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cerebellar projections

Jing Jiang, You-Jin Zhao, Xin-Yu Hu, Ming-Ying Du, Zi-Qi Chen, Min Wu, Kai-Ming Li, Hong-Yan Zhu, Poornima Kumar, Qi-Yong Gong
BACKGROUND: Multiple meta-analyses of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported impaired white matter integrity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, owing to inclusion of medicated patients in these studies, it is difficult to conclude whether these reported alterations are associated with MDD or confounded by medication effects. A meta-analysis of DTI studies on medication-free (medication-naive and medication washout) patients with MDD would therefore be necessary to disentangle MDD-specific effects...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Derek Garden, Arianna Rinaldi, Matthew F Nolan
The inferior olive plays a critical role in motor coordination and learning by integrating diverse afferent signals to generate climbing fibre inputs to the cerebellar cortex. While it is well established that climbing fibre signals are important for motor coordination, the mechanisms by which neurones in the inferior olive integrate synaptic inputs and the roles of particular ion channels are unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that neurones in the inferior olive actively integrate glutamatergic synaptic inputs...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Matsuo Matsushita
The crossed spinocerebellar tracts originate from neurons in the basolateral part of lamina V, the sacral nuclei of Stilling and the ventrolateral part of the ventral horn of the L6 to caudal segments. The present study examined their projection areas in the cerebellar cortex by using anterograde labeling of mossy fiber terminals with biotinylated dextran in the rat. Labeled terminals were distributed bilaterally in lobules I-V of the anterior lobe. They were most abundant in the apical parts of the lateral vermis and the intermediate region of lobules Ib and IIa, and the rostral side of lobule IIb...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Johannes Brettschneider, David J Irwin, Susana Boluda, Matthew D Byrne, Lubin Fang, Edward B Lee, John L Robinson, EunRan Suh, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Jon B Toledo, Murray Grossman, Howard Hurtig, Reinhard Dengler, Susanne Petri, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski
AIMS: To identify early foci of α-synuclein (α-syn pathology) accumulation, subsequent progression and neurodegeneration in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C). METHODS: We analyzed 70 μm thick sections of 10 cases with MSA-C and 24 normal controls. RESULTS: MSA-C cases with the lowest burden of pathology showed α-syn glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in the cerebellum as well as in medullary and pontine cerebellar projections...
September 22, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
K E Cullen
The relative simplicity of the neural circuits that mediate vestibular reflexes is well suited for linking systems and cellular levels of analyses. Notably, a distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei are premotor neurons; the same neurons that receive vestibular-nerve input also send direct projections to motor pathways. For example, the simplicity of the three-neuron pathway that mediates the vestibulo-ocular reflex leads to the generation of compensatory eye movements within ~5ms of a head movement...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Elena Gatta, Aroldo Cupello, Mario Di Braccio, Giancarlo Grossi, Mauro Robello, Francesca Scicchitano, Emilio Russo, Giovambattista De Sarro
Herein, we tested in a model of generalized reflex epilepsy in mice different 1,4-benzodiazepines and 1,5-benzodiazepines with agonistic activity at the GABAA receptor population contributing to the peak component of the chloride current elicited by GABA in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) in culture. The substances have all higher lipophilia than clobazam, an antiepileptic drug well known and used in human therapy. This ensures that they all can pass relatively easily the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The benzodiazepines were administered intraperitoneally (i...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Emilie Legué, Jackie L Gottshall, Edouard Jaumouillé, Alberto Roselló-Díez, Wei Shi, Luis Humberto Barraza, Senna Washington, Rachel L Grant, Alexandra L Joyner
BACKGROUND: The mouse cerebellum (Cb) has a remarkably complex foliated three-dimensional (3D) structure, but a stereotypical cytoarchitecture and local circuitry. Little is known of the cellular behaviors and genes that function during development to determine the foliation pattern. In the anteroposterior axis the mammalian cerebellum is divided by lobules with distinct sizes, and the foliation pattern differs along the mediolateral axis defining a medial vermis and two lateral hemispheres...
