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Tissue bank

Sidney Júlio de Faria E Sousa, Stella Barretto de Faria E Sousa
Eye banks use sterile procedures to manipulate the eye, antiseptic measures for ocular surface decontamination, and rigorous criteria for donor selection to minimize the possibility of disease transmission due to corneal grafting. Donor selection focuses on analysis of medical records and specific post-mortem serological tests. To guide and standardize procedures, eye bank associations and government agencies provide lists of absolute and relative contraindications for use of the tissue based on donor health history...
January 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Tzong-Ming Shieh, Chi-Yuan Chen, Chuen Hsueh, Cheng-Chia Yu, Chin-Chuan Chen, Tong-Hong Wang
The quality of biological samples greatly affects the accuracy of scientific results. However, RNA in cryopreserved tissues gradually degrades during storage, leading to errors in the results of subsequent experiments. A suitable sample preservative solution can prolong storage and enhance the research value of samples. Here, we developed a sample preservative solution using the properties of the ribonucleoside vanadyl complex (RVC) and compared its effects on RNA and DNA quality, protein activity, and tissue morphology with the commercially available and widely used RNAlater® Stabilization Solution...
2018: PloS One
Mutlu Kasar, Mahmut Yeral, Soner Solmaz, Nurhilal Büyükkurt, Suheyl Asma, Çiğdem Gereklioğlu, Can Boğa, Hakan Özdoğu, Bilkay Baştürk
OBJECTIVES: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant is a curative treatment option for many hematologic diseases. The existence of a fully compatible donor for recipients is the first condition for minimized transplant-related mortality and morbidity. The best donor for hematopoietic stem cell transplant is an HLA-matched sibling donor. The possibility of finding an HLA-matched sibling is less than 30% worldwide. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is needed for an increasing number of patients every year, but the ability to find a fully compatible donor has limited its use...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Noëmi M C De Roo, Laurent A M Thierens, Liesbeth Temmerman, Guy A M De Pauw
Prior to cryopreservation, a tooth is transported from a contaminated oral environment to the tooth bank. Our objective was to identify all studies reporting or investigating a transport protocol prior to the cryopreservation of teeth, in terms of decontamination of the subjects. The systematic literature search (1970-2017) was based on MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. The reference lists of the included studies and the Science Citation Index were used for hand searching (snowballing)...
March 7, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
Mohit Parekh, Alessandro Ruzza, Vito Romano, Elisa Favaro, Mattia Baruzzo, Gianni Salvalaio, Andrea Grassetto, Stefano Ferrari, Diego Ponzin
PURPOSE: To investigate the learning curve of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) graft preparation in an eye bank. METHODS: Four operators prepared 645 DMEK grafts using the stripping technique between 2014 and 2017 at the Veneto Eye Bank Foundation, Italy. Endothelial cell loss (ECL) and tissue wastage were recorded retrospectively after DMEK preparation and correlated with the number of tissues prepared each year by each operator. On average, our operators performed 1 donor preparation a week over the course of this study...
March 1, 2018: Cornea
Kimberly White, Peixin Yang, Ling Li, Amna Farshori, Alexandre E Medina, Horst Ronald Zielke
Brain tissue from 1068 donors was analyzed for RNA quality as a function of postmortem interval (PMI) and years in storage. Approximately 83% of the cortical and cerebellar samples had an RNA integrity number (RIN) of 6 or greater, indicating their likely suitability for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction research. The average RIN value was independent of the PMI, up to at least 36 hours. The RNA quality for specific donated brains could not be predicted based on the PMI. Individual samples with a low PMI could have a poor RIN value, while a sample with a PMI over 36 hours may have a high RIN value...
