a data set recorded in awake mice containing respiratory rate modulation. We find that inhibitory transmission from tonically active PCs can transmit a behavioral rate code with high fidelity. We parameterized the required population code in PC activity and determined that 20% of PC inputs to a full compartmental CN neuron model need to be rate-comodulated for transmission of a rate code...
June 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601978/recurrent-or-symptomatic-residual-posterior-fossa-hemangioblastomas-how-are-they-different-from-their-primary-counterparts
#4
Shruti Gupta, Lily Pal, Jayesh C Sardhara, Awadhesh K Jaiswal, Arun Srivastava, Anant Mehrotra, Kuntal Kanti Das, Sanjay Behari
BACKGROUND: Posterior fossa hemangioblastomas are WHO grade I benign lesions with a surprisingly high recurrence rate. This study determines the factors responsible for recurrence and the clinico-radiological and histopathological differences between primary (group A; n = 60) and recurrent/symptomatic residual (group B; n = 24) tumors. METHODS: Radiologically, tumors were differentiated into cystic, cystic with a mural nodule, solid-cystic/microcystic and solid...
June 11, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567005/the-long-journey-of-pontine-nuclei-neurons-from-rhombic-lip-to-cortico-ponto-cerebellar-circuitry
#5
REVIEW
Claudius F Kratochwil, Upasana Maheshwari, Filippo M Rijli
The pontine nuclei (PN) are the largest of the precerebellar nuclei, neuronal assemblies in the hindbrain providing principal input to the cerebellum. The PN are predominantly innervated by the cerebral cortex and project as mossy fibers to the cerebellar hemispheres. Here, we comprehensively review the development of the PN from specification to migration, nucleogenesis and circuit formation. PN neurons originate at the posterior rhombic lip and migrate tangentially crossing several rhombomere derived territories to reach their final position in ventral part of the pons...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527081/chiari-malformation-type-1-related-headache-the-importance-of-a-multidisciplinary-study
#6
Marcella Curone, L G Valentini, I Vetrano, E Beretta, M- Furlanetto, L Chiapparini, A Erbetta, G Bussone
Chiari type 1 Malformation (CM 1) is a structural defect consisting of a displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum causing obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow. CM 1 has a variety of presentation with headache being the most common symptom. The evaluation and treatment of headache related to CM 1 are often difficult, because the pain in the occipital-suboccipital region or headache that is of cough-type suggests symptomatic CM 1, but patients suffering from CM 1 can also report migraine or tension-type headache...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513836/facilitation-of-mossy-fibre-driven-spiking-in-the-cerebellar-nuclei-by-the-synchrony-of-inhibition
#7
Yeechan Wu, Indira M Raman
Large projection neurons of the cerebellar nuclei (CbN cells), whose activity generates movement, are inhibited by Purkinje cells and excited by mossy fibres. The high convergence, firing rates, and strength of Purkinje inputs predict powerful suppression of CbN cell spiking, raising the question of what activity patterns favor excitation over inhibition. Recording from CbN cells at near-physiological temperatures in cerebellar slices from weanling mice, we measured the amplitude, kinetics, voltage-dependence, and short-term plasticity of mossy fibre-mediated EPSCs...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508291/lobular-homology-in-cerebellar-hemispheres-of-humans-non-human-primates-and-rodents-a-structural-axonal-tracing-and-molecular-expression-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Yuanjun Luo, Hirofumi Fujita, Hermina Nedelescu, Mohammad Shahangir Biswas, Chika Sato, Sarah Ying, Mayu Takahashi, Keiichi Akita, Tatsuya Higashi, Ichio Aoki, Izumi Sugihara
Comparative neuroanatomy provides insights into the evolutionary functional adaptation of specific mammalian cerebellar lobules, in which the lobulation pattern and functional localization are conserved. However, accurate identification of homologous lobules among mammalian species is challenging. In this review, we discuss the inter-species homology of crus I and II lobules which occupy a large volume in the posterior cerebellar hemisphere, particularly in humans. Both crus I/II in humans are homologous to crus I/II in non-human primates, according to Paxinos and colleagues; however, this area has been defined as crus I alone in non-human primates, according to Larsell and Brodal...
