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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320311/a-receptor-based-analysis-of-local-ecosystems-in-the-human-brain
#1
Skirmantas Janušonis
BACKGROUND: As a complex system, the brain is a self-organizing entity that depends on local interactions among cells. Its regions (anatomically defined nuclei and areas) can be conceptualized as cellular ecosystems, but the similarity of their functional profiles is poorly understood. The study used the Allen Human Brain Atlas to classify 169 brain regions into hierarchically-organized environments based on their expression of 100 G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors, with no a priori reference to the regions' positions in the brain's anatomy or function...
March 20, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300552/monoaminergic-modulation-of-gabaergic-transmission-onto-cerebellar-globular-cells
#2
Moritoshi Hirono, Soichi Nagao, Yuchio Yanagawa, Shiro Konishi
Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) project their axon collaterals to underneath of the PC layer and make GABAergic synaptic contacts with globular cells, a subgroup of Lugaro cells. GABAergic transmission derived from the PC axon collaterals is so powerful that it could inhibit globular cells and regulate their firing patterns. However, the physiological properties and implications of the GABAergic synapses on globular cells remain unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from globular cells in the mouse cerebellum, we examined the monoaminergic modulation of GABAergic inputs to these cells...
March 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261086/crossed-cerebellar-atrophy-of-the-lateral-cerebellar-nucleus-in-an-endothelin-1-induced-rodent-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#3
Hugh H Chan, Jessica L Cooperrider, Hyun-Joo Park, Connor A Wathen, John T Gale, Kenneth B Baker, Andre G Machado
Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) is a functional deficit of the cerebellar hemisphere resulting from loss of afferent input consequent to a lesion of the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. It is manifested as a reduction of metabolism and blood flow and, depending on severity and duration, it can result in atrophy, a phenomenon known as crossed cerebellar atrophy (CCA). While CCA has been well-demonstrated in humans, it remains poorly characterized in animal models of stroke. In this study we evaluated the effects of cerebral cortical ischemia on contralateral cerebellar anatomy using an established rodent model of chronic stroke...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226411/the-control-of-eye-movements-by-the-cerebellar-nuclei-polysynaptic-projections-from-the-fastigial-interpositus-posterior-and-dentate-nuclei-to-lateral-rectus-motoneurons-in-primates
#4
Vincent Prevosto, Werner Graf, Gabriella Ugolini
Premotor circuits driving extraocular motoneurons and downstream motor outputs of cerebellar nuclei are well known. However, there is, as yet, no unequivocal account of cerebellar output pathways controlling eye movements in primates. Using retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus from the lateral rectus (LR) eye muscle, we studied polysynaptic pathways to LR motoneurons in primates. Injections were placed either into the central or distal muscle portion, to identify innervation differences of LR motoneurons supplying singly innervated (SIFs) or multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197685/test-retest-measurements-of-dopamine-d1-type-receptors-using-simultaneous-pet-mri-imaging
#5
Simon Kaller, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Georg-Alexander Becker, Julia Luthardt, Johanna Girbardt, Philipp M Meyer, Peter Werner, Henryk Barthel, Anke Bresch, Thomas H Fritz, Swen Hesse, Osama Sabri
PURPOSE: The role of dopamine D1-type receptor (D1R)-expressing neurons in the regulation of motivated behavior and reward prediction has not yet been fully established. As a prerequisite for future research assessing D1-mediated neuronal network regulation using simultaneous PET/MRI and D1R-selective [(11)C]SCH23390, this study investigated the stability of central D1R measurements between two independent PET/MRI sessions under baseline conditions. METHODS: Thirteen healthy volunteers (7 female, age 33 ± 13 yrs) underwent 90-min emission scans, each after 90-s bolus injection of 486 ± 16 MBq [(11)C]SCH23390, on two separate days within 2-4 weeks using a PET/MRI system...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138429/evaluation-of-early-phase-18-f-florbetaben-pet-acquisition-in-clinical-routine-cases
#6
Sonja Daerr, Matthias Brendel, Christian Zach, Erik Mille, Dorothee Schilling, Mathias Johannes Zacherl, Katharina Bürger, Adrian Danek, Oliver Pogarell, Andreas Schildan, Marianne Patt, Henryk Barthel, Osama Sabri, Peter Bartenstein, Axel Rominger
OBJECTIVES: In recent years several [(18)F]-labelled amyloid PET tracers have been developed and have obtained clinical approval. There is accumulating evidence that early (post injection) acquisitions with these tracers are equally informative as conventional blood flow and metabolism studies for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, but there have been few side-by-side studies. Therefore, we investigated the performance of early acquisitions of [(18)F]-florbetaben (FBB) PET compared to [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET in a clinical setting...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127679/motion-illusion-evidence-towards-human-vestibulo-thalamic-projections
#7
Aasef G Shaikh, Dominik Straumann, Antonella Palla
Contemporary studies speculated that cerebellar network responsible for motion perception projects to the cerebral cortex via vestibulo-thalamus. Here, we sought for the physiological properties of vestibulo-thalamic pathway responsible for the motion perception. Healthy subjects and the patient with focal vestibulo-thalamic lacunar stroke spun a hand-held rheostat to approximate the value of perceived angular velocity during whole-body passive earth-vertical axis rotations in yaw plane. Vestibulo-ocular reflex was simultaneously measured with high-resolution search coils (paradigm 1)...