March 2, 2018: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Sonja H M Rademaker, Inge Huitinga
It has become clear over the past decades that studying postmortem human brain tissue is one of the most effective ways to increase our knowledge of the pathogenesis and etiology of neuropathologic and psychiatric diseases. Many breakthroughs in neuroscience have depended on the availability of human brain tissue. However, the process of brain banking presents many different challenges, including the high cost that is associated with collecting the samples and with providing the diagnostics, storage, and distribution...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
H Ronald Zielke, Deborah C Mash
Brain biospecimen banking requires centralized resources, national networks for referral of donors, trained personnel to interact with grieving families, and scientific staff to process the biospecimens. Process development of quality control standards is needed to meet the specific requirements of emerging genomic and proteomic technologies. Attention has to be paid to agonal factors and postmortem interval, tissue processing, neuropathology review, and long-term storage. Samples of both diseased and unaffected normal tissues are required with age- and gender-matched control tissues...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Natasja M Klioueva, Marleen C Rademaker, Inge Huitinga
The BrainNet Europe consortium, which is a consortium of 19 European brain banks, took the initiative to draft a series of documents to provide an ethical framework for brain banks to follow. The framework includes an ethical code of conduct, a model for brain bank regulations, and a toolkit containing several documents. The sources for the information included came from the laws, regulations, and guidelines (declarations, conventions, recommendations, guidelines, and directives) that had been issued by international key organizations, such as the Council of Europe, European Commission, World Medical Association, and World Health Organization...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
David G Amaral, Matthew P Anderson, Olaf Ansorge, Steven Chance, Carolyn Hare, Patrick R Hof, Melissa Miller, Ikue Nagakura, Jane Pickett, Cynthia Schumann, Carol Tamminga
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD or autism) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects over 1% of the population worldwide. Developing effective preventions and treatments for autism will depend on understanding the genetic perturbations and underlying neuropathology of the disorder. While evidence from magnetic resonance imaging and other noninvasive techniques points to altered development and organization of the autistic brain, these tools lack the resolution for identifying the cellular and molecular underpinnings of the disorder...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Marleen C Rademaker, Geertje M de Lange, Saskia J M C Palmen
The Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB) performs rapid autopsies of donors who gave written informed consent during life for the use of their brain tissue and medical files for research. The NBB initiated the Netherlands Brain Bank for Psychiatry (NBB-Psy), a prospective donor program for psychiatric diseases. NBB-Psy wants to expand the tissue collections in order to provide a strong incentive to increase research in psychiatry. The ultimate goal of NBB-Psy is to reduce the burden of psychiatric disorders for patients, their families, and for society as a whole...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Mark Ronald Mizee, Marlijn van der Poel, Inge Huitinga
In order to translate the findings obtained from postmortem brain tissue samples to functional biologic mechanisms of central nervous system disease, it will be necessary to understand how these findings affect the different cell populations in the brain. The acute isolation and analysis of pure glial cell populations are common practice in animal models for neurologic diseases, but are not yet regularly applied to human postmortem brain material. The development of novel cell isolation techniques and methods for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis have made it possible to isolate and phenotype primary human cell populations from the central nervous system...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Ai-Min Bao, Dick F Swaab
The quality of postmortem research depends strongly on a thorough clinical investigation and documentation of the patient's disorder and therapies. In addition, a systematic and professional neuropathologic investigation of both cases and controls is absolutely crucial. In the experience of the Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB), about 20% of clinical neurologic diagnoses, despite being made in first-rate clinics, have to be revised or require an extra diagnosis after a complete and thorough review by the NBB. The neuropathology examination may reveal for instance that the "controls" already have preclinical neurodegenerative alterations...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Kathleen Sullivan, Harry Pantazopoulos, Elizabeth Liebson, T-U W Woo, Ross J Baldessarini, John Hedreen, Sabina Berretta
Postmortem studies on the human brain reside at the core of investigations on neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Ground-breaking advances continue to be made on the pathologic basis of many of these disorders, at molecular, cellular, and neural connectivity levels. In parallel, there is increasing emphasis on improving methods to extract relevant demographic and clinical information about brain donors and, importantly, translate it into measures that can reliably and effectively be incorporated in the design and data analysis of postmortem human investigations...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Colin Smith, Tracey Millar
Brain banks typically receive donations through premortem consent procedures, often through disease-specific patient cohorts, such as dementia. While some control cases can be obtained through this route, access to age-matched control tissues, and some chronic neurologic conditions, particularly psychiatric disorders, can be challenging. The Edinburgh Sudden Death Brain Bank was established to try and increase access to control cases across all ages, and also access to psychiatric disorders through suicides...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Michelle I Mighdoll, Thomas M Hyde
The study of postmortem human brain tissue is central to the advancement of neurobiologic studies of psychiatric and neurologic illnesses, particularly the study of brain-specific isoforms and molecules. Due to tissue demands, especially pertaining to brain regions strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, the success and future of this research depend on the availability of high-quality brain specimens from large numbers of subjects, including nonpsychiatric controls, both of which may be obtained from brain banks...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Irina Alafuzoff
Research on human brain diseases is currently often conducted on cell cultures and animals. Several questions however can only be addressed by studying human postmortem brain tissue. However, brain tissue obtained postmortem almost always displays pathology that is often related to the aging phenomenon. Thus, in order to be certain that the answers obtained are reliable, a systematic and thorough assessment of the brain tissue to be studied should be carried out. We are currently aware of several protein alterations that are found in middle-aged and aged brains that are obtained from neurologically unimpaired subjects...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Michael Jurewicz, Joel Hillelsohn, Sandeep Mehta, Bruce R Gilbert
Children diagnosed with cancer continue to have improved survival due to advances in effective treatment options. Increased attention is therefore now focused on quality of life issues once they are cured. Fertility preservation is of paramount concern since gonadotoxic treatments, especially radiation and chemotherapy, often impair future fertility. The importance of family counseling and having an informed discussion about the potential for treatment to impair fertility and the options available for fertility preservation is crucial...
March 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Seiji Okada, Kulthida Vaeteewoottacharn, Ryusho Kariya
Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models can be created with the transplantation of cancerous cells or tissues from patients' primary tumors into immunodeficient mice. PDXs are now in the spotlight as more accurate human cancer models compared with mouse tumor and human cancer cell lines transplanted into mice. PDX technology leads to breakthroughs with the introduction of novel, highly immunodeficient mice such as NOG (NOD/Scid/IL2Rγnull ), NSG (NOD/Scid/IL2Rγnull ), and NOJ (NOD/Scid/Jak3null ) mice. Xenograft efficiency differs by type of tumor, site of implantation, and tumor aggressiveness...
2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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