May 15, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483977/uncoupling-of-unc5c-with-polymerized-tubb3-in-microtubules-mediates-netrin-1-repulsion
#9
Qiangqiang Shao, Tao Yang, Huai Huang, Farrah Alarmanazi, Guofa Liu
Modulation of microtubule (MT) dynamics is a key event of cytoskeleton remodeling in the growth cone (GC) during axon outgrowth and pathfinding. Our previous studies have shown that the direct interaction of netrin receptor DCC and DSCAM with polymerized TUBB3, a neuron-specific MT subunit in the brain, is required for netrin-1-mediated axon outgrowth, branching, and attraction. Here, we show that uncoupling of polymerized TUBB3 with netrin-1-repulsive receptor UNC5C is involved in netrin-1-mediated axonal repulsion...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470724/evolutionary-mechanisms-that-generate-morphology-and-neural-circuit-diversity-of-the-cerebellum
#10
REVIEW
Masahiko Hibi, Koji Matsuda, Miki Takeuchi, Takashi Shimizu, Yasunori Murakami
The cerebellum is derived from the dorsal part of the anterior-most hindbrain. The vertebrate cerebellum contains glutamatergic granule cells (GCs) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic Purkinje cells (PCs). These cerebellar neurons are generated from neuronal progenitors or neural stem cells by mechanisms that are conserved among vertebrates. However, vertebrate cerebella are widely diverse with respect to their gross morphology and neural circuits. The cerebellum of cyclostomes, the basal vertebrates, has a negligible structure...
May 4, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470551/nuclear-derivatives-and-axonal-projections-originating-from-rhombomere-4-in-the-mouse-hindbrain
#11
Maria Di Bonito, Michèle Studer, Luis Puelles
The r4-derived territory is located in the pontine region of the brainstem, forming a wedge-shaped slice that broadens from the choroidal roof to the ventral midline. R4-derived neuronal populations migrate radially inside and tangentially outside this rhombomere, forming nuclei of the sensorimotor auditory, vestibular, trigeminal and reticular systems. R4-derived fibre tracts contribute to the lateral lemniscus, the trigeminothalamic tracts, the medial tegmental tract and the medial forebrain bundle, which variously project to the midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus and telencephalon...
May 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461060/gray-matter-structural-variability-in-the-human-cerebellum-lobule-specific-differences-across-sex-and-hemisphere
#12
REVIEW
Christopher J Steele, M Mallar Chakravarty
Though commonly thought of as a "motor structure", we now know that the cerebellum's reciprocal connections to the cerebral cortex underlie contributions to both motor and non-motor behavior. Further, recent research has shown that cerebellar dysfunction may contribute to a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, there has been little characterization of normative variability at the level of cerebellar structure that can facilitate and further our understanding of disease biomarkers. In this manuscript we examine normative variation of the cerebellum using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP)...
April 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448548/altered-striatal-endocannabinoid-signaling-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#13
Carmen Rodríguez-Cueto, Mariluz Hernández-Gálvez, Cecilia J Hillard, Patricia Maciel, Sara Valdeolivas, José A Ramos, María Gómez-Ruiz, Javier Fernández-Ruiz
Spinocerebellar ataxia type-3 (SCA-3) is the most prevalent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia. We recently found that the endocannabinoid system is altered in the post-mortem cerebellum of SCA-3 patients, and similar results were also found in the cerebellar and brainstem nuclei of a SCA-3 transgenic mouse model. Given that the neuropathology of SCA-3 is not restricted to these two brain regions but rather, it is also evident in other structures (e.g., the basal ganglia), we studied the possible changes to endocannabinoid signaling in the striatum of these transgenic mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439461/quantitative-assessment-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1-expression-in-neurons-and-glia
#14
Lisha Choubey, Jantzen C Collette, Karen Müller Smith
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) have numerous functions in the developing and adult central nervous system (CNS). For example, the FGFR1 receptor is important for proliferation and fate specification of radial glial cells in the cortex and hippocampus, oligodendrocyte proliferation and regeneration, midline glia morphology and soma translocation, Bergmann glia morphology, and cerebellar morphogenesis. In addition, FGFR1 signaling in astrocytes is required for postnatal maturation of interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389475/movement-rate-is-encoded-and-influenced-by-widespread-coherent-activity-of-cerebellar-molecular-layer-interneurons