2016: Neural Development
Pranita Nirgudkar, Devin H Taylor, Yuchio Yanagawa, C Fernando Valenzuela
Cerebellar alterations are a hallmark of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and are thought to be responsible for deficits in fine motor control, motor learning, balance, and higher cognitive functions. These deficits are, in part, a consequence of dysfunction of cerebellar circuits. Although the effect of developmental ethanol exposure on Purkinje and granule cells has been previously characterized, its actions on other cerebellar neuronal populations are not fully understood. Here, we assessed the impact of repeated ethanol exposure on the number of inhibitory neurons in the cerebellar vermis...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
E Garcia-Rill, S D'Onofrio, B Luster, S Mahaffey, F J Urbano, C Phillips
A 10 Hz rhythm is present in the occipital cortex when the eyes are closed (alpha waves), in the precentral cortex at rest (mu rhythm), in the superior and middle temporal lobe (tau rhythm), in the inferior olive (projection to cerebellar cortex), and in physiological tremor (underlying all voluntary movement). These are all considered resting rhythms in the waking brain which are "replaced" by higher frequency activity with sensorimotor stimulation. That is, the 10 Hz frequency fulcrum is replaced on the one hand by lower frequencies during sleep, or on the other hand by higher frequencies during volition and cognition...
2016: Transl Brain Rhythm
Anatoly Buchin, Sarah Rieubland, Michael Häusser, Boris S Gutkin, Arnd Roth
Purkinje neurons play an important role in cerebellar computation since their axons are the only projection from the cerebellar cortex to deeper cerebellar structures. They have complex internal dynamics, which allow them to fire spontaneously, display bistability, and also to be involved in network phenomena such as high frequency oscillations and travelling waves. Purkinje cells exhibit type II excitability, which can be revealed by a discontinuity in their f-I curves. We show that this excitability mechanism allows Purkinje cells to be efficiently inhibited by noise of a particular variance, a phenomenon known as inverse stochastic resonance (ISR)...
August 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Tom J H Ruigrok, Sven van Touw, Patrice Coulon
Apart from the genetically engineered, modified, strains of rabies virus (RABV), unmodified 'fixed' virus strains of RABV, such as the 'French' subtype of CVS11, are used to examine synaptically connected networks in the brain. This technique has been shown to have all the prerequisite characteristics for ideal tracing as it does not metabolically affect infected neurons within the time span of the experiment, it is transferred transneuronally in one direction only and to all types of neurons presynaptic to the infected neuron, number of transneuronal steps can be precisely controlled by survival time and it is easily detectable with a sensitive technique...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
David J Herzfeld, Reza Shadmehr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Iman Haji-Abolhassani, Daniel Guitton, Henrietta L Galiana
During gaze shifts, the eyes and head collaborate to rapidly capture a target (saccade) and fixate it. Accordingly, models of gaze shift control should imbed both saccadic and fixation modes and a mechanism for switching between them. We demonstrate a model in which the eye and head platforms are driven by a shared gaze error signal. To limit the number of free parameters we implement a model reduction approach in which steady-state cerebellar effects at each of its projection sites are lumped with the parameter of that site...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera, Lauren J Sullivan, Mauricio Zambrano, Nathan R King
BACKGROUND: There are no population studies estimating the burden of alcoholic cerebellar degeneration (ACD). We aimed to assess prevalence and correlates of ACD among chronic alcohol drinkers living in rural Ecuador. METHODS: Characteristics of alcohol intake were evaluated in community-dwelling men aged ≥40years enrolled in the Atahualpa Project. Cerebellar dysfunction evaluation used the Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS). Association between alcohol intake and the BARS was assessed in generalized linear models adjusted for relevant confounders...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Jun Kunimatsu, Tomoki W Suzuki, Masaki Tanaka