January 27, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073788/dopamine-controls-parkinson-s-tremor-by-inhibiting-the-cerebellar-thalamus
#8
Michiel F Dirkx, Hanneke E M den Ouden, Esther Aarts, Monique H M Timmer, Bastiaan R Bloem, Ivan Toni, Rick C Helmich
Parkinson's resting tremor is related to altered cerebral activity in the basal ganglia and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit. Although Parkinson's disease is characterized by dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic basis of resting tremor remains unclear: dopaminergic medication reduces tremor in some patients, but many patients have a dopamine-resistant tremor. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging, we test how a dopaminergic intervention influences the cerebral circuit involved in Parkinson's tremor...
January 9, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031999/sleep-duration-and-resting-fmri-functional-connectivity-examination-of-short-sleepers-with-and-without-perceived-daytime-dysfunction
#9
Brian J Curtis, Paula G Williams, Christopher R Jones, Jeffrey S Anderson
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of the U.S. population reports recurrent short sleep; however, perceived sleep need varies widely among individuals. Some "habitual short sleepers" routinely sleep 4-6 hr/night without self-reported adverse consequences. Identifying neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in perceived sleep-related dysfunction has important implications for understanding associations between sleep duration and health. METHOD: This study utilized data from 839 subjects of the Human Connectome Project to examine resting functional connectivity associations with self-reported short sleep duration, as well as differences between short sleepers with versus without reported dysfunction...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017370/de-novo-mutations-in-ebf3-cause-a-neurodevelopmental-syndrome
#10
Hannah Sleven, Seth J Welsh, Jing Yu, Mair E A Churchill, Caroline F Wright, Alex Henderson, Rita Horvath, Julia Rankin, Julie Vogt, Alex Magee, Vivienne McConnell, Andrew Green, Mary D King, Helen Cox, Linlea Armstrong, Anna Lehman, Tanya N Nelson, Jonathan Williams, Penny Clouston, James Hagman, Andrea H Németh
Early B cell factor 3 (EBF3) is an atypical transcription factor that is thought to influence the laminar formation of the cerebral cortex. Here, we report that de novo mutations in EBF3 cause a complex neurodevelopmental syndrome. The mutations were identified in two large-scale sequencing projects: the UK Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) study and the Canadian Clinical Assessment of the Utility of Sequencing and Evaluation as a Service (CAUSES) study. The core phenotype includes moderate to severe intellectual disability, and many individuals exhibit cerebellar ataxia, subtle facial dysmorphism, strabismus, and vesicoureteric reflux, suggesting that EBF3 has a widespread developmental role...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975168/molecular-alterations-in-the-cerebellum-of-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-subtypes-with-dj-1-as-a-key-regulator-of-oxidative-stress
#11
Waqas Tahir, Saima Zafar, Franc Llorens, Amandeep Singh Arora, Katrin Thüne, Matthias Schmitz, Nadine Gotzmann, Niels Kruse, Brit Mollenhauer, Juan Maria Torres, Olivier Andréoletti, Isidre Ferrer, Inga Zerr
Cerebellar damage and granular and Purkinje cell loss in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) highlight a critical involvement of the cerebellum during symptomatic progression of the disease. In this project, global proteomic alterations in the cerebellum of brain from the two most prevalent subtypes (MM1 and VV2) of sCJD were studied. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) coupled mass spectrometric identification revealed 40 proteins in MM1 and 43 proteins in VV2 subtype to be differentially expressed...
December 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974932/correlations-between-the-semiologic-changes-and-the-imaging-aspects-in-the-lateral-bulbar-infarction
#12
I Cristea, C Popa
The study aimed to evaluate the correlations between the clinical and paraclinical data in the lateral bulbar infarction, benefiting from the access to the semiologic characteristics of a group studied and the MRI angiography, without a contrast agent, through the 3D TOF technique combined with MIP, as an imaging technique for the evaluation of the arterial lesion. The study group included 20 patients with lateral bulbar infarction, 14 men, and 6 women aged between 21 and 80 years, the mean age being 56, 9 years, who were enrolled in the study in the period 2012 and 2014, following the admission in the National Institute of Neurology and Neurovascular Diseases...