#15
Michael A Gaffield, Jason M Christie
Inhibition from molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) is thought to play an important role in cerebellar function by sharpening the precision of Purkinje cell spike output. Yet the coding features of MLIs during behavior are poorly understood. To study MLI activity, we used in vivo Ca(2+) imaging in head-fixed mice during the performance of a rhythmic motor behavior, licking during water consumption. MLIs were robustly active during lick-related movement across a lobule-specific region of the cerebellum showing high temporal correspondence within their population...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373616/oculomotor-nerve-palsy-in-a-patient-with-a-ruptured-middle-cerebral-artery-aneurysm
#16
Suguru Yokosako, Yuichiro Kikkawa, Ririko Takeda, Toshiki Ikeda, Hiroki Kurita
We describe a case of acute oculomotor nerve palsy caused by a ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm. A 59-year-old female presenting with headache and nausea was admitted to our hospital. Her consciousness was alert, and had no other neurological deficit without left oculomotor nerve palsy. A computed tomography (CT) showed SAH extending from left sylvian cistern to basal cistern. CT angiography revealed a left MCA aneurysm which protruded toward internal carotid artery. The patient was successfully treated with surgical clipping...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348382/delta-frequency-stimulation-of-cerebellar-projections-can-compensate-for-schizophrenia-related-medial-frontal-dysfunction
#17
K L Parker, Y C Kim, R M Kelley, A J Nessler, K-H Chen, V A Muller-Ewald, N C Andreasen, N S Narayanan
Schizophrenia involves abnormalities in the medial frontal cortex that lead to cognitive deficits. Here we investigate a novel strategy to normalize medial frontal brain activity by stimulating cerebellar projections. We used an interval timing task to study elementary cognitive processing that requires both frontal and cerebellar networks that are disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. We report three novel findings. First, patients with schizophrenia had dysfunctional delta rhythms between 1-4 Hz in the medial frontal cortex...
May 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320311/a-receptor-based-analysis-of-local-ecosystems-in-the-human-brain
#18
Skirmantas Janušonis
BACKGROUND: As a complex system, the brain is a self-organizing entity that depends on local interactions among cells. Its regions (anatomically defined nuclei and areas) can be conceptualized as cellular ecosystems, but the similarity of their functional profiles is poorly understood. The study used the Allen Human Brain Atlas to classify 169 brain regions into hierarchically-organized environments based on their expression of 100 G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors, with no a priori reference to the regions' positions in the brain's anatomy or function...
March 20, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300552/monoaminergic-modulation-of-gabaergic-transmission-onto-cerebellar-globular-cells
#19
Moritoshi Hirono, Soichi Nagao, Yuchio Yanagawa, Shiro Konishi
Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) project their axon collaterals to underneath of the PC layer and make GABAergic synaptic contacts with globular cells, a subgroup of Lugaro cells. GABAergic transmission derived from the PC axon collaterals is so powerful that it could inhibit globular cells and regulate their firing patterns. However, the physiological properties and implications of the GABAergic synapses on globular cells remain unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from globular cells in the mouse cerebellum, we examined the monoaminergic modulation of GABAergic inputs to these cells...
May 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261086/crossed-cerebellar-atrophy-of-the-lateral-cerebellar-nucleus-in-an-endothelin-1-induced-rodent-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#20
Hugh H Chan, Jessica L Cooperrider, Hyun-Joo Park, Connor A Wathen, John T Gale, Kenneth B Baker, Andre G Machado
Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) is a functional deficit of the cerebellar hemisphere resulting from loss of afferent input consequent to a lesion of the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. It is manifested as a reduction of metabolism and blood flow and, depending on severity and duration, it can result in atrophy, a phenomenon known as crossed cerebellar atrophy (CCA). While CCA has been well-demonstrated in humans, it remains poorly characterized in animal models of stroke. In this study we evaluated the effects of cerebral cortical ischemia on contralateral cerebellar anatomy using an established rodent model of chronic stroke...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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