UNLABELLED: Although several lines of evidence establish the involvement of the medial and vestibular parts of the cerebellum in the adaptive control of eye movements, the role of the lateral hemisphere of the cerebellum in eye movements remains unclear. Ascending projections from the lateral cerebellum to the frontal and parietal association cortices via the thalamus are consistent with a role of these pathways in higher-order oculomotor control. In support of this, previous functional imaging studies and recent analyses in subjects with cerebellar lesions have indicated a role for the lateral cerebellum in volitional eye movements such as anti-saccades...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Claudia Ammann, Javier Márquez-Ruiz, María Á Gómez-Climent, José M Delgado-García, Agnès Gruart
UNLABELLED: Classical blink conditioning is a well known model for studying neural generation of acquired motor responses. The acquisition of this type of associative learning has been related to many cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar structures. However, until now, no one has studied the motor cortex (MC) and its possible role in classical eyeblink conditioning. We recorded in rabbits the activity of MC neurons during blink conditioning using a delay paradigm. Neurons were identified by their antidromic activation from facial nucleus (FN) or red nucleus (RN)...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bin Li, Qian-Xing Zhuang, He-Ren Gao, Jian-Jun Wang, Jing-Ning Zhu
The cerebellum, a hindbrain motor center, also participates in regulating nonsomatic visceral activities such as feeding control. However, the underlying neural mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we investigate whether the cerebellar medial nucleus (MN), one of the final outputs of the cerebellum, could directly project to and modulate the feeding-related neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN), which has been traditionally implicated in feeding behavior, energy balance, and body weight regulation...
June 24, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Nienke M Ter Haar, Jerold Jeyaratnam, Helen J Lachmann, Anna Simon, Paul A Brogan, Matteo Doglio, Marco Cattalini, Jordi Anton, Consuelo Modesto, Pierre Quartier, Esther Hoppenreijs, Silvana Martino, Antonella Insalaco, Luca Cantarini, Loredana Lepore, Maria Alessio, Inmaculada Calvo Penades, Christina Boros, Rita Consolini, Donato Rigante, Ricardo Russo, Jana Pachlopnik Schmid, Thirusha Lane, Alberto Martini, Nicolino Ruperto, Joost Frenkel, Marco Gattorno
OBJECTIVES: Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is a rare metabolic disease characterized by recurrent inflammatory episodes. This study aimed to describe the genotype, phenotype and the response to treatment in an international cohort of MKD patients. METHODS: All MKD cases were extracted from the Eurofever registry (EAHC Project No. 2007332), an international, multicenter registry that retrospectively collects data on children and adults suffering from autoinflammatory diseases...
May 23, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Arthur W Joyce
Working memory (WM) impacts a gamut of cognitive abilities, but implicit WM is typically not considered in assessment or treatment, which may explain the variability of results in reviews of WM training. The role of implicit WM in adaptive behavior is reviewed. All we do is action based. Explicit WM plays a major role when we are required to "think"; that is, when we apply previously learned perception-action linkages in new ways to unique situations. Implicit WM is involved in the automation of behavior, which occurs through interaction with cortical and subcortical systems that guide sensory-motor anticipation and the prediction of reward...
July 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Miroslav Vastik, Pavel Hok, Petr Hlustik, Pavel Otruba, Zbyněk Tüdös, Petr Kanovsky
BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common disabling symptom of (in) Parkinson's disease (PD). The mechanism of FOG is (in) not clearly understood. We investigated the clinical effect and changes of the activity of the sensorimotor system using repeated functional MRI (fMRI) before and after application of botulinum toxin in Parkinson's disease patients with FOG. METHODS: We investigated 20 patients with PD, 10 with FOG and 10 without FOG. PD patients with FOG were treated with intramuscular application of botulinum toxin type A into the tensor fasciae latae muscle bilaterally...
2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
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