July 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974448/the-inion-response-revisited-evidence-for-a-possible-cerebellar-contribution-to-vestibular-evoked-potentials-produced-by-air-conducted-sound-stimulation
#13
Neil P M Todd, Sendhil Govender, James G Colebatch
This study investigated the effect of eye gaze and head position on vestibular-evoked potentials (VsEPs). Head position would be expected to affect myogenic sources, and eye position is known to affect ocular myogenic responses (ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials), whereas a neurogenic source should behave otherwise. Eleven healthy subjects were recruited, and VsEPs, using 72-channel EEG, were recorded at a fixed intensity above the vestibular threshold. Three eye gaze and three head positions were tested (-20°, 0°, and +20° to the horizontal)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966045/inter-rater-variability-of-visual-interpretation-and-comparison-with-quantitative-evaluation-of-11-c-pib-pet-amyloid-images-of-the-japanese-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-j-adni-multicenter-study
#14
Tomohiko Yamane, Kenji Ishii, Muneyuki Sakata, Yasuhiko Ikari, Tomoyuki Nishio, Kazunari Ishii, Takashi Kato, Kengo Ito, Michio Senda
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater variability of the visual interpretation of (11)C-PiB PET images regarding the positivity/negativity of amyloid deposition that were obtained in a multicenter clinical research project, Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (J-ADNI). The results of visual interpretation were also compared with a semi-automatic quantitative analysis using mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio to the cerebellar cortex (mcSUVR)...
December 13, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920207/vascular-angular-remodeling-by-kissing-y-stenting-in-wide-necked-intracranial-bifurcation-aneurysms
#15
Katharina Melber, Dan Meila, Philipp Draheim, Dominik Grieb, Björn Greling, Martin Schlunz-Hendann, Friedhelm Brassel
INTRODUCTION: Single stent deployment leads to a change in vascular geometry in wide necked bifurcation aneurysms. In some complex cases, the use of the single stent technique might not be sufficient or may not be feasible. The kissing-Y stenting technique appears to be an alternative endovascular treatment option. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the kissing-Y stenting technique on vascular angular remodeling. METHODS: 21 patients with wide necked intracranial bifurcation aneurysms at different sites (10 anterior communicating artery, 6 middle cerebral artery, 3 basilar artery, 1 vertebral artery/posterior inferior cerebellar artery, 1 internal carotid artery/posterior communicating artery) were treated with 44 closed cell stents (follow-up 2012-2016) using the kissing-Y stenting technique...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916985/the-obese-brain-as-a-heritable-phenotype-a-combined-morphometry-and-twin-study
#16
C M Weise, P Piaggi, M Reinhardt, K Chen, C R Savage, J Krakoff, B Pleger
BACKGROUND: Body weight and adiposity are heritable traits. To date, it remains unknown whether obesity-associated brain structural alterations are under a similar level of genetic control. METHODS: For this study, we utilized magnetic resonance imaging data from the Human Connectome Project. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate associations between body mass index (BMI) and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in a sample of 875 young adults with a wide BMI range (386 males/489 females; age 28...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896316/compound-heterozygous-intermediate-mjd-alleles-cause-cerebellar-ataxia-with-sensory-neuropathy
#17
Yuji Takahashi, Masahiro Kanai, Tomoya Taminato, Shoko Watanabe, Chihiro Matsumoto, Toshiyuki Araki, Tomoko Okamoto, Masafumi Ogawa, Miho Murata
Spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) is a group of disorders characterized by progressive ataxia caused by dysfunction and atrophy of the cerebellum or its projections. Approximately one-third of SCD cases are familial SCD, the majority of which are attributed to CAG triplet repeat expansions including spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA)1, SCA2, Machado-Joseph disease (MJD)/SCA3, SCA6, SCA8, SCA12, SCA17, and dentate-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA). The triplet repeat number of the alleles representing complete penetrance varies among diseases...
February 2016: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872585/the-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-as-a-motor-and-cognitive-interface-between-the-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia
#18
REVIEW
Fumika Mori, Ken-Ichi Okada, Taishin Nomura, Yasushi Kobayashi
As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze) and cognitive processes (attention, learning and memory). The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition), and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851801/whole-cell-properties-of-cerebellar-nuclei-neurons-in-vivo
#19
Cathrin B Canto, Laurens Witter, Chris I De Zeeuw
Cerebellar nuclei neurons integrate sensorimotor information and form the final output of the cerebellum, projecting to premotor brainstem targets. This implies that, in contrast to specialized neurons and interneurons in cortical regions, neurons within the nuclei encode and integrate complex information that is most likely reflected in a large variation of intrinsic membrane properties and integrative capacities of individual neurons. Yet, whether this large variation in properties is reflected in a heterogeneous physiological cell population of cerebellar nuclei neurons with well or poorly defined cell types remains to be determined...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807163/long-term-potentiation-at-the-mossy-fiber-granule-cell-relay-invokes-postsynaptic-second-messenger-regulation-of-kv4-channels
#20
Arsalan P Rizwan, Xiaoqin Zhan, Gerald W Zamponi, Ray W Turner
Mossy fiber afferents to cerebellar granule cells form the primary synaptic relay into cerebellum, providing an ideal site to process signal inputs differentially. Mossy fiber input is known to exhibit a long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic efficacy through a combination of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. However, the specific postsynaptic mechanisms contributing to LTP of mossy fiber input is unknown. The current study tested the hypothesis that LTP induces a change in intrinsic membrane excitability of rat cerebellar granule cells through modification of Kv4 A-type potassium channels